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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098249/enhancing-dielectric-permittivity-for-energy-storage-devices-through-tricritical-phenomenon
#1
Jinghui Gao, Yan Wang, Yongbin Liu, Xinghao Hu, Xiaoqin Ke, Lisheng Zhong, Yuting He, Xiaobing Ren
Although dielectric energy-storing devices are frequently used in high voltage level, the fast growing on the portable and wearable electronics have been increasing the demand on the energy-storing devices at finite electric field strength. This paper proposes an approach on enhancing energy density under low electric field through compositionally inducing tricriticality in Ba(Ti,Sn)O3 ferroelectric material system with enlarged dielectric response. The optimal dielectric permittivity at tricritical point can reach to εr = 5...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097922/cascade-use-indicators-for-selected-biopolymers-are-we-aiming-for-the-right-solutions-in-the-design-for-recycling-of-bio-based-polymers
#2
Jakob Hildebrandt, Alberto Bezama, Daniela Thrän
When surveying the trends and criteria for the design for recycling (DfR) of bio-based polymers, priorities appear to lie in energy recovery at the end of the product life of durable products, such as bio-based thermosets. Non-durable products made of thermoplastic polymers exhibit good properties for material recycling. The latter commonly enjoy growing material recycling quotas in countries that enforce a landfill ban. Quantitative and qualitative indicators are needed for characterizing progress in the development towards more recycling friendly bio-based polymers...
January 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097211/new-generation-small-animal-positron-emission-tomography-system-for-molecular-imaging
#3
Shiva Abbaszadeh, Craig S Levin
The next generation of discoveries in molecular imaging requires positron emission tomography (PET) systems with high spatial resolution and high sensitivity to visualize and quantify low concentrations of molecular probes. The goal of this work is to assemble and explore such a system. We use cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) to achieve high spatial resolution, three-dimensional interaction positioning, and excellent energy resolution. The CZT crystals are arranged in an edge-on configuration with a minimum gap of [Formula: see text] in a four-sided panel geometry to achieve superior photon sensitivity...
January 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096002/factors-influencing-the-quality-of-life-of-patients-with-advanced-cancer
#4
Sun-A Park, Seung Hyun Chung, Youngjin Lee
The present study aimed to determine the predictors of quality of life (QOL) of patients with advanced cancer. A cross-sectional study involving 494 patients with advanced cancer was conducted using the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale-Short Form, the Karnofsky Performance Status Scale, the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (Korean version), and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Core 30. Regression analyses showed that physical and psychological symptoms significantly predicted the patients' QOL and explained 28...
February 2017: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095598/evaluating-the-cost-safety-and-proliferation-risks-of-small-floating-nuclear-reactors
#5
Michael J Ford, Ahmed Abdulla, M Granger Morgan
It is hard to see how our energy system can be decarbonized if the world abandons nuclear power, but equally hard to introduce the technology in nonnuclear energy states. This is especially true in countries with limited technical, institutional, and regulatory capabilities, where safety and proliferation concerns are acute. Given the need to achieve serious emissions mitigation by mid-century, and the multidecadal effort required to develop robust nuclear governance institutions, we must look to other models that might facilitate nuclear plant deployment while mitigating the technology's risks...
January 17, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094862/software-platform-for-simulation-of-a-prototype-proton-ct-scanner
#6
Valentina Giacometti, Vladimir A Bashkirov, Pierluigi Piersimoni, Susanna Guatelli, Tia E Plautz, Hartmut F-W Sadrozinski, Robert P Johnson, Andriy Zatserklyaniy, Thomas Tessonnier, Katia Parodi, Anatoly B Rosenfeld, Reinhard W Schulte
PURPOSE: Proton computed tomography (pCT) is a promising imaging technique to substitute or at least complement x-ray CT for more accurate proton therapy treatment planning as it allows calculating directly proton relative stopping power from proton energy loss measurements. A proton CT scanner with a silicon-based particle tracking system and a 5 stage scintillating energy detector has been completed. In parallel a modular software platform was developed to characterize the performance of the proposed pCT...
January 17, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094244/a-bioinspired-adaptive-spider-web
#7
L Zheng, M Behrooz, F Gordaninejad
This work presents an adaptive structure inspired by spider webs' behavior. To investigate the dynamic properties and performance of this system, numerical models are developed to examine the effects of pretension in radial strings, and Young's modulus, and damping ratio on the natural frequency and total energy of the system. An experimental study was conducted to validate theoretical results. Stepper motors controlled by a microcontroller are utilized to increase the pretension in the radial strings of the web in order to tune the web's energy absorption ability...
January 17, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093904/supramolecular-polymer-dot-ensemble-for-ratiometric-detection-of-lectins-and-targeted-delivery-of-imaging-agents
#8
Chang-Zheng Wang, Jia-Li Chen, Ying Tang, Yi Zang, Guo-Rong Chen, Tony D James, Jia Li, Changfeng Wu, Xiao-Peng He
A supramolecular, polymer dot based ensemble has been developed for the ratiometric detection of lectins and targeted delivery of glycoprobes. Self-assembly between a blue-emitting polymer dot and a red-emitting glycoprobe, results in an ensemble that shows red emission upon excitation of the polymer dot because of Förster Resonance Energy Transfer. Resulting in ratiometric detection of lectins in buffer solution as well as targeted delivery of the glycoprobe to cells that highly express a sugar receptor. Unlike conventional systems where both the agent and vector are co-delivered intracellularly, our ensemble developed here shows a receptor-controlled dissociation on the cell membrane...
January 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093902/making-sense-of-metabolic-obesity-and-hedonic-obesity
#9
REVIEW
Yu Yi-Hao
Body weight is neither stationary nor changing unidirectionally. It usually oscillates up and down around a set-point. Two types of forces determine the direction of weight changes. Forces that push body weight away from the set-point are defined as non-homeostatic and are governed by multiple mechanisms, including but not limited to hedonic regulation of food intake. Forces that restore the set-point weight are defined as homeostatic, and they operate through the mechanisms that regulate short-term energy balance driven by hunger and satiation and long-term energy balance driven by changes in adiposity...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092722/synthetic-and-natural-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-ppar-agonists-as-candidates-for-the-therapy-of-the-metabolic-syndrome
#10
Chek Kun Tan, Yan Zhuang, Walter Wahli
Introduction Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are the molecular targets of hypolipidemic and insulin-sensitizing drugs and implicated in a multitude of processes that fine-tune the functions of all organs in vertebrates. As transcription factors they sense endogenous and exogenous lipid signaling molecules and convert these signals into intricate gene responses that impact health and disease. The PPARs act as modulators of cellular, organ, and systemic processes, such as lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, making them valuable for understanding body homeostasis influenced by nutrition and exercise...
January 16, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091679/sustainability-of-renewable-fuel-infrastructure-a-screening-lca-case-study-of-anticorrosive-graphene-oxide-epoxy-liners-in-steel-tanks-for-the-storage-of-biodiesel-and-its-blends
#11
Govinda Chilkoor, Venkata K K Upadhyayula, Venkataramana Gadhamshetty, Nikhil Koratkar, Mats Tysklind
Biodiesel is a widely used fuel that meets the renewable fuel standards developed under the Energy Policy Act of 2005. However, biodiesel is known to pose a series of abiotic and biotic corrosion risks to storage tanks. A typical practice (incumbent system) used to protect the tanks from these risks include (i) coating the interior surface of the tank with a solvent-free epoxy (SFE) liner, and (ii) adding a biocide to the tank. Herein, we present a screening-level life-cycle assessment study to compare the environmental performance of a graphene oxide (GO)-epoxy (GOE) liner with the incumbent system...
January 16, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091627/development-of-a-single-step-immunoassay-microdevice-based-on-a-graphene-oxide-containing-hydrogel-possessing-fluorescence-quenching-and-size-separation-functions
#12
Akihiro Shirai, Kaho Nakashima, Kenji Sueyoshi, Tatsuro Endo, Hideaki Hisamoto
An immunoassay, which is an indispensable analytical method both in biological research and in medical fields was successfully integrated into a "single-step" by developing a microdevice composed of a graphene oxide (GO)-containing hydrogel and a poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microchannel array with a polyethylene glycol (PEG) coating containing a fluorescently-labelled antibody. Here we used 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) as a monomer that is easily, and homogeneously, mixed with GO to synthesize the hydrogel...
January 16, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089707/understanding-infant-eating-behaviour-lessons-learned-from-observation
#13
REVIEW
Marion M Hetherington
Observations of human infants during feeding presents a rich source of data to identify the ways in which hunger, appetite and satiety are communicated in early life. Infants signal appetite through their interest or disinterest in food using a series of communication cues from rapid and transient facial expressions to subtle or potent gestures and bodily movements through to vocalisations and eventually speech. Even in the first days of life facial expressions in response to basic tastes are clearly demonstrated and shared between human infants, other primates and the rat...
January 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088649/fumarate-reductase-superfamily-a-diverse-group-of-enzymes-whose-evolution-is-correlated-to-the-establishment-of-different-metabolic-pathways
#14
Douglas Jardim-Messeder, Caroline Cabreira-Cagliari, Rafael Rauber, Andreia Carina Turchetto-Zolet, Rogério Margis, Márcia Margis-Pinheiro
Fumarate and succinate are known to be present in prebiotic systems essential for the origin of life. The fumarate and succinate interconversion reactions have been conserved throughout evolution and are found in all living organisms. The fumarate and succinate interconversion is catalyzed by the enzymes succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and fumarate reductase (FRD). In this work we show that SDH and FRD are part of a group of enzymes that we propose to designate "fumarate reductase superfamily". Our results demonstrate that these enzymes emerged from a common ancestor and were essential in the development of metabolic pathways involved in energy transduction...
January 11, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088456/development-of-a-predictive-model-for-the-long-term-stability-assessment-of-drug-in-adhesive-transdermal-films-using-polar-pressure-sensitive-adhesives-as-carrier-matrix
#15
Clémence Chenevas-Paule, Hans-Michael Wolff, Mark Ashton, Martin Schubert, Kalliopi Dodou
Drug crystallization in transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) is a critical quality defect. The impact of drug load and hydration on the physical stability of polar (acrylic) drug-in-adhesive (DIA) films was investigated with the objective to identify predictive formulation parameters with respect to drug solubility and long-term stability. Medicated acrylic films were prepared over a range of drug concentrations below and above saturation solubility; and were characterized by FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized microscopy and Dynamic Vapor Sorption (DVS) analysis...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087932/the-complexity-of-fungal-vision
#16
Reinhard Fischer, Jesus Aguirre, Alfredo Herrera-Estrella, Luis M Corrochano
Life, as we know it, would not be possible without light. Light is not only a primary source of energy, but also an important source of information for many organisms. To sense light, only a few photoreceptor systems have developed during evolution. They are all based on an organic molecule with conjugated double bonds that allows energy transfer from visible (or UV) light to its cognate protein to translate the primary physical photoresponse to cell-biological actions. The three main classes of receptors are flavin-based blue-light, retinal-based green-light (such as rhodopsin), and linear tetrapyrrole-based red-light sensors...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087774/the-origin-of-mitochondrial-cristae-from-alphaproteobacteria
#17
Sergio A Muñoz-Gómez, Jeremy G Wideman, Andrew J Roger, Claudio H Slamovits
Mitochondria are the respiratory organelles of eukaryotes and their evolutionary history is deeply intertwined with that of eukaryotes. The compartmentalization of respiration in mitochondria occurs within cristae, whose evolutionary origin has remained unclear. Recent discoveries, however, have revived the old notion that mitochondrial cristae could have had a pre-endosymbiotic origin. Mitochondrial cristae are likely homologous to the intracytoplasmic membranes (ICMs) used by diverse alphaproteobacteria for harnessing energy...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087529/resilience-dynamics-and-interactions-within-a-multi-species-exoelectrogenic-model-biofilm-community
#18
Anna Prokhorova, Katrin Sturm-Richter, Andreas Doetsch, Johannes Gescher
: Anode-associated multi-species exoelectrogenic biofilms are essential to the function of bioelectrochemical systems (BESs). The individual activities of anode associated organisms and physiological responses resulting from co-culturing are often hard to assess due to the high microbial diversity in these systems. Therefore, we developed a model multispecies biofilm of the three exoelectrogenic proteobacteria Shewanella oneidensis, Geobacter sulfurreducens and Geobacter metallireducens with the aim to study in detail the biofilm formation dynamics, the interactions between the organisms and the overall activity of an exoelectrogenic biofilm as a consequence of the applied anode potential...
January 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087269/mitochondrial-roles-of-the-psychiatric-disease-risk-factor-disc1
#19
REVIEW
R Norkett, S Modi, J T Kittler
Ion transport during neuronal signalling utilizes the majority of the brain's energy supply. Mitochondria are key sites for energy provision through ATP synthesis and play other important roles including calcium buffering. Thus, tightly regulated distribution and function of these organelles throughout the intricate architecture of the neuron is essential for normal synaptic communication. Therefore, delineating mechanisms coordinating mitochondrial transport and function is essential for understanding nervous system physiology and pathology...
January 10, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081011/spectrum-reconstruction-method-based-on-the-detector-response-model-calibrated-by-x-ray-fluorescence
#20
Ruizhe Li, Liang Li, Zhiqiang Chen
Accurate estimation of distortion-free spectra is important but difficult in various applications, especially for spectral computed tomography. Two key problems must be solved to reconstruct the incident spectrum. One is the acquisition of the detector energy response. It can be calculated by Monte Carlo simulation, which requires detailed modeling of the detector system and a high computational power. It can also be acquired by establishing a parametric response model and be calibrated using monochromatic x-ray sources, such as synchrotron sources or radioactive isotopes...
February 7, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
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