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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932592/the-role-of-adipose-tissue-in-cancer-associated-cachexia
#1
Janina A Vaitkus, Francesco S Celi
Adipose tissue (fat) is a heterogeneous organ, both in function and histology, distributed throughout the body. White adipose tissue, responsible for energy storage and more recently found to have endocrine and inflammation-modulatory activities, was historically thought to be the only type of fat present in adult humans. The recent demonstration of functional brown adipose tissue in adults, which is highly metabolic, shifted this paradigm. Additionally, recent studies demonstrate the ability of white adipose tissue to be induced toward the brown adipose phenotype - "beige" or "brite" adipose tissue - in a process referred to as "browning...
December 8, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929502/epid-based-dosimetry-to-verify-imrt-planar-dose-distribution-for-the-as1200-epid-and-fff-beams
#2
Narges Miri, Peter Keller, Benjamin J Zwan, Peter Greer
We proposed to perform a basic dosimetry commissioning on a new imager sys-tem, the Varian aS1200 electronic portal imaging device (EPID) and TrueBeam 2.0 linear accelerator for flattened (FF) and flattening filter-free (FFF) beams, then to develop an image-based quality assurance (QA) model for verification of the system delivery accuracy for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treat-ments. For dosimetry testing, linearity of dose response with MU, imager lag, and effectiveness of backscatter shielding were investigated...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929490/rounded-leaf-end-modeling-in-pinnacle-vmat-treatment-planning-for-fixed-jaw-linacs
#3
Lori A Young, Fei Yang, Ning Cao, Juergen Meyer
During volume-modulated arc therapies (VMAT), dosimetric errors are introduced by multiple open dynamic leaf gaps that are present in fixed diaphragm linear accelerators. The purpose of this work was to develop a methodology for adjusting the rounded leaf end modeling parameters to improve out-of-field dose agreement in SmartArc VMAT treatment plans delivered by fixed jaw linacs where leaf gap dose is not negligible. Leaf gap doses were measured for an Elekta beam modulator linac with 0.4 cm micro-multileaf collimators (MLC) using an A16 micro-ionization chamber, a MatriXX ion chamber detector array, and Kodak EDR2 film dosimetry in a solid water phantom...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929049/development-of-a-fiber-laser-with-independently-adjustable-properties-for-optical-resolution-photoacoustic-microscopy
#4
Esra Aytac-Kipergil, Aytac Demirkiran, Nasire Uluc, Seydi Yavas, Tunc Kayikcioglu, Sarper Salman, Sohret Gorkem Karamuk, Fatih Omer Ilday, Mehmet Burcin Unlu
Photoacoustic imaging is based on the detection of generated acoustic waves through thermal expansion of tissue illuminated by short laser pulses. Fiber lasers as an excitation source for photoacoustic imaging have recently been preferred for their high repetition frequencies. Here, we report a unique fiber laser developed specifically for multiwavelength photoacoustic microscopy system. The laser is custom-made for maximum flexibility in adjustment of its parameters; pulse duration (5-10 ns), pulse energy (up to 10 μJ) and repetition frequency (up to 1 MHz) independently from each other and covers a broad spectral region from 450 to 1100 nm and also can emit wavelengths of 532, 355, and 266 nm...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927167/development-of-a-group-contribution-method-for-estimating-free-energy-of-peptides-in-a-dodecane-water-system-via-molecular-dynamic-simulations
#5
Camilo Andrés Mora Osorio, Andrés Fernando González Barrios
BACKGROUND: Calculation of the Gibbs free energy changes of biological molecules at the oil-water interface is commonly performed with Molecular Dynamics simulations (MD). It is a process that could be performed repeatedly in order to find some molecules of high stability in this medium. Here, an alternative method of calculation has been proposed: a group contribution method (GCM) for peptides based on MD of the twenty classic amino acids to obtain free energy change during the insertion of any peptide chain in water-dodecane interfaces...
December 7, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927032/emerging-drugs-for-the-treatment-of-obesity
#6
Christoffer Martinussen, Kirstine Nyvold Bojsen-Moller, Maria Saur Svane, Thomas Fremming Dejgaard, Sten Madsbad
The increasing prevalence of obesity represents a huge threat to public health and the current pharmacological treatment options are limited. Bariatric surgery is by far the most effective treatment for severe obesity, highlighting the urgent need for new and improved drug therapies. Areas covered: Based on the physiological regulation of energy homeostasis, pharmacological strategies to treat obesity are evaluated with focus on drugs in phase 2 and 3 clinical development. The potential impact of these drugs on current treatment standards and the barriers for development are discussed and set in a historical perspective of previous anti-obesity medications...
December 7, 2016: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924313/a-compartmentalized-out-of-equilibrium-enzymatic-reaction-network-for-sustained-autonomous-movement
#7
Marlies Nijemeisland, Loai K E A Abdelmohsen, Wilhelm T S Huck, Daniela A Wilson, Jan C M van Hest
Every living cell is a compartmentalized out-of-equilibrium system exquisitely able to convert chemical energy into function. In order to maintain homeostasis, the flux of metabolites is tightly controlled by regulatory enzymatic networks. A crucial prerequisite for the development of lifelike materials is the construction of synthetic systems with compartmentalized reaction networks that maintain out-of-equilibrium function. Here, we aim for autonomous movement as an example of the conversion of feedstock molecules into function...
November 23, 2016: ACS Central Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923921/high-resolution-ph-imaging-of-living-bacterial-cells-to-detect-local-ph-differences
#8
Yusuke V Morimoto, Nobunori Kami-Ike, Tomoko Miyata, Akihiro Kawamoto, Takayuki Kato, Keiichi Namba, Tohru Minamino
: Protons are utilized for various biological activities such as energy transduction and cell signaling. For construction of the bacterial flagellum, a type III export apparatus utilizes ATP and proton motive force to drive flagellar protein export, but the energy transduction mechanism remains unclear. Here, we have developed a high-resolution pH imaging system to measure local pH differences within living Salmonella enterica cells, especially in close proximity to the cytoplasmic membrane and the export apparatus...
December 6, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923572/a-system-to-evaluate-fire-impacts-from-simulated-fire-behavior-in-mediterranean-areas-of-central-chile
#9
Miguel E Castillo, Juan R Molina, Francisco Rodríguez Y Silva, Pablo García-Chevesich, Roberto Garfias
Wildfires constitute the greatest economic disruption to Mediterranean ecosystems, from a socio-economic and ecological perspective (Molina et al., 2014). This study proposes to classify fire intensity levels based on potential fire behavior in different types of Mediterranean vegetation types, using two geographical scales. The study considered >4 thousand wildfires over a period of 25years, identifying fire behavior on each event, based on simulations using "KITRAL", a model developed in Chile in 1993 and currently used in the entire country...
December 3, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922730/anchoring-nitrogen-doped-tio2-nanocrystals-on-nitrogen-doped-3d-graphene-frameworks-for-enhanced-lithium-storage
#10
Yan Yu, Xiaowu Liu, Zhenzhong Yang, Lin Gu
An advanced architecture design of nitrogen doped TiO2 anchored on nitrogen doped 3D graphene frameworks composites (denoted as N-TiO2/N-3D GFs) have been fabricated by a facile template process and further NH3 treatment. The 3D graphene framework allows the electrolyte penetrate into the inverse opal structure and possess high electronic conductivity. The intimate contact between the N-TiO2 and the graphene suppresses the growth and aggregation of TiO2 nanoparticles during heating process, leading to decreased Li+ diffusion length...
December 6, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922726/bichromophoric-compounds-with-orthogonally-and-parallelly-arranged-chromophores-separated-by-rigid-spacers
#11
Dirk N H Meineke, Mariano L Bossi, Haisen Ta, Vladimir N Belov, Stefan W Hell
Electronic energy transfer (EET) between chromophores is of fundamental importance for many biological processes and optoelectronic devices. However, common models fall short in fully describing the process, especially in bichromophoric model systems with a donor and acceptor connected by a rigid linker providing perpendicular geometries. Herein, we report a novel strategy to prepare bichromophores containing adamantane or 2-(2-adamantylidene)-adamantane as rigid spacers, providing a fixed distance between chromophores, and their parallel or perpendicular arrangement without chromophore rotation...
December 6, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922592/distributed-solar-photovoltaic-array-location-and-extent-dataset-for-remote-sensing-object-identification
#12
Kyle Bradbury, Raghav Saboo, Timothy L Johnson, Jordan M Malof, Arjun Devarajan, Wuming Zhang, Leslie M Collins, Richard G Newell
Earth-observing remote sensing data, including aerial photography and satellite imagery, offer a snapshot of the world from which we can learn about the state of natural resources and the built environment. The components of energy systems that are visible from above can be automatically assessed with these remote sensing data when processed with machine learning methods. Here, we focus on the information gap in distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays, of which there is limited public data on solar PV deployments at small geographic scales...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922591/re-assessment-of-net-energy-production-and-greenhouse-gas-emissions-avoidance-after-40-years-of-photovoltaics-development
#13
Atse Louwen, Wilfried G J H M van Sark, André P C Faaij, Ruud E I Schropp
Since the 1970s, installed solar photovoltaic capacity has grown tremendously to 230 gigawatt worldwide in 2015, with a growth rate between 1975 and 2015 of 45%. This rapid growth has led to concerns regarding the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of photovoltaics production. We present a review of 40 years of photovoltaics development, analysing the development of energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions associated with photovoltaics production. Here we show strong downward trends of environmental impact of photovoltaics production, following the experience curve law...
December 6, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920439/activity-targets-for-nanostructured-platinum-group-metal-free-catalysts-in-hydroxide-exchange-membrane-fuel-cells
#14
Brian P Setzler, Zhongbin Zhuang, Jarrid A Wittkopf, Yushan Yan
Fuel cells are the zero-emission automotive power source that best preserves the advantages of gasoline automobiles: low upfront cost, long driving range and fast refuelling. To make fuel-cell cars a reality, the US Department of Energy has set a fuel cell system cost target of US$30 kW(-1) in the long-term, which equates to US$2,400 per vehicle, excluding several major powertrain components (in comparison, a basic, but complete, internal combustion engine system costs approximately US$3,000). To date, most research for automotive applications has focused on proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), because these systems have demonstrated the highest power density...
December 6, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920437/developing-a-scalable-artificial-photosynthesis-technology-through-nanomaterials-by-design
#15
Nathan S Lewis
An artificial photosynthetic system that directly produces fuels from sunlight could provide an approach to scalable energy storage and a technology for the carbon-neutral production of high-energy-density transportation fuels. A variety of designs are currently being explored to create a viable artificial photosynthetic system, and the most technologically advanced systems are based on semiconducting photoelectrodes. Here, I discuss the development of an approach that is based on an architecture, first conceived around a decade ago, that combines arrays of semiconducting microwires with flexible polymeric membranes...
December 6, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916906/enabling-smart-air-conditioning-by-sensor-development-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Chin-Chi Cheng, Dasheng Lee
The study investigates the development of sensors, in particular the use of thermo-fluidic sensors and occupancy detectors, to achieve smart operation of air conditioning systems. Smart operation refers to the operation of air conditioners by the reinforcement of interaction to achieve both thermal comfort and energy efficiency. Sensors related to thermal comfort include those of temperature, humidity, and pressure and wind velocity anemometers. Improvements in their performance in the past years have been studied by a literature survey...
November 30, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916869/error-analysis-and-experimental-study-of-a-bi-planar-parallel-mechanism-in-a-pedicle-screw-robot-system
#17
Qingjuan Duan, Zhijiang Du, Hongjian Yu, Yongfeng Wang, Wei Dong
Due to the urgent need for high precision surgical equipment for minimally invasive spinal surgery, a novel robot-assistant system was developed for the accurate placement of pedicle screws in lumbar spinal surgeries. The structure of the robot was based on a macro-micro mechanism, which includes a serial mechanism (macro part) and a bi-planar 5R parallel mechanism (micro part). The macro part was used to achieve a large workspace, while the micro part was used to obtain high stiffness and accuracy. Based on the transfer function of dimension errors, the factors affecting the accuracy of the end effectors were analyzed...
November 30, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916634/lateral-heterogeneity-of-the-proton-potential-along-the-thylakoid-membranes-of-chloroplasts
#18
Alexey V Vershubskii, Boris V Trubitsin, Vladimir I Priklonskii, Alexander N Tikhonov
This work is devoted to critical analysis and reexamination of the problem of lateral heterogeneity of the trans-thylakoid pH difference (ΔpH=pHout-pHin) in thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts. Correct measurements of ΔpH may be complicated by nonuniform partitioning of the protons pumped into the lumen of granal (stacked) and stroma-exposed thylakoids. We have compared results of ΔpH estimations in isolated bean chloroplasts by two different methods. One of the methods is based on the use of pH-sensitive spin-probes...
December 1, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916598/pic-activation-through-functional-interplay-between-mediator-and-tfiih
#19
Sohail Malik, Henrik Molina, Zhu Xue
The multiprotein Mediator coactivator complex functions in large part by controlling formation and function of the promoter-bound preinitiation complex (PIC), which consists of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and general transcription factors. However, precisely how Mediator impacts the PIC, especially post-recruitment, has remained unclear. Here, we have studied Mediator effects on basal transcription in an in vitro transcription system reconstituted from purified components. Our results reveal a close functional interplay between Mediator and TFIIH in the early stages of PIC development...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915098/organic-liquid-mobility-induced-by-smoldering-remediation
#20
L Kinsman, J L Torero, J I Gerhard
Laboratory column experiments plus analytical and numerical modeling together suggest that, under certain conditions, downward organic liquid mobilization can occur and impact smoldering behavior. This applies for organic liquids mixed with inert sand subjected to smoldering as thermal treatment. The observed effects include increased peak temperatures (here by up to 35%) and increased treatment times (here by up to 30%). Downward organic liquid migration occurs when (i) injected Darcy air flux is less than a threshold value (here less than 3cm/s), (ii) treatment systems are tall (here 90cm, not 30cm), and (iii) the organic liquid is temperature-sensitive (viscosity less than 0...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
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