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variety of respiratory resistance between different

S Mashjoor, M Yousefzadi
Pharmaceutical industries now accept that oceans contain a vast array of organisms with unique biological properties. As investigation of antimicrobial activity, three species of Holothuria sea cucumbers (Holothuria scabra, Holothuria parva and Holothuria leucospilota) from the Persian Gulf, Iran, were obtained, their different organs: gonads (G), body wall (BW), intestine tract (IT), respiratory tree (RT) were isolated and extracted with organic solvents: ethyl acetate and methanol. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of each fraction was estimated with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and disk-diffusion method against the number (i...
September 15, 2016: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
S Lakshminrusimha, O D Saugstad
Neonatal hypoxemic respiratory failure (HRF), a deficiency of oxygenation associated with insufficient ventilation, can occur due to a variety of etiologies. HRF can result when pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) fails to decrease at birth, leading to persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn (PPHN), or as a result of various lung disorders including congenital abnormalities such as diaphragmatic hernia, and disorders of transition such as respiratory distress syndrome, transient tachypnea of newborn and perinatal asphyxia...
June 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Michael S Hedrick, Thomas V Hancock, Stanley S Hillman
Activity metabolism is supported by phosphorylated reserves (adenosine triphosphate, creatine phosphate), glycolytic, and aerobic metabolism. Because there is no apparent variation between vertebrate groups in phosphorylated reserves or glycolytic potential of skeletal muscle, variation in maximal metabolic rate between major vertebrate groups represents selection operating on aerobic mechanisms. Maximal rates of oxygen consumption in vertebrates are supported by increased conductive and diffusive fluxes of oxygen from the environment to the mitochondria...
October 2015: Comprehensive Physiology
Wanna Sirimanapong, Alexandra Adams, Ei Lin Ooi, Darren M Green, Dang Khoa Nguyen, Craig L Browdy, Bertrand Collet, Kim D Thompson
Immunostimulants are food additives used by the aquaculture industry to enhance the immune response of fish, and although β-glucans are now commonly used for this purpose in aquaculture, little is known about their effects on the immune response of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus. Thus, a variety of immune parameters (e.g. phagocytosis, respiratory burst, lysozyme, complement, peroxidase, total protein, total anti-protease, total IgM, natural antibody titres, and specific IgM titres) was examined in this species after feeding fish with a basal control diet or diets supplemented with 0...
August 2015: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Jason H T Bates, Anne E Dixon
The pathogenesis of late-onset TH2-low asthma in obesity is thought to be related to weight-related decreases in lung volume, but why only a subset of individuals with obesity develop this condition is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that natural variations in both airway wall stiffness and airway wall thickness could lead to a subpopulation of hyperresponsive individuals exhibiting the symptoms of asthma in the setting of obesity. Increases in airway resistance (Raw) after airway smooth muscle stimulation were simulated using a computational model of an elastic airway embedded in elastic parenchyma...
January 1, 2015: Journal of Applied Physiology
Smita Pakhale, Sunita Mulpuru, Theo J M Verheij, Michael M Kochen, Gernot G U Rohde, Lise M Bjerre
BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is the third leading cause of death worldwide and the first leading cause of death in low-income countries. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common condition that causes a significant disease burden for the community, particularly in children younger than five years, the elderly and immunocompromised people. Antibiotics are the standard treatment for CAP. However, increasing antibiotic use is associated with the development of bacterial resistance and side effects for the patient...
2014: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Teresa Valero
Organelle biogenesis is concomitant to organelle inheritance during cell division. It is necessary that organelles double their size and divide to give rise to two identical daughter cells. Mitochondrial biogenesis occurs by growth and division of pre-existing organelles and is temporally coordinated with cell cycle events [1]. However, mitochondrial biogenesis is not only produced in association with cell division. It can be produced in response to an oxidative stimulus, to an increase in the energy requirements of the cells, to exercise training, to electrical stimulation, to hormones, during development, in certain mitochondrial diseases, etc...
2014: Current Pharmaceutical Design
R D Guy, J A Berry, M L Fogel, T C Hoering
Stable-isotope discrimination factors (D) for the uptake of oxygen during respiration by a variety of plant materials were determined by measuring (18)O enrichment in a closed system. Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Meyer) and mitochondrial preparations from baker's yeast and from castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) endosperm, all of which are fully sensitive to cyanide, discriminated againt (18)O by about 16-18‰. Whole Medicago sativa L. seedlings, isolated intact Asparagus sprengeri Regel mesophyll cells, and spadix mitochondria of Eastern skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus L...
April 1989: Planta
Andrzej Bartke, Reyhan Westbrook
Genetic suppression of insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) can extend longevity in worms, insects, and mammals. In laboratory mice, mutations with the greatest, most consistent, and best documented positive impact on lifespan are those that disrupt growth hormone (GH) release or actions. These mutations lead to major alterations in IIS but also have a variety of effects that are not directly related to the actions of insulin or insulin-like growth factor I. Long-lived GH-resistant GHR-KO mice with targeted disruption of the GH receptor gene, as well as Ames dwarf (Prop1(df)) and Snell dwarf (Pit1(dw)) mice lacking GH (along with prolactin and TSH), are diminutive in size and have major alterations in body composition and metabolic parameters including increased subcutaneous adiposity, increased relative brain weight, small liver, hypoinsulinemia, mild hypoglycemia, increased adiponectin levels and insulin sensitivity, and reduced serum lipids...
2012: Frontiers in Genetics
Hyun-Woo Cho, Chung-Sik Yoon, Jin-Ho Lee, Seung-Joo Lee, Andrew Viner, Erik W Johnson
Respirators are used to help reduce exposure to a variety of contaminants in workplaces. Test aerosols used for certification of particulate respirators (PRs) include sodium chloride (NaCl), dioctyl phthalate, and paraffin oil. These aerosols are generally assumed to be worst case surrogates for aerosols found in the workplace. No data have been published to date on the performance of PRs with welding fumes, a hazardous aerosol that exists in real workplace settings. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of respirators and filters against a NaCl aerosol and a welding fume aerosol and determine whether or not a correlation between the two could be made...
July 2011: Annals of Occupational Hygiene
Jye Hae Park, Jung Won Yoon, Youn Ho Shin, Hye Mi Jee, Young Sun Wee, Sun Jung Chang, Jung Hwa Sim, Hye Yung Yum, Man Yong Han
PURPOSE: The normal values for lung resistance and lung capacity of children, as determined by impulse oscillometry (IOS), are different for children of different ethnicities. However, reference values there is no available reference value for Korean preschool children have yet to be determined. The aim of the present study was to determine the normal ranges of IOS parameters in Korean preschool children. METHODS: A total of 133 healthy Korean preschool children were selected from 639 children (aged 3 to 6 years) who attended kindergarten in Seongnam, Gyeonggi province, Korea...
February 2011: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
Julie Leclerc, Elisabeth Courcot-Ngoubo Ngangue, Christelle Cauffiez, Delphine Allorge, Nicolas Pottier, Jean-Jacques Lafitte, Michel Debaert, Sophie Jaillard, Franck Broly, Jean-Marc Lo-Guidice
The lung is directly exposed to a wide variety of inhaled toxicants and carcinogens. In order to improve our knowledge of the cellular processing of these compounds in the respiratory tract, we investigated the mRNA expression level of 380 genes encoding xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XME), transporters, nuclear receptors and transcription factors, in pulmonary parenchyma (PP), bronchial mucosa (BM) and tumoral lung tissues from 12 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Using a high throughput quantitative real-time RT-PCR method, we found that ADH1B, CYP4B1, CES1 and GSTP1 are the major XME genes expressed both in BM and PP...
June 2011: Biochimie
Xiu-Mei Wang, Xiao-Ping Liao, Wan-Jiang Zhang, Hong-Xia Jiang, Jian Sun, Mei-Jun Zhang, Xue-Fang He, Dong-Xing Lao, Ya-Hong Liu
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is an important respiratory pathogen of poultry. A variety of virulence-associated genes and serogroups are associated with avian colibacillosis caused by APEC strains. One hundred forty-eight E. coli isolates recovered from diagnosed cases of avian colibacillosis from Guangdong province between 2005 and 2008 were serotyped, and characterized for virulence-associated genes, phylogenetic backgrounds, antibiotic susceptibility, and genetic relatedness. Associations between virulence-associated genes and antimicrobial resistance were further analyzed...
September 2010: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Xiao-qiang Li, Chao Zhuo, Dong-jiang Liao, Shu-nian Xiao, Guang-yao Jin, Nan-shan Zhong
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the difference of virulence-related protein concerned with type III secretion system (T3SS) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa during the changes of antibiotic sensitivity and interpret the clinical patient data to explore the relationship between the changes in resistance and variance of virulence. METHODS: The isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from the respiratory tract of a same patient with an altered sensitivity of antibiotics. It turned out to be one clone...
March 30, 2010: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Lise M Bjerre, Theo Jm Verheij, Michael M Kochen
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), the sixth most common cause of death worldwide, is a common condition representing a significant disease burden for the community, particularly in the elderly. Antibiotics are helpful in treating CAP and are the standard treatment. CAP contributes significantly to antibiotic use, which is associated with the development of bacterial resistance and side-effects. Several studies have been published concerning treatment for CAP. Available data arises mainly hospitalized patients studies...
2009: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Charles Lu, Matthew J Brauer, David Botstein
Yeast cells respond to a variety of environmental stresses, including heat shock and growth limitation. There is considerable overlap in these responses both from the point of view of gene expression patterns and cross-protection for survival. We performed experiments in which cells growing at different steady-state growth rates in chemostats were subjected to a short heat pulse. Gene expression patterns allowed us to partition genes whose expression responds to heat shock into subsets of genes that also respond to slow growth rate and those that do not...
February 2009: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Christie M Sayes, Kenneth L Reed, David B Warheit
Previous studies have reported little correlation between the relative toxicity of particle types when comparing lung toxicity rankings following in vivo instillation versus in vitro cell culture exposures. This study was designed to assess the capacity of in vitro screening studies to predict in vivo pulmonary toxicity of several fine or nanoscale particle types in rats. In the in vivo component of the study, rats were exposed by intratracheal instillation to 1 or 5 mg/kg of the following particle types: (1) carbonyl iron (CI), (2) crystalline silica (CS) (Min-U-Sil 5, alpha-quartz), (3) precipitated amorphous silica (AS), (4) nano-sized zinc oxide (NZO), or (5) fine-sized zinc oxide (FZO)...
May 2007: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Bradley A Yoder, Helen Martin, Donald C McCurnin
A variety of ventilators are used in the NICU. Ventilator and lung function measures are often applied in weaning protocols or as outcome variables. The effect of different ventilators on these measures has not been well studied. Our objective was to compare ventilator and lung function measurements in a chronic preterm animal model managed with two different neonatal ventilators. Timed baboon pregnancies exposed to antenatal steroids were delivered by C/S at 125 days (term = 185 days). Infants were immediately intubated, given surfactant, and ventilated with low tidal volumes (4-6 ml/kg) for 6-14 days using well-defined protocols...
November 2006: Pediatric Pulmonology
Hariharan Jayaram, Hui Fan, Brian R Bowman, Amy Ooi, Jyothi Jayaram, Ellen W Collisson, Julien Lescar, B V Venkataram Prasad
Coronaviruses cause a variety of respiratory and enteric diseases in animals and humans including severe acute respiratory syndrome. In these enveloped viruses, the filamentous nucleocapsid is formed by the association of nucleocapsid (N) protein with single-stranded viral RNA. The N protein is a highly immunogenic phosphoprotein also implicated in viral genome replication and in modulating cell signaling pathways. We describe the structure of the two proteolytically resistant domains of the N protein from infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a prototype coronavirus...
July 2006: Journal of Virology
H Prigent, D Orlikowski, M B Blumen, K Leroux, L Legrand, M Lejaille, L Falaize, M Ruquet, J-C Raphael, F Lofaso
Phonation valves are commonly used devices that allow the restoration of speech in tracheostomised patients. However, their use should not compromise the physiological benefit of tracheostomy. Six commercialised phonation valves were studied in a dynamic set-up simulating a respiratory frequency of 20 breaths.min(-1), a tidal volume of 0.5 L and a peak flow rate of 0.5 L.s(-1). Resistance and additional work of breathing (WOB) were calculated. In 10 tracheostomised patients, evaluations using no phonation valve (baseline), and the most and one of the least resistive valves were carried out...
May 2006: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
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