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variety of respiratory resistance between different

Cindy Staerck, Charlotte Godon, Jean-Philippe Bouchara, Maxime J J Fleury
Scedosporium species are opportunistic pathogens causing a great variety of infections in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. The Scedosporium genus ranks the second among the filamentous fungi colonizing the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), after Aspergillus fumigatus, and most species are capable to chronically colonize the respiratory tract of these patients. Nevertheless, few data are available regarding evasion of the inhaled conidia to the host immune response. Upon microbial infection, macrophages and neutrophils release reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
April 2018: Archives of Microbiology
X T Wang, D W Liu, H M Zhang, Y Long, X D Guan, H B Qiu, K J Yu, J Yan, H Zhao, Y Q Tang, X Ding, X C Ma, W Du, Y Kang, B Tang, Y H Ai, H W He, D C Chen, H Chen, W Z Chai, X Zhou, N Cui, H Wang, X Rui, Z J Hu, J G Li, Y Xu, Y Yang, B Ouyan, H Y Lin, Y M Li, X Y Wan, R L Yang, Y Z Qin, Y G Chao, Z Y Xie, R H Sun, Z Y He, D F Wang, Q Q Huang, D P Jiang, X Y Cao, R G Yu, X Wang, X K Chen, J F Wu, L N Zhang, M G Yin, L X Liu, S W Li, Z J Chen, Z Luo
To establish the experts consensus on the right heart function management in critically ill patients. The panel of consensus was composed of 30 experts in critical care medicine who are all members of Critical Hemodynamic Therapy Collaboration Group (CHTC Group). Each statement was assessed based on the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) principle. Then the Delphi method was adopted by 52 experts to reassess all the statements. (1) Right heart function is prone to be affected in critically illness, which will result in a auto-exaggerated vicious cycle...
December 1, 2017: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
Koen D W Hendriks, Eleonora Lupi, Maarten C Hardenberg, Femke Hoogstra-Berends, Leo E Deelman, Robert H Henning
Hibernators show superior resistance to ischemia and hypothermia, also outside the hibernation season. Therefore, hibernation is a promising strategy to decrease cellular damage in a variety of fields, such as organ transplantation. Here, we explored the role of mitochondria herein, by comparing epithelial cell lines from a hibernator (hamster kidney cells, HaK) and a non-hibernator (human embryonic kidney cells, HEK293) during cold preservation at 4 °C and rewarming. Cell survival (Neutral Red), ATP and MDA levels, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), mitochondrial morphology (using fluorescent probes) and metabolism (seahorse XF) were assessed...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
Geoffrey Kp Spurling, Chris B Del Mar, Liz Dooley, Ruth Foxlee, Rebecca Farley
BACKGROUND: Concerns exist regarding antibiotic prescribing for respiratory tract infections (RTIs) owing to adverse reactions, cost, and antibacterial resistance. One proposed strategy to reduce antibiotic prescribing is to provide prescriptions, but to advise delay in antibiotic use with the expectation that symptoms will resolve first. This is an update of a Cochrane Review originally published in 2007, and updated in 2010 and 2013. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects on clinical outcomes, antibiotic use, antibiotic resistance, and patient satisfaction of advising a delayed prescription of antibiotics in respiratory tract infections...
September 7, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Renata Wrobel Folescu Cohen, Tânia Wrobel Folescu, Pedro Daltro, Marcia Cristina Bastos Boechat, Danielle Ferreira Lima, Elizabeth Andrade Marques, Robson Souza Leão
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of a variety of potentially pathogenic microorganisms in cystic fibrosis patients, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), has increased over the past decade. Given the increasing prevalence of MRSA and the few data available in the literature, better understanding of the clinical repercussions of colonization by this bacterium in cystic fibrosis patients becomes essential. This study aimed to evaluate the repercussions of chronic colonization by MRSA in cystic fibrosis patients...
September 2017: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
Greta Lila, Gjyle Mulliqi-Osmani, Rrezarta Bajrami, Arsim Kurti, Elvir Azizi, Lul Raka
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium that continues to a leading cause of opportunistic nosocomial infections. The rapid increase in drug resistance in clinical isolates of this pathogen is a worldwide concern. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution rate, prevalence and resistance patterns of P. aeruginosa in clinical specimens from the University Clinical Centre of Kosovo (UCCK). During a three-year period, 553 P. aeruginosa isolates were collected from patients admitted to a variety of UCCK units...
March 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Paul S Addison
The potential for a simple, non-invasive measure of respiratory effort based on the pulse oximeter signal - the photoplethysmogram or 'pleth' - was investigated in a pilot study. Several parameters were developed based on a variety of manifestations of respiratory effort in the signal, including modulation changes in amplitude, baseline, frequency and pulse transit times, as well as distinct baseline signal shifts. Thirteen candidate parameters were investigated using data from healthy volunteers. Each volunteer underwent a series of controlled respiratory effort maneuvers at various set flow resistances and respiratory rates...
January 23, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
S Mashjoor, M Yousefzadi
Pharmaceutical industries now accept that oceans contain a vast array of organisms with unique biological properties. As investigation of antimicrobial activity, three species of Holothuria sea cucumbers (Holothuria scabra, Holothuria parva and Holothuria leucospilota) from the Persian Gulf, Iran, were obtained, their different organs: gonads (G), body wall (BW), intestine tract (IT), respiratory tree (RT) were isolated and extracted with organic solvents: ethyl acetate and methanol. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of each fraction was estimated with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and disk-diffusion method against the number (i...
March 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
S Lakshminrusimha, O D Saugstad
Neonatal hypoxemic respiratory failure (HRF), a deficiency of oxygenation associated with insufficient ventilation, can occur due to a variety of etiologies. HRF can result when pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) fails to decrease at birth, leading to persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn (PPHN), or as a result of various lung disorders including congenital abnormalities such as diaphragmatic hernia, and disorders of transition such as respiratory distress syndrome, transient tachypnea of newborn and perinatal asphyxia...
June 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Michael S Hedrick, Thomas V Hancock, Stanley S Hillman
Activity metabolism is supported by phosphorylated reserves (adenosine triphosphate, creatine phosphate), glycolytic, and aerobic metabolism. Because there is no apparent variation between vertebrate groups in phosphorylated reserves or glycolytic potential of skeletal muscle, variation in maximal metabolic rate between major vertebrate groups represents selection operating on aerobic mechanisms. Maximal rates of oxygen consumption in vertebrates are supported by increased conductive and diffusive fluxes of oxygen from the environment to the mitochondria...
September 20, 2015: Comprehensive Physiology
Wanna Sirimanapong, Alexandra Adams, Ei Lin Ooi, Darren M Green, Dang Khoa Nguyen, Craig L Browdy, Bertrand Collet, Kim D Thompson
Immunostimulants are food additives used by the aquaculture industry to enhance the immune response of fish, and although β-glucans are now commonly used for this purpose in aquaculture, little is known about their effects on the immune response of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus. Thus, a variety of immune parameters (e.g. phagocytosis, respiratory burst, lysozyme, complement, peroxidase, total protein, total anti-protease, total IgM, natural antibody titres, and specific IgM titres) was examined in this species after feeding fish with a basal control diet or diets supplemented with 0...
August 2015: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Jason H T Bates, Anne E Dixon
The pathogenesis of late-onset TH2-low asthma in obesity is thought to be related to weight-related decreases in lung volume, but why only a subset of individuals with obesity develop this condition is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that natural variations in both airway wall stiffness and airway wall thickness could lead to a subpopulation of hyperresponsive individuals exhibiting the symptoms of asthma in the setting of obesity. Increases in airway resistance (Raw) after airway smooth muscle stimulation were simulated using a computational model of an elastic airway embedded in elastic parenchyma...
January 1, 2015: Journal of Applied Physiology
Smita Pakhale, Sunita Mulpuru, Theo J M Verheij, Michael M Kochen, Gernot G U Rohde, Lise M Bjerre
BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is the third leading cause of death worldwide and the first leading cause of death in low-income countries. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common condition that causes a significant disease burden for the community, particularly in children younger than five years, the elderly and immunocompromised people. Antibiotics are the standard treatment for CAP. However, increasing antibiotic use is associated with the development of bacterial resistance and side effects for the patient...
October 9, 2014: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Teresa Valero
Organelle biogenesis is concomitant to organelle inheritance during cell division. It is necessary that organelles double their size and divide to give rise to two identical daughter cells. Mitochondrial biogenesis occurs by growth and division of pre-existing organelles and is temporally coordinated with cell cycle events [1]. However, mitochondrial biogenesis is not only produced in association with cell division. It can be produced in response to an oxidative stimulus, to an increase in the energy requirements of the cells, to exercise training, to electrical stimulation, to hormones, during development, in certain mitochondrial diseases, etc...
2014: Current Pharmaceutical Design
R D Guy, J A Berry, M L Fogel, T C Hoering
Stable-isotope discrimination factors (D) for the uptake of oxygen during respiration by a variety of plant materials were determined by measuring (18)O enrichment in a closed system. Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Meyer) and mitochondrial preparations from baker's yeast and from castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) endosperm, all of which are fully sensitive to cyanide, discriminated againt (18)O by about 16-18‰. Whole Medicago sativa L. seedlings, isolated intact Asparagus sprengeri Regel mesophyll cells, and spadix mitochondria of Eastern skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus L...
April 1989: Planta
Andrzej Bartke, Reyhan Westbrook
Genetic suppression of insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) can extend longevity in worms, insects, and mammals. In laboratory mice, mutations with the greatest, most consistent, and best documented positive impact on lifespan are those that disrupt growth hormone (GH) release or actions. These mutations lead to major alterations in IIS but also have a variety of effects that are not directly related to the actions of insulin or insulin-like growth factor I. Long-lived GH-resistant GHR-KO mice with targeted disruption of the GH receptor gene, as well as Ames dwarf (Prop1(df)) and Snell dwarf (Pit1(dw)) mice lacking GH (along with prolactin and TSH), are diminutive in size and have major alterations in body composition and metabolic parameters including increased subcutaneous adiposity, increased relative brain weight, small liver, hypoinsulinemia, mild hypoglycemia, increased adiponectin levels and insulin sensitivity, and reduced serum lipids...
2012: Frontiers in Genetics
Hyun-Woo Cho, Chung-Sik Yoon, Jin-Ho Lee, Seung-Joo Lee, Andrew Viner, Erik W Johnson
Respirators are used to help reduce exposure to a variety of contaminants in workplaces. Test aerosols used for certification of particulate respirators (PRs) include sodium chloride (NaCl), dioctyl phthalate, and paraffin oil. These aerosols are generally assumed to be worst case surrogates for aerosols found in the workplace. No data have been published to date on the performance of PRs with welding fumes, a hazardous aerosol that exists in real workplace settings. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of respirators and filters against a NaCl aerosol and a welding fume aerosol and determine whether or not a correlation between the two could be made...
July 2011: Annals of Occupational Hygiene
Jye Hae Park, Jung Won Yoon, Youn Ho Shin, Hye Mi Jee, Young Sun Wee, Sun Jung Chang, Jung Hwa Sim, Hye Yung Yum, Man Yong Han
PURPOSE: The normal values for lung resistance and lung capacity of children, as determined by impulse oscillometry (IOS), are different for children of different ethnicities. However, reference values there is no available reference value for Korean preschool children have yet to be determined. The aim of the present study was to determine the normal ranges of IOS parameters in Korean preschool children. METHODS: A total of 133 healthy Korean preschool children were selected from 639 children (aged 3 to 6 years) who attended kindergarten in Seongnam, Gyeonggi province, Korea...
February 2011: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
Julie Leclerc, Elisabeth Courcot-Ngoubo Ngangue, Christelle Cauffiez, Delphine Allorge, Nicolas Pottier, Jean-Jacques Lafitte, Michel Debaert, Sophie Jaillard, Franck Broly, Jean-Marc Lo-Guidice
The lung is directly exposed to a wide variety of inhaled toxicants and carcinogens. In order to improve our knowledge of the cellular processing of these compounds in the respiratory tract, we investigated the mRNA expression level of 380 genes encoding xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XME), transporters, nuclear receptors and transcription factors, in pulmonary parenchyma (PP), bronchial mucosa (BM) and tumoral lung tissues from 12 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Using a high throughput quantitative real-time RT-PCR method, we found that ADH1B, CYP4B1, CES1 and GSTP1 are the major XME genes expressed both in BM and PP...
June 2011: Biochimie
Xiu-Mei Wang, Xiao-Ping Liao, Wan-Jiang Zhang, Hong-Xia Jiang, Jian Sun, Mei-Jun Zhang, Xue-Fang He, Dong-Xing Lao, Ya-Hong Liu
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is an important respiratory pathogen of poultry. A variety of virulence-associated genes and serogroups are associated with avian colibacillosis caused by APEC strains. One hundred forty-eight E. coli isolates recovered from diagnosed cases of avian colibacillosis from Guangdong province between 2005 and 2008 were serotyped, and characterized for virulence-associated genes, phylogenetic backgrounds, antibiotic susceptibility, and genetic relatedness. Associations between virulence-associated genes and antimicrobial resistance were further analyzed...
September 2010: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
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