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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140445/precise-method-for-measuring-spatial-coherence-in-tem-beams-using-airy-diffraction-patterns
#1
Jun Yamasaki, Yuki Shimaoka, Hirokazu Sasaki
We have developed a method to precisely measure spatial coherence in electron beams. The method does not require an electron biprism and can be implemented in existing analytical transmission electron microscopes equipped with a post-column energy filter. By fitting the Airy diffraction pattern of the selector aperture, various parameters such as geometric aberrations of the lens system and the point-spread function of the diffraction blurring are precisely determined. From the measurements of various beam diameters, components that are attributed to the partial spatial coherence are successfully separated from the point-spread functions...
November 13, 2017: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138968/mitochondrial-dysfunctions-contribute-to-energy-deficits-in-rodent-model-of-hepatic-encephalopathy
#2
Saurabh Dhanda, Aditya Sunkaria, Avishek Halder, Rajat Sandhir
Perturbations in the cerebral energy metabolism are anticipated to be an important factor by which ammonia may exert its toxic effects on the central nervous system. The present study was designed to investigate the role of impaired mitochondrial functions and cerebral energy metabolism in the development hepatic encephalopathy (HE) induced by of bile duct ligation (BDL). After four weeks of BDL, a significant increase in hepatic hydroxyproline and collagen content was observed which confirmed biliary fibrosis...
November 14, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138775/microsecond-resolved-single-molecule-fret-time-series-measurements-based-on-the-line-confocal-optical-system-combined-with-hybrid-photodetectors
#3
Hiroyuki Oikawa, Takumi Takahashi, Supawich Kamonprasertsuk, Satoshi Takahashi
Single-molecule (sm) fluorescence time series measurements based on the line confocal optical system are a powerful strategy for the investigation of the structure, dynamics, and heterogeneity of biological macromolecules. This method enables the detection of more than several thousands of fluorescence photons per millisecond from single fluorophores, implying that the potential time resolution for measurements of the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) efficiency is 10 μs. However, the necessity of using imaging photodetectors in the method limits the time resolution in the FRET efficiency measurements to approximately 100 μs...
November 15, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138562/dual-uv-irradiation-based-metal-oxide-nanoparticles-for-enhanced-antimicrobial-activity-in-escherichia-coli-and-m13-bacteriophage
#4
Su-Eon Jin, Woochul Hwang, Hyo Jung Lee, Hyo-Eon Jin
Metal oxide (MO) nanoparticles have been studied as nano-antibiotics due to their antimicrobial activities even in antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. We hypothesized that a hybrid system of dual UV irradiation and MO nanoparticles would have enhanced antimicrobial activities compared with UV or MO nanoparticles alone. In this study, nanoparticles of ZnO, ZnTiO3, MgO, and CuO were selected as model nanoparticles. A dual UV collimated beam device of UV-A and UV-C was developed depending upon the lamp divided by coating...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137734/ultrasound-irradiation-promoted-enzymatic-alcoholysis-for-synthesis-of-monoglyceryl-phenolic-acids-in-a-solvent-free-system
#5
Chunfang Xu, Haiping Zhang, Jie Shi, Mingming Zheng, Xia Xiang, Fenghong Huang, Junyong Xiao
Monoglyceryl phenolic acids (MPAs) were known as the natural hydrophilic antioxidants which could be used in different fields such as food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic etc. A novel enzymatic route of MPAs synthesis by the alcoholysis of phenolic acid ethyl esters with glycerol under ultrasound irradiation in solvent free system was developed. Optimization of reaction parameters shows that a high conversion of above 97.4% can be obtained under the following conditions: phenolic acid ethyl esters to glycerol molar ratio of 1:10, with 6% catalyst (Novozym 435), at 60°C and 200rpm, with ultrasound input of 250W, at 20kHz frequency...
March 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137472/changes-in-transcription-pattern-lead-to-a-marked-decrease-in-cox-cs-and-sqr-activity-after-the-developmental-point-of-the-22-nd-gestational-week
#6
H Kolarova, J Krizova, M Hulkova, H Hansikova, H Hulkova, V Smid, J Zeman, T Honzik, M Tesarova
Tissue differentiation and proliferation throughout fetal development interconnect with changes in the Oxidative Phosphorylation System (OXPHOS) on the cellular level. Reevaluation of the expression data revealed a significant increase in COX4 and MTATP6 liver transcription levels after the 22(nd) gestational week (GW) which inspired us to characterize its functional impact. Specific activities of cytochrome c oxidase (COX), citrate synthase (CS), succinate-coenzyme Q reductase (SQR) and mtDNA determined by spectrophotometry and RT-PCR were studied in a set of 25 liver and 18 skeletal muscle samples at 13(th) to 29(th) GW...
November 10, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136857/solid-supported-synergistic-twain-probes-with-aggregation-induced-emission-a-sensing-platform-for-fingerprinting-volatile-amines
#7
Peijun Shi, Jifen Wang, Yadong Zhao, Yuai Duan, Lin Shi, Yue Hou, Jingdan Hou, Wenjun Li, Tianyu Han
Two solid emitters DMA and HBA were synthetized, showing aggregation-induced emission (AIE) phenomenon. Incorporation of electron donor-acceptor (D-A) pairs endows the solid emitters with both charge transfer (CT) state emission and distinct solvatochromic effect. The compounds undergo a rapid interaction with amines followed by the resulting weakened electron withdrawing ability to yield florescent products with either hypochromatic shift or decrease in the emission intensity. DFT calculations on HOMO and LUMO electronic cloud distribution and energy levels have demonstrated that the transition from CT state to locally excited (LE) state is mainly responsible for the spectral changes...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136578/deformation-mechanisms-of-prototype-composite-braided-stent-grafts-in-bending-fatigue-for-peripheral-artery-application
#8
Wen Xue, Jing Gao, Jing Lin, Fujun Wang, Guoping Guan, Lu Wang
Stent-grafts in peripheral arteries suffer from complex cyclic loadings in vivo, including pulsatile, axial bending and torsion. Normal fatigue durability evaluation technologies, however, are majorly based on pulsation and thus are short of accuracy under the complicated stress conditions experienced physiologically. While there is a little research focused on the cyclic fatigue of stent-grafts in bending, it remains an almost total lack of deformation or fatigue mechanisms. In this work, composite braided stent-grafts incorporating Nitinol (NiTi) yarns and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) multifilament yarns were cycled in bending by the self-developed testing system to investigate their deformation behaviors...
October 31, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136557/biological-inorganic-hybrid-systems-as-a-generalized-platform-for-chemical-production
#9
REVIEW
Shannon N Nangle, Kelsey K Sakimoto, Pamela A Silver, Daniel G Nocera
An expanding renewable energy market to supplant petrochemicals has motivated synthesis technologies that use renewable feedstocks, such as CO2. Hybrid biological-inorganic systems provide a sustainable, efficient, versatile, and inexpensive chemical synthesis platform. These systems comprise biocompatible electrodes that transduce electrical energy either directly or indirectly into bioavailable energy, such as H2 and NAD(P)H. In combination, specific bacteria use these energetic reducing equivalents to fix CO2 into multi-carbon organic compounds...
November 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136383/a-combined-td-dft-sos-cis-d-study-of-bophy-derivatives-with-potential-application-in-biosensing
#10
Miguel Ponce-Vargas, Cloé Azarias, Denis Jacquemin, Boris Le Guennic
A set of thirteen BOPHY dyes is studied through a hybrid TD-DFT-SOS-CIS(D) approach accounting for solvent effects, in order to shed light onto the structure-property relationships of these recently developed chromophores. In a first step, we calculate the absorption fluorescence crossing points with refined TD-DFT models considering the influences of both vibrational and solvent contributions. We found that the systematic overestimation of the 0-0 energies is effectively reduced by combining PCM-TD-DFT with a scaled opposite spin-configuration interaction singles with a double correction [SOS-CIS(D)]...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135256/improved-solution-state-properties-of-monoclonal-antibodies-by-targeted-mutations
#11
Alexander B Kuhn, Sebastian Kube, Anne R Karow-Zwick, Daniel Seeliger, Patrick Garidel, Michaela Blech, Lars V Schäfer
Monoclonal antibody (mAb) based therapeutics often require high concentration formulations. Unfortunately, highly concentrated antibody solutions often have biophysical properties that are disadvantageous for therapeutic development, such as high viscosity, solubility limitations, precipitation issues, or liquid-liquid phase separation. In this work, we present a computational rational design principle for improving the thermodynamic stability of mAb solutions through targeted point mutations. Two publicly available IgG1 monoclonal antibodies that exhibit high viscosity at high concentrations were used as model systems...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135063/conductive-microporous-covalent-triazine-based-framework-for-high-performance-electrochemical-capacitive-energy-storage
#12
Weiqiao Deng, Yajuan Li, Shuanghao Zheng, Xue Liu, Pan Li, Lei Sun, Ruixia Yang, Sen Wang, Zhongshuai Wu, Xinhe Bao
Nitrogen enriched porous nanocarbon, graphene and conductive polymers attracted increasing attention in the application of supercapacitors. However, the electrode material possessing large specific surface area (SSA) and high nitrogen doping concentration simultaneously, which is needed for excellent supercapacitors, has not been achieved thus far. Herein, we developed a class of tetracyanoquinodimethane-derived conductive microporous covalent triazine-based frameworks (marked as TCNQ-CTFs) with high nitrogen content (> 8%) and large SSA (> 3600 m²/g) at the same time...
November 14, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135024/reverse-stability-kinetics-of-meat-pigment-oxidation-in-aqueous-extract-from-fresh-beef
#13
John C Frelka, David M Phinney, Macdonald P Wick, Dennis R Heldman
The use of kinetic models is an evolving approach to describing quality changes in foods during processes, including storage. Previous studies indicate that the oxidation rate of myoglobin is accelerated under frozen storage conditions, a phenomenon termed reverse stability. The goal of this study was to develop a model for meat pigment oxidation to incorporate the phenomenon of reverse stability. In this investigation, the model system was an aqueous extract from beef which was stored under a range of temperatures, both unfrozen and frozen...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134702/editable-supercapacitors-with-customizable-stretchability-based-on-mechanically-strengthened-ultralong-mno2-nanowire-composite
#14
Zhisheng Lv, Yifei Luo, Yuxin Tang, Jiaqi Wei, Zhiqiang Zhu, Xinran Zhou, Wenlong Li, Yi Zeng, Wei Zhang, Yanyan Zhang, Dianpeng Qi, Shaowu Pan, Xian Jun Loh, Xiaodong Chen
Although some progress has been made on stretchable supercapacitors, traditional stretchable supercapacitors fabricated by predesigning structured electrodes for device assembling still lack the device-level editability and programmability. To adapt to wearable electronics with arbitrary configurations, it is highly desirable to develop editable supercapacitors that can be directly transferred into desirable shapes and stretchability. In this work, editable supercapacitors for customizable shapes and stretchability using electrodes based on mechanically strengthened ultralong MnO2 nanowire composites are developed...
November 14, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134520/benchmarking-the-scientific-research-on-wastewater-energy-nexus-by-using-bibliometric-analysis
#15
Tianlong Zheng, Pengyu Li, Zhining Shi, Jianguo Liu
With an exponential increase in urbanization and industrialization, water pollution is an inevitable consequence of relatively lagging wastewater treatment facilities. The conventional activated sludge process for wastewater treatment primarily emphasizes the removal of harmful substances to maintain increasingly stringent effluent discharged standards, which is considered an energy-intensive technique. Therefore, innovative and sustainable wastewater treatment should pay more attention to energy and resource recovery in dealing with fossil fuel depletion, global-scale energy security, and climate change...
November 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133908/optically-controlled-long-term-storage-and-release-of-thermal-energy-in-phase-change-materials
#16
Grace G D Han, Huashan Li, Jeffrey C Grossman
Thermal energy storage offers enormous potential for a wide range of energy technologies. Phase-change materials offer state-of-the-art thermal storage due to high latent heat. However, spontaneous heat loss from thermally charged phase-change materials to cooler surroundings occurs due to the absence of a significant energy barrier for the liquid-solid transition. This prevents control over the thermal storage, and developing effective methods to address this problem has remained an elusive goal. Herein, we report a combination of photo-switching dopants and organic phase-change materials as a way to introduce an activation energy barrier for phase-change materials solidification and to conserve thermal energy in the materials, allowing them to be triggered optically to release their stored latent heat...
November 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132720/intensify-production-transform-biomass-to-energy-and-novel-goods-and-protect-soils-in-europe-a-vision-how-to-mobilize-marginal-lands
#17
REVIEW
P Schröder, B Beckers, S Daniels, F Gnädinger, E Maestri, N Marmiroli, M Mench, R Millan, M M Obermeier, N Oustriere, T Persson, C Poschenrieder, F Rineau, B Rutkowska, T Schmid, W Szulc, N Witters, A Sæbø
The rapid increase of the world population constantly demands more food production from agricultural soils. This causes conflicts, since at the same time strong interest arises on novel bio-based products from agriculture, and new perspectives for rural landscapes with their valuable ecosystem services. Agriculture is in transition to fulfill these demands. In many countries, conventional farming, influenced by post-war food requirements, has largely been transformed into integrated and sustainable farming...
November 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132359/portable-wireless-neurofeedback-system-of-eeg-alpha-rhythm-enhances-memory
#18
Ting-Ying Wei, Da-Wei Chang, You-De Liu, Chen-Wei Liu, Chung-Ping Young, Sheng-Fu Liang, Fu-Zen Shaw
BACKGROUND: Effect of neurofeedback training (NFT) on enhancement of cognitive function or amelioration of clinical symptoms is inconclusive. The trainability of brain rhythm using a neurofeedback system is uncertainty because various experimental designs are used in previous studies. The current study aimed to develop a portable wireless NFT system for alpha rhythm and to validate effect of the NFT system on memory with a sham-controlled group. METHODS: The proposed system contained an EEG signal analysis device and a smartphone with wireless Bluetooth low-energy technology...
November 13, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132024/a-hilic-uhplc-ms-ms-untargeted-urinary-metabonomics-combined-with-quantitative-analysis-of-five-polar-biomarkers-on-osteoporosis-rats-after-oral-administration-of-gushudan
#19
Xiao Wu, Yue Huang, Jinghan Sun, Yongqing Wen, Feng Qin, Longshan Zhao, Zhili Xiong
A HILIC-UHPLC-MS/MS untargeted urinary metabonomic method combined with quantitative analysis of five potential polar biomarkers in rat urine was developed and validated, to further understand the anti-osteoporosis effect of Gushudan(GSD) and its mechanism on prednisolone-induced osteoporosis(OP) rats in this study. The metabolites were separated and identified on Waters BEH HILIC (2.1mm×100mm, 1.7μm) column using the Waters ACQUITY™ ultra performance liquid chromatography system (Waters Corporation, Milford, USA) coupled with a Micromass Quattro Micro™ API mass spectrometer (Waters Corp, Milford, MA, USA)...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131809/positioning-true-coincidences-that-undergo-inter-and-intra-crystal-scatter-for-a-sub-mm-resolution-cadmium-zinc-telluride-based-pet-system
#20
Shiva Abbaszadeh, Garry Chinn, Craig S Levin
The kinematics of Compton scatter can be used to estimate the interaction sequence of inter-crystal scatter interactions in 3-D position-sensitive cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors. However, in the case of intra-crystal scatter in a "cross-strip" CZT detector slab, multiple anode and cathode strips may be triggered, creating position ambiguity due to uncertainty in possible combinations of anode-cathode pairings. As a consequence, methods such as energy-weighted centroid are not applicable to position the interactions...
November 13, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
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