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Zhe Zhang, Limeng Liu, Kwame Twumasi-Boateng, Dena H S Block, Michael Shapira
JNK proteins are conserved stress-activated MAP kinases. In C. elegans, the JNK-homolog KGB-1 plays essential roles in protection from heavy metals and protein folding stress. However, the contributions of KGB-1 are age-dependent, providing protection in larvae, but reducing stress resistance and shortening lifespan in adults. Attenuation of DAF-16 was linked to the detrimental contributions of KGB-1 in adults, but its involvement in KGB-1-dependent protection in larvae remains unclear. To characterize age-dependent contributions of KGB-1, we used microarray analysis to measure gene expression following KGB-1 activation either in developing larvae or in adults, achieved by knocking down its negative phosphatase regulator vhp-1...
January 2017: Cellular Signalling
Thanh Lam Nguyen, Laura McCaslin, Michael C McCarthy, John F Stanton
The thermal decomposition of syn-ethanal-oxide (syn-CH3CHOO) through vinyl hydrogen peroxide (VHP) leading to hydroxyl radical is characterized using a modification of the HEAT thermochemical protocol. The isomerization step of syn-CH3CHOO to VHP via a 1,4 H-shift, which involves a moderate barrier of 72 kJ/mol, is found to be rate determining. A two-dimensional master equation approach, in combination with semi-classical transition state theory, is employed to calculate the time evolution of various species as well as to obtain phenomenological rate coefficients...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Nadia Musco, Serena Calabro, Raffaella Tudisco, Micaela Grossi, Laura Addi, Giuseppe Moniello, Pietro Lombardi, Monica Isabella Cutrignelli
In the paper the short- and long-term glycaemic response after 4 diet programmes was evaluated. Each diet programme was alternatively administered to 6 healthy cats for 30 days. At the end of each period cats were weighed and underwent blood sampling for glucose and fructosamine determination. Glycaemia was measured every 2 hours for 24 hours using an automated glucometer. Very high protein level and low starch (VHP/LS) and high protein and moderate starch level (HP/LS) diets showed glucose (Mean and Peak) and fructosamine values signi cantly lower compared to the moderate protein and high starch diets (MP/HS)...
August 3, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
Shunsuke Matsumoto, Yoshitake Yamada, Masahiro Hashimoto, Teppei Okamura, Minoru Yamada, Fumiaki Yashima, Kentaro Hayashida, Keiichi Fukuda, Masahiro Jinzaki
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of CT before TAVI using variable helical pitch (VHP) scanning and its diagnostic performance for coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: Sixty patients (84.4 ± 4.6 years) scheduled for TAVI underwent CT using VHP scanning with the contrast material (CM) volume calculated as scanning time × weight [kg] × 0.06 mL. Retrospective electrocardiography (ECG)-gated scanning was utilized to examine the thorax, and non-ECG-gated scanning of the abdomen immediately followed...
August 25, 2016: European Radiology
Xiaohong Wang, Joel M Bowman
Ozonolysis of alkenes is an important nonphotolytic source of hydroxl radicals in the troposphere. The reaction proceeds through cycloaddition and subsequent decomposition to a carbonyl oxide, known as Criegee intermediates. Ozonolysis of alkene releases about 50 kcal/mol excess energy to form highly energized Criegee molecules, which can be stabilized and undergo further reaction or dissociate to OH+vinoxy products. The dissociation dynamics of partially stabilized Criegee (syn-CH3CHOO) has been thoroughly studied recently, in which the molecules dissociate by first isomerizing to vinyl hydroperoxide (VHP)...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Dale F Kreitler, David E Mortenson, Katrina T Forest, Samuel H Gellman
Synthetic peptides that contain backbone modifications but nevertheless adopt folded structures similar to those of natural polypeptides are of fundamental interest and may provide a basis for biomedical applications. Such molecules can, for example, mimic the ability of natural prototypes to bind to specific target macromolecules but resist degradation by proteases. We have previously shown that oligomers containing mixtures of α- and β-amino acid residues ("α/β-peptides") can mimic the α-helix secondary structure, and that properly designed α/β-peptides can bind to proteins that evolved to bind to α-helical partners...
May 25, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Scott E Kanoski, Matthew R Hayes, Karolina P Skibicka
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is currently one of the most promising biological systems for the development of effective obesity pharmacotherapies. Long-acting GLP-1 analogs potently reduce food intake and body weight, and recent discoveries reveal that peripheral administration of these drugs reduces food intake largely through humoral pathways involving direct action on brain GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R). Thus, it is of critical importance to understand the neural systems through which GLP-1 and long-acting GLP-1 analogs reduce food intake and body weight...
May 15, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Ciro Caliendo, Maria Luisa De Guglielmo
A quantitative risk analysis (QRA) regarding dangerous goods vehicles (DGVs) running through road tunnels was set up. Peak hourly traffic volumes (VHP), percentage of heavy goods vehicles (HGVs), and failure of the emergency ventilation system were investigated in order to assess their impact on the risk level. The risk associated with an alternative route running completely in the open air and passing through a highly populated urban area was also evaluated. The results in terms of social risk, as F/N curves, show an increased risk level with an increase the VHP, the percentage of HGVs, and a failure of the emergency ventilation system...
March 10, 2016: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
André Viveiros Monteiro, Joana Rebelo, Lino Patricio, Ana Campos, Augusta Borges, Rui Cruz Ferreira
BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY: The population of pregnant women with valvular heart disease (VHD), and in particular with valvular heart prostheses (VHPs), represents a unique patient group where data are scarce, and where there is an increased risk for adverse maternal and obstetric events. The study aim was to assess the experience of a tertiary center with regards to cardiac and pregnancy outcomes in women with VHD, comparing VHPs with other VHD pathologies. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 84 pregnancies in women with VHD (mean age 27...
May 2015: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
V Balaya, J-F Uhl, A Lanore, C Salachas, T Samoyeau, C Ngo, C Bensaid, C Cornou, L Rossi, R Douard, A-S Bats, F Lecuru, V Delmas
OBJECTIVES: To achieve a 3D vectorial model of a female pelvis by Computer-Assisted Anatomical Dissection and to assess educationnal and surgical applications. MATERIALS AND METHOD: From the database of "visible female" of Visible Human Project(®) (VHP) of the "national library of medicine" NLM (United States), we used 739 transverse anatomical slices of 0.33mm thickness going from L4 to the trochanters. The manual segmentation of each anatomical structures was done with Winsurf(®) software version 4...
May 2016: Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction
Ted M Hsu, Joel D Hahn, Vaibhav R Konanur, Emily E Noble, Andrea N Suarez, Jessica Thai, Emily M Nakamoto, Scott E Kanoski
Feeding behavior rarely occurs in direct response to metabolic deficit, yet the overwhelming majority of research on the biology of food intake control has focused on basic metabolic and homeostatic neurobiological substrates. Most animals, including humans, have habitual feeding patterns in which meals are consumed based on learned and/or environmental factors. Here we illuminate a novel neural system regulating higher-order aspects of feeding through which the gut-derived hormone ghrelin communicates with ventral hippocampus (vHP) neurons to stimulate meal-entrained conditioned appetite...
December 15, 2015: ELife
Janakinadh Yanamadala, Gregory M Noetscher, Vishal K Rathi, Saili Maliye, Htay A Win, Anh L Tran, Xavier J Jackson, Aung T Htet, Mikhail Kozlov, Ara Nazarian, Sara Louie, Sergey N Makarov
Simulation of the electromagnetic response of the human body relies heavily upon efficient computational models or phantoms. The first objective of this paper is to present a new platform-independent full-body electromagnetic computational model (computational phantom), the Visible Human Project(®) (VHP)-Female v. 2.0 and to describe its distinct features. The second objective is to report phantom simulation performance metrics using the commercial FEM electromagnetic solver ANSYS HFSS.
2015: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
W Zhu, Z Mao, C Zhu, M Li, C Cao, Y Guan, J Yuan, G Xie, X Guan
Repeated exposure to cocaine during adolescence may affect both physical and psychological conditions in the brain, and increase the risk of psychiatric disorders and addiction behaviors in adulthood. Adolescence represents a critical development period for the hippocampus. Moreover, different regions of the hippocampus are involved in different functions. Dorsal hippocampus (dHP) has been implicated in learning and memory, whereas ventral hippocampus (vHP) plays an important role in emotional processing. In this study, the rats that were exposed to cocaine during adolescence (postnatal days, P28-P42) showed higher anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze test in adulthood (P80), but displayed normal spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze test...
January 28, 2016: Neuroscience
Wade T Rogers, Lifeng Zhang, Scott Welden, Benjamin Krieger, Michael Rickels, Jonni S Moore, Emile R Mohler
BACKGROUND: We previously reported the development of a novel high dimensional cytomic assay, the Vascular Health Profile (VHP) based on measurements of angiogenic circulating hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (CHSPC(Ang) ) and extracellular vesicles (EVs), that discovered a unique signature, differentiating the vascular status of diabetics and normal healthy controls. Here we present data from a 3-year follow-up to evaluate the power of the VHP to identify individuals at risk for cardiovascular (CV) events...
November 13, 2015: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
J Calvin Coffey, Kevin Culligan, Leon G Walsh, Rishab Sehgal, Colum Dunne, Deirdre McGrath, Dara Walsh, Michael Moore, Marie Staunton, Timothy Scanlon, Catherine Dewhurst, Bryan Kenny, Conor O'Riordan, Julie M O'Brien, Fabio Quondamatteo, Peter Dockery
OBJECTIVE: The human mesentery is now regarded as contiguous from the duodenojejunal (DJ) to anorectal level. This interpretation prompts re-appraisal of computed tomography (CT) images of the mesentery. METHODS: A digital model and reference atlas of the mesentery were generated using the full-colour data set of the Visible Human Project (VHP). Seventy one normal abdominal CT images were examined to identify mesenteric regions. CT appearances were correlated with cadaveric and histological appearances at corresponding levels...
March 2016: European Radiology
Norio Takata, Keitaro Yoshida, Yuji Komaki, Ming Xu, Yuki Sakai, Keigo Hikishima, Masaru Mimura, Hideyuki Okano, Kenji F Tanaka
The dorsal and ventral hippocampal regions (dHP and vHP) are proposed to have distinct functions. Electrophysiological studies have revealed intra-hippocampal variances along the dorsoventral axis. Nevertheless, the extra-hippocampal influences of dHP and vHP activities remain unclear. In this study, we compared the spatial distribution of brain-wide responses upon dHP or vHP activation and further estimate connection strengths between the dHP and the vHP with corresponding extra-hippocampal areas. To achieve this, we first investigated responses of local field potential (LFP) and multi unit activities (MUA) upon light stimulation in the hippocampus of an anesthetized transgenic mouse, whose CA1 pyramidal neurons expressed a step-function opsin variant of channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2)...
2015: PloS One
Guoliang Yu, Burt M Sharp
RATIONALE: Cigarette smoking remains the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the USA, although only 3-5 % of quitters are successful for 6-12 months. Stress during abstinence increases the likelihood of relapse to smoking. We recently reported that repeated stress during abstinence from operant nicotine self-administration (SA) amplifies the reacquisition of nicotine SA and affects the diurnal intake of nicotine in rats. Herein, we sought to identify brain regions critical for the expression of stress-enhanced nicotine SA during reacquisition...
August 2015: Psychopharmacology
Lauren K Allen, Siddhartha Bhattacharyya, Timothy D Wilson
The discrete anatomy of the eye's intricate oculomotor system is conceptually difficult for novice students to grasp. This is problematic given that this group of muscles represents one of the most common sites of clinical intervention in the treatment of ocular motility disorders and other eye disorders. This project was designed to develop a digital, interactive, three-dimensional (3D) model of the muscles and cranial nerves of the oculomotor system. Development of the 3D model utilized data from the Visible Human Project (VHP) dataset that was refined using multiple forms of 3D software...
May 2015: Anatomical Sciences Education
C J Doona, S Ghosh, F F Feeherry, A Ramirez-Peralta, Y Huang, H Chen, P Setlow
AIMS: Examine effects of different levels and types of nutrient germinant receptors (GRs) and other germination proteins on Bacillus subtilis spore germination by a moderate high pressure (mHP) (150 megaPascals (MPa)) that triggers germination through GRs, and a very high pressure (vHP) (550 MPa) that triggers spore germination independent of GRs. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Moderate HP (mHP) and vHP germination kinetics of B. subtilis spores with large variations in levels of GRs and other germination proteins, including the GerD protein and the SpoVA proteins that comprise a spore membrane channel that is likely opened by vHP were measured...
September 2014: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Sayo O Fakayode, Breanna S Mitchell, David A Pollard
Accurate understanding of analyte boiling points (BP) is of critical importance in gas chromatographic (GC) separation and crude oil refinery operation in petrochemical industries. This study reported the first combined use of GC separation and partial-least-square (PLS1) multivariate regression analysis of petrochemical structural activity relationship (SAR) for accurate BP determination of two commercially available (D3710 and MA VHP) calibration gas mix samples. The results of the BP determination using PLS1 multivariate regression were further compared with the results of traditional simulated distillation method of BP determination...
August 2014: Talanta
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