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gastrointestinal disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912753/comparison-of-lactase-variant-mcm6-13910-c-t-testing-and-self-report-of-dairy-sensitivity-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#1
Ann E Almazar, Joseph Y Chang, Joseph J Larson, Elizabeth J Atkinson, G Richard Locke, Nicholas J Talley, Yuri A Saito
GOALS: To evaluate agreement of MCM6-13910 with self-report of dairy sensitivity (DS) and lactose hydrogen methane breath test (LHMBT) results in subjects with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). BACKGROUND: IBS is a functional gastrointestinal disorder with symptoms including abdominal pain, variable bowel habits, and bloating. Adult patients with lactose malabsorption may present with similar symptoms. Patients with lactose malabsorption have a lactase nonpersistent (LNP) phenotype...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911450/inflammatory-bowel-disease-new-therapies-from-antisense-oligonucleotides
#2
Irene Marafini, Giovanni Monteleone
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract encompassing two main clinical entities: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). These disorders are characterized by various grades of tissue damage and development of local complications and extra-intestinal manifestations. The cause of IBD remains unknown but accumulating evidence indicates that both CD and UC arise in genetically-predisposed individuals as a result of the action of multiple environmental factors, which ultimately trigger excessive and poorly-controlled immune response against antigens of the luminal flora...
June 16, 2018: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911322/metagenomic-insights-into-the-roles-of-proteobacteria-in-the-gastrointestinal-microbiomes-of-healthy-dogs-and-cats
#3
REVIEW
Christina D Moon, Wayne Young, Paul H Maclean, Adrian L Cookson, Emma N Bermingham
Interests in the impact of the gastrointestinal microbiota on health and wellbeing have extended from humans to that of companion animals. While relatively fewer studies to date have examined canine and feline gut microbiomes, analysis of the metagenomic DNA from fecal communities using next-generation sequencing technologies have provided insights into the microbes that are present, their function, and potential to contribute to overall host nutrition and health. As carnivores, healthy dogs and cats possess fecal microbiomes that reflect the generally higher concentrations of protein and fat in their diets, relative to omnivores and herbivores...
June 17, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910605/role-of-etelcalcetide-in-the-management-of-secondary-hyperparathyroidism-in-hemodialysis-patients-a-review-on-current-data-and-place-in-therapy
#4
REVIEW
Claudia Friedl, Emanuel Zitt
Secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT) is a frequently occurring severe complication of advanced kidney disease. Its clinical consequences include extraskeletal vascular and valvular calcifications, changes in bone metabolism resulting in renal osteodystrophy, and an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Calcimimetics are a cornerstone of parathyroid hormone (PTH)-lowering therapy, as confirmed by the recently updated 2017 Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes chronic kidney disease - mineral and bone disorder clinical practice guidelines...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909468/a-high-incidence-and-coexistence-of-multiresistance-genes-cfr-and-optra-among-linezolid-resistant-enterococci-isolated-from-a-teaching-hospital-in-wenzhou-china
#5
Yizhi Zhang, Guofeng Dong, Jiahui Li, Lijiang Chen, Haiyang Liu, Wenzi Bi, Hong Lu, Tieli Zhou
Linezolid is considered as a last-resort antimicrobial agent, the resistance of which is of great concern. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms and transferability of linezolid resistance and molecular epidemiology of linezolid-resistant enterococcal isolates in Wenzhou, China. A collection of 1623 enterococcal strains, including 789 Enterococcus faecalis and 834 Enterococcus faecium, were isolated from our hospital during 2011-2016. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and clinical data analysis were performed...
June 16, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909063/tnf-%C3%AE-antagonist-improves-oxidative-stress-and-lipid-disorders-induced-by-scorpion-venom-in-the-intestinal-tissue
#6
Imane Saidoune-Malek, Aouatef Ait-Lounis, Fatima Laraba-Djebari
We previously reported that Androctonus australis hector (Aah) venom induces inflammation in several tissues, however limited information is available on its role in gastrointestinal tract. Here we evaluate the involvement of TNF-α in lipid metabolism in the small intestine after Aah envenomation. To address these issues, NMRI mice (3-month-old) were pre-treated with a TNF-α antagonist, 30 minutes prior to Aah venom injection. Redox status, cytotoxicity and histopathological changes were analyzed in small intestine 3 and 24 hours after Aah injection...
June 14, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908912/oral-n-acetylcysteine-in-the-treatment-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-systematic-review-of-the-clinical-evidence
#7
REVIEW
José Paulo Couto, Ricardo Moreira
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by the presence of obsessions and/or compulsions. It is a leading cause of morbidity worldwide, as it can interfere with all aspects of life. Despite the adequate treatment trials, half of patients preserve residual or impairing symptoms and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are not free from adverse side effects. This work aims to systematically review the current evidence available concerning the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in the treatment of OCD...
June 14, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908754/bile-acids-and-fxr-in-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Paula Mosińska, Adrian Szczepaniak, Jakub Fichna
Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and chronic constipation (CC), are commonly diagnosed conditions in clinical practice which create a substantial global burden. Since the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and bile acids (BAs) are responsible for maintaining homeostasis in the GI tract, any disturbances in the expression of FXR or the composition of BAs may contribute to the development of the GI symptoms. Alterations in the mechanism of action of FXR directly affect the BAs pool and account for increased intestinal permeability and changes in abundance and diversity of gut microbiota leading to intestinal dysmotility...
May 30, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908679/a-multicenter-cross-sectional-study-to-evaluate-the-clinical-characteristics-and-nutritional-status-of-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#9
Kursad Aydin
BACKGROUND & AIMS: This study was designed to assess clinical characteristics and nutritional status of pediatric outpatients with cerebral palsy (CP) and to determine prevalence of malnutrition based on physicians' clinical judgment and on anthropometric data in relation to percentile reference values. METHODS: A total of 1108 pediatric neurology outpatients (mean ± SEM age: 7.2 ± 0.1 years, 59.3% were males) diagnosed with CP were included in this cross-sectional, non-interventional multicenter single-visit study conducted between October 2015 and July 2016 at 20 centers across Turkey...
August 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908307/caga-and-vaca-allelic-combination-of-helicobacter-pylori-in-gastroduodenal-disorders
#10
Farajzadah Sheikh Ahmad, Mohammad Jaafar Yadyad, Hamed Goodarzi, Seyed Jalal Hashemi, Sajad Aslani, Mohammad-Ali Assarzadegan, Reza Ranjbar
BACKGROUND: Allelic variation of the virulence genes, vacA and cagA, as the most important virulence associated genes play an important role in the pathogenesis of severe gastrointestinal disease. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to identify the diversity of the virulence genes in patients with Gastric Cancer (GC), who were referred to the gastro-endoscopy unit of Imam Khomeini Hospital, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of medical science, Ahvaz, Iran. METHODS: Gastric biopsy specimens from 301 patients suspected to gastrointestinal disorders, were analyzed for H...
June 13, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906405/dermatologic-manifestations-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-review
#11
Uma Keyal, Yeqiang Liu, Anil Kumar Bhatta
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic relapsing disease of the gastrointestinal tract with unknown etiology and pathogenesis. It includes Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Approximately one-third of the patients with IBD are seen to develop extraintestinal manifestations, among which cutaneous manifestations are the most common and should be managed in close collaboration with a dermatologist. Depending upon the nature of the association, skin conditions associated with IBD can be listed under 4 categories: specific, reactive, secondary to malnutrition or malabsorption, and secondary to drug therapy...
May 2018: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906324/electroacupuncture-treatments-for-gut-motility-disorders
#12
REVIEW
J D Z Chen, M Ni, J Yin
Functional gastrointestinal (GI) diseases are common and there are patients who are refractory to medical therapies as not all treatments work in all patients. Consequently, a large number of patients with functional GI diseases use complementary and alternative medicine, such as acupuncture or electroacupuncture (EA). In this issue, Zheng et al. reported interesting results of a multi-center placebo-controlled clinical study on the use of EA for treating refractory functional dyspepsia; another study reported a multi-center clinical trial on EA for chronic functional constipation; Liang et al...
July 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905537/surgical-treatment-of-bening-esophageal-strictures-after-corrosive-injuries
#13
V Boyko, S Savvi, A Korolevska, V Zhydetskyy, Y Novikov, S Bytiak, D Shuba
The research is based on the results of the examination and treatment of 156 patients who received treatment for extended benign esophageal strictures after corrosive injuries in the department of diseases of the esophagus and the gastrointestinal tract of the State Institution "V. T. Zaitsev Institute of General and Urgent Surgery of NAMS of Ukraine" for the period from 2000 to 2016. Surgical treatment by the developed in our hospital technique performed in the patients of the main group and the classical methods of surgery were used in the patients of comparison group...
May 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904722/underrated-enemy-from-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-to-cancers-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#14
REVIEW
Aleksandra Derra, Martyna Bator, Tomasz Menżyk, Michał Kukla
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is intrahepatic ectopic lipid deposition which is present despite a lack of other causes of secondary hepatic fat accumulation. It is the most common chronic liver disorder in the welldeveloped countries. NAFLD is a multidisciplinary disease that affects various systems and organs and is inextricably linked to simple obesity, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and overt diabetes mellitus type 2. The positive energy balance related to obesity leads to a variety of systemic changes including modified levels of insulin, insulin- like growth factor-1, adipokines, hepatokines and cytokines...
June 2018: Clinical and experimental hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904631/chronic-diffuse-pain-and-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-after-traumatic-stress-pathophysiology-through-a-polyvagal-perspective
#15
Jacek Kolacz, Stephen W Porges
Chronic diffuse pain disorders, such as fibromyalgia, and functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), such as irritable bowel syndrome, place substantial burden on those affected and on the medical system. Despite their sizable impact, their pathophysiology is poorly understood. In contrast to an approach that focuses on the correlation between heart rate variability (HRV) and a specific organ or symptom, we propose that a bio-evolutionary threat-related autonomic response-as outlined in the Polyvagal Theory-may serve as a plausible explanation of how HRV, particularly respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), would index the pathophysiology of these disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904158/association-between-ultra-processed-food-consumption-and-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-results-from-the-french-nutrinet-sant%C3%A3-cohort
#16
Laure Schnabel, Camille Buscail, Jean-Marc Sabate, Michel Bouchoucha, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot, Benjamin Allès, Mathilde Touvier, Carlos A Monteiro, Serge Hercberg, Robert Benamouzig, Chantal Julia
OBJECTIVES: Ultra-processed foods (UPF) consumption has increased over the last decades and is raising concerns about potential adverse health effects. Our objective was to assess the association between UPF consumption and four functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs): irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional constipation (FC), functional diarrhea (FDh), and functional dyspepsia (FDy), in a large sample of French adults. METHODS: We analyzed dietary data of 33,343 participants from the web-based NutriNet-Santé cohort, who completed at least three 24 h food records, prior to a Rome III self-administered questionnaire...
June 15, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903620/computational-motility-models-of-neurogastroenterology-and-neuromodulation
#17
Bradley B Barth, Xiling Shen
The success of neuromodulation therapies, particularly in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves, has been greatly aided by computational, biophysical models. However, treating gastrointestinal disorders with electrical stimulation has been much less explored, partly because the mode of action of such treatments is unclear, and selection of stimulation parameters is often empirical. Progress in gut neuromodulation is limited by the comparative lack of biophysical models capable of simulating neuromodulation of gastrointestinal function...
August 15, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903615/neurotransmitter-modulation-by-the-gut-microbiota
#18
Philip Strandwitz
The gut microbiota - the trillions of bacteria that reside within the gastrointestinal tract - has been found to not only be an essential component immune and metabolic health, but also seems to influence development and diseases of the enteric and central nervous system, including motility disorders, behavioral disorders, neurodegenerative disease, cerebrovascular accidents, and neuroimmune-mediated disorders. By leveraging animal models, several different pathways of communication have been identified along the "gut-brain-axis" including those driven by the immune system, the vagus nerve, or by modulation of neuroactive compounds by the microbiota...
August 15, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903528/evaluation-of-gastric-motility-through-surface-electrogastrography-in-critically-ill-septic-patients-comparison-of-metoclopramide-and-domperidone-effects-a-pilot-randomized-clinical-trial
#19
C Mancilla Asencio, L R Gálvez-Arévalo, E Tobar Almonacid, G Landskron-Ramos, A M Madrid-Silva
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Critically ill patients present with a broad spectrum of gastrointestinal motility disorders that affect the digestive tract. Our aim was to compare the effect of two prokinetic drugs on gastric electrical rhythm in critically ill septic patients, measured through surface electrogastrography (EGG). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective triple-blinded randomized study was conducted on 36 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with the diagnosis of septic shock...
June 11, 2018: Revista de Gastroenterología de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903041/saturated-long-chain-fatty-acid-producing-bacteria-contribute-to-enhanced-colonic-motility-in-rats
#20
Ling Zhao, Yufen Huang, Lin Lu, Wei Yang, Tao Huang, Zesi Lin, Chengyuan Lin, Hiuyee Kwan, Hoi Leong Xavier Wong, Yang Chen, Silong Sun, Xuefeng Xie, Xiaodong Fang, Huanming Yang, Jian Wang, Lixin Zhu, Zhaoxiang Bian
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota is closely associated with gastrointestinal (GI) motility disorder, but the mechanism(s) by which bacteria interact with and affect host GI motility remains unclear. In this study, through using metabolomic and metagenomic analyses, an animal model of neonatal maternal separation (NMS) characterized by accelerated colonic motility and gut dysbiosis was used to investigate the mechanism underlying microbiota-driven motility dysfunction. RESULTS: An excess of intracolonic saturated long-chain fatty acids (SLCFAs) was associated with enhanced bowel motility in NMS rats...
June 14, 2018: Microbiome
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