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gastrointestinal disorders

Reza Yazdani, Gholamreza Azizi, Hassan Abolhassani, Asghar Aghamohammadi
Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency (SIgAD) is the most common primary antibody deficiency. Although more patients with SIgAD are asymptomatic, selected patients suffer from different clinical complications such as pulmonary infections, allergies, autoimmune diseases, gastrointestinal disorders and malignancy. Pathogenesis of SIgAD is still unknown, however, a defective terminal differentiation of B-cells and defect in switching to IgA-producing plasma cells are presumed to be responsible. Furthermore, some cytogenic defects and monogenic mutations are associated with SIgAD...
October 20, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Julia König, Jerry Wells, Patrice D Cani, Clara L García-Ródenas, Tom MacDonald, Annick Mercenier, Jacqueline Whyte, Freddy Troost, Robert-Jan Brummer
The gastrointestinal tract consists of an enormous surface area that is optimized to efficiently absorb nutrients, water, and electrolytes from food. At the same time, it needs to provide a tight barrier against the ingress of harmful substances, and protect against a reaction to omnipresent harmless compounds. A dysfunctional intestinal barrier is associated with various diseases and disorders. In this review, the role of intestinal permeability in common disorders such as infections with intestinal pathogens, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, obesity, celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, and food allergies will be discussed...
October 20, 2016: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
Anastasia V Balakireva, Andrey A Zamyatnin
Theterm gluten intolerance may refer to three types of human disorders: autoimmune celiac disease (CD), allergy to wheat and non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). Gluten is a mixture of prolamin proteins present mostly in wheat, but also in barley, rye and oat. Gluten can be subdivided into three major groups: S-rich, S-poor and high molecular weight proteins. Prolamins within the groups possess similar structures and properties. All gluten proteins are evolutionarily connected and share the same ancestral origin...
October 18, 2016: Nutrients
Helen Louise Adams, Dharamveer Basude, Alison Kyle, Sarah Sandmann, Siba Prosad Paul
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common cause of non-organic recurrent abdominal pain in children. IBS is a clinical diagnosis, which is based on the Rome IV criteria for functional gastrointestinal disorders in children, as well as the patient's history. The diagnosis of IBS is established following the exclusion of organic causes of recurrent abdominal pain. Staggered investigations should be avoided because they might increase the child's and family's anxiety in the absence of an organic diagnosis...
October 12, 2016: Nursing Standard
Asad Mohammadzadeh, Adel Spotin, Mahmoud Mahami-Oskouei, Ali Haghighi, Nozhat Zebardast, Kobra Kohansal
In the microevolutionary scales of Entamoeba isolates, the gene migration shows how Entamoeba spp. has epidemiologically drifted among border countries. Five hundred fecal samples were taken from patients suffering gastrointestinal disorders, abdominal pain, and diarrhea at Saggez, northwest Iran located within the border Iraq country. Following parasitological techniques, DNA samples were extracted and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of 18S rRNA region to identify Entamoeba infections. To distinguish the Entamoeba spp...
October 20, 2016: Parasitology Research
Masateru Nagae, Yasuo Mikami, Kentaro Mizuno, Tomohisa Harada, Takumi Ikeda, Hitoshi Tonomura, Ryota Takatori, Hiroyoshi Fujiwara, Toshikazu Kubo
INTRODUCTION: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement is useful for spinal reconstruction, but can cause complications including new vertebral fractures, neurological disorders and pulmonary embolism. We report a case in PMMA cement used for spinal reconstruction after tumor curettage dislodged and penetrated the gastrointestinal tract. DIAGNOSES: The patient was diagnosed with a retroperitoneal extragonadal germ cell tumor at age 27 years. After chemotherapy and tumor resection, the tumor remained...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Sanjay Bhandari, Thangam Venkatesan
Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) is a chronic functional gastrointestinal disorder that is characterized by episodic nausea and vomiting. Initially thought to only affect children, CVS in adults was often misdiagnosed with significant delays in therapy. Over the last decade, there has been a considerable increase in recognition of CVS in adults but there continues to be a lack of knowledge about management of this disorder. This paper seeks to provide best practices in the treatment of CVS and also highlight some novel therapies that have the potential in better treating this disorder in the future...
October 18, 2016: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
Yuichiro Kizaki, Tomonori Nagai, Ken Ohara, Yosuke Gomi, Taichi Akahori, Yoshihisa Ono, Shigetaka Matsunaga, Yasushi Takai, Masahiro Saito, Kazunori Baba, Hiroyuki Seki
BACKGROUND: While ovarian mature cystic teratomas are benign ovarian germ-cell tumors and the most common type of all ovarian tumors, the formation of fistulas into surrounding organs such as the bladder and the intestinal tract is extremely rare. This report documents a case of ovarian mature cystic teratoma with a rectal fistula, thought to be caused by local inflammation. CASE DESCRIPTION: A pelvic mass was diagnosed as an ovarian mature cystic teratoma of approximately 10 cm in diameter on transvaginal ultrasound and magnetic resonance examinations...
2016: SpringerPlus
Habibullah Janyaro, Juan Wan, Adnan H Tahir, Manoj K Shah, Xiao-Jing Li, Ming-Xing Ding
BACKGROUND: Visceral pain is a common symptom of several gastrointestinal disorders. Despite tremendous progress in understanding its basic mechanisms, it remains a significant health challenge for clinicians. The present study quantified the intensity of visceral pain using ileocecal ligament traction on an inflamed ileum in goats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 36 male goats weighing 20.05±2.1 kg were randomly allocated equally into a 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) group (n=18) and a saline group (n=18)...
2016: Journal of Pain Research
Kenton M Sanders, Sean M Ward, Grant W Hennig
Motility patterns of the gastrointestinal tract are important for efficient processing of nutrients and waste. Peristalsis and segmentation are based on rhythmic electrical slow waves that generate the phasic contractions fundamental to gastrointestinal motility. Slow waves are generated and propagated actively by interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), and these events conduct to smooth muscle cells to elicit excitation-contraction coupling. Extracellular electrical recording has been utilized to characterize slow-wave generation and propagation and abnormalities that might be responsible for gastrointestinal motility disorders...
October 19, 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Giulia Umbrello, Susanna Esposito
BACKGROUND: The microbiota colonizing the gastrointestinal tract have been associated with both gastrointestinal and extra-gastrointestinal diseases. In recent years, considerable interest has been devoted to their role in the development of neurologic diseases, as many studies have described bidirectional communication between the central nervous system and the gut, the so-called "microbiota-gut-brain axis". Considering the ability of probiotics (i.e., live non-pathogenic microorganisms) to restore the normal microbial population and produce benefits for the host, their potential effects have been investigated in the context of neurologic diseases...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Shih-Cheng Liao, Wei-Lieh Huang, Huei-Mei Ma, Min-Tzu Lee, Tzu-Ting Chen, I-Ming Chen, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
BACKGROUND: Our purpose was to examine the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15) in Taiwan, and to explore its relation to somatoform disorders (DSM-IV) and to somatic symptom and related disorders (DSM-5). METHODS: We recruited 471 individuals, 151 with somatoform disorders and 200 with somatic symptom and related disorders. Subjects completed the Chinese version of the PHQ-15, Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and received a DSM-IV- and DSM-5-based diagnostic interview...
October 18, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Sicheng Wu, Shuqi Chen, Yanfang Zhao, Xiuqiang Ma, Rui Wang, Jia He
Background/Aims: Several studies have demonstrated that sleep problems are associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and functional dyspepsia etc, but the relationship between excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and FGIDs has not been systematically studied in general population. This study aimed to explore the relationship between EDS and specific types of FGIDs and the effect of the number of FGIDs on EDS. Methods: A sample of 3600 individuals (aged 18-80 years) was selected from 5 regions in China using a randomized stratified multi-stage sampling method...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
Wai Cheng Foong, Jacqueline J Ho, C Khai Loh, Vip Viprakasit
BACKGROUND: Non-transfusion dependent beta thalassaemia is a subset of inherited haemoglobin disorders characterised by reduced production of the beta globin chain of the haemoglobin molecule leading to anaemia of varying severity. Although blood transfusion is not a necessity for survival, it is required when episodes of chronic anaemia occur. This chronic anaemia can impair growth and affect quality of life. People with non-transfusion dependent beta thalassaemia suffer from iron overload due to their body's increased capability of absorbing iron from food sources...
October 18, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Roberto Lewis-Fernández, Peter Lam, Susan Lucak, Hanga Galfalvy, Elizabeth Jackson, Jane Fried, Melissa Rosario, Ana Alicia de la Cruz, Arturo Sánchez-Lacay, Samantha Díaz, Franklin Schneier
Major depressive disorder (MDD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) frequently co-occur, yet treating their comorbid presentation is challenging. Low-dose tricyclic antidepressants are efficacious for IBS, but higher doses to treat depressive symptoms present tolerability problems, whereas selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are more tolerable but show inconsistent efficacy for IBS. If efficacious, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors like duloxetine would provide a useful alternative. We explored efficacy, tolerability, and time to onset of action of duloxetine in comorbid IBS-MDD in an open-label, 12-week trial...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Peter Nilsson
A number of chronic disease conditions tend to cluster in families with an increased risk in first-degree relatives, but also an increased risk in second-degree relatives. This fact is most often referred to as the heritability (heredity) of these diseases and explained by the influence of genetic factors, or shared environment, even if the more specific details or mechanism leading to disease are not known. New methods have to be explored in screening studies and register linkage studies to define and measure consequences of a positive family history of disease...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Jonathan J Lyons, Xiaomin Yu, Jason D Hughes, Quang T Le, Ali Jamil, Yun Bai, Nancy Ho, Ming Zhao, Yihui Liu, Michael P O'Connell, Neil N Trivedi, Celeste Nelson, Thomas DiMaggio, Nina Jones, Helen Matthews, Katie L Lewis, Andrew J Oler, Ryan J Carlson, Peter D Arkwright, Celine Hong, Sherene Agama, Todd M Wilson, Sofie Tucker, Yu Zhang, Joshua J McElwee, Maryland Pao, Sarah C Glover, Marc E Rothenberg, Robert J Hohman, Kelly D Stone, George H Caughey, Theo Heller, Dean D Metcalfe, Leslie G Biesecker, Lawrence B Schwartz, Joshua D Milner
Elevated basal serum tryptase levels are present in 4-6% of the general population, but the cause and relevance of such increases are unknown. Previously, we described subjects with dominantly inherited elevated basal serum tryptase levels associated with multisystem complaints including cutaneous flushing and pruritus, dysautonomia, functional gastrointestinal symptoms, chronic pain, and connective tissue abnormalities, including joint hypermobility. Here we report the identification of germline duplications and triplications in the TPSAB1 gene encoding α-tryptase that segregate with inherited increases in basal serum tryptase levels in 35 families presenting with associated multisystem complaints...
October 17, 2016: Nature Genetics
Najate Achamrah, Pierre Déchelotte, Moïse Coëffier
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in plasma and plays a key role in maintaining the integrity of intestinal barrier. RECENT FINDINGS: Experimental studies showed that glutamine is able to modulate intestinal permeability and tight junction protein expression in several conditions. Recent articles underlined its putative beneficial role in gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome. SUMMARY: Glutamine is a major nutrient to maintain intestinal barrier function in animals and humans...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Enrique Jurado-Ruiz, Lourdes M Varela, Amparo Luque, Genoveva Berná, Gladys Cahuana, Enrique Martinez-Force, Rocío Gallego-Durán, Bernat Soria, Baukje de Roos, Manuel Romero Gómez, Franz Martín
SCOPE: We evaluated the protective effect of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) in high-fat diets (HFDs) on the inflammatory response and liver damage in a non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) mouse model. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6J mice fed a standard diet or a lard-based HFD (HFD-L) for 12 weeks to develop NAFLD. HFD fed mice were then divided into four groups and fed for 24 weeks with: HFD-L; HFD-EVOO; HFD-OL (phenolics-rich EVOO) and R (reversion; standard diet)...
October 17, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Tareq Abu-Izneid, Aneela Maalik, Saud Bawazeer, Ajmal Khan, Abdur Rauf, Taibi Ben Hadda, Haroon Khan, Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan, Imran Khan, Mohammad S Mubarak, Ghias Uddin, Alia Bahadar, Shujaat Ali Khan
BACKGROUND: Pistacia integerrima has many medicinal uses in therapeutic as well as folk medicine. P. integerrima has been used for the treatment of different ailments such as blood purifier, anti-inflammatory, and as remedy for gastrointestinal disorders such as vomiting and diarrhea, expectorant, cough, asthma and fever. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this research work was to evaluate the effect of pistagremic acid (PA) isolated from the galls of Pistacia integerima in acute toxicity and gastrointestinal (GIT) motility tests...
October 7, 2016: Medicinal Chemistry
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