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Toshi A Furukawa, Andrea Cipriani, Lauren Z Atkinson, Stefan Leucht, Yusuke Ogawa, Nozomi Takeshima, Yu Hayasaka, Anna Chaimani, Georgia Salanti
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that placebo response rates in antidepressant trials have been increasing since the 1970s. However, these studies have been based on outdated or limited datasets and have used inappropriate statistical methods. We did a systematic review of placebo-controlled randomised controlled trials of antidepressants to examine associations between placebo-response rates and study and patient characteristics. METHODS: In this systematic review, we searched for published and unpublished double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trials of first-generation and second-generation antidepressants for acute treatment of major depression in adults (update: Jan 8, 2016)...
October 7, 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
Adriani Nikolakopoulou, Dimitris Mavridis, Matthias Egger, Georgia Salanti
Pairwise and network meta-analysis (NMA) are traditionally used retrospectively to assess existing evidence. However, the current evidence often undergoes several updates as new studies become available. In each update recommendations about the conclusiveness of the evidence and the need of future studies need to be made. In the context of prospective meta-analysis future studies are planned as part of the accumulation of the evidence. In this setting, multiple testing issues need to be taken into account when the meta-analysis results are interpreted...
September 1, 2016: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
Marina Ayres Pereira, Thomas Mandel Clausen, Caroline Pehrson, Yang Mao, Mafalda Resende, Mads Daugaard, Anders Riis Kristensen, Charlotte Spliid, Line Mathiesen, Lisbeth E Knudsen, Peter Damm, Thor G Theander, Stefan R Hansson, Morten A Nielsen, Ali Salanti
During placental malaria, Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes sequester in the placenta, causing health problems for both the mother and fetus. The specific adherence is mediated by the VAR2CSA protein, which binds to placental chondroitin sulfate (CS) on chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) in the placental syncytium. However, the identity of the CSPG core protein and the cellular impact of the interaction have remain elusive. In this study we identified the specific CSPG core protein to which the CS is attached, and characterized its exact placental location...
August 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Thomas Pa Debray, Ewoud Schuit, Orestis Efthimiou, Johannes B Reitsma, John Pa Ioannidis, Georgia Salanti, Karel Gm Moons
Network meta-analysis (NMA) is a common approach to summarizing relative treatment effects from randomized trials with different treatment comparisons. Most NMAs are based on published aggregate data (AD) and have limited possibilities for investigating the extent of network consistency and between-study heterogeneity. Given that individual participant data (IPD) are considered the gold standard in evidence synthesis, we explored statistical methods for IPD-NMA and investigated their potential advantages and limitations, compared with AD-NMA...
August 2, 2016: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
Thomas Mandel Clausen, Marina Ayres Pereira, Htoo Zarni Oo, Mafalda Resende, Tobias Gustavson, Yang Mao, Nobuo Sugiura, Janet Liew, Ladan Fazli, Thor G Theander, Mads Daugaard, Ali Salanti
In clinical oncology, diagnosis and evaluation of optimal treatment strategies are mostly based on histopathological examination combined with immunohistochemical (IHC) expression analysis of cancer-associated antigens in formalin fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue biopsies. However, informative IHC analysis depends on both the specificity and affinity of the binding reagent, which are inherently difficult to quantify in situ. Here we describe a label-free method that allows for the direct and real-time assessment of molecular binding kinetics in situ on FFPE tissue specimens using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) enabled biosensor technology...
July 2016: Sensing and Bio-Sensing Research
Stefan Leucht, Anna Chaimani, Andrea S Cipriani, John M Davis, Toshi A Furukawa, Georgia Salanti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Toshi A Furukawa, Georgia Salanti, Lauren Z Atkinson, Stefan Leucht, Henricus G Ruhe, Erick H Turner, Anna Chaimani, Yusuke Ogawa, Nozomi Takeshima, Yu Hayasaka, Hissei Imai, Kiyomi Shinohara, Aya Suganuma, Norio Watanabe, Sarah Stockton, John R Geddes, Andrea Cipriani
INTRODUCTION: Many antidepressants are indicated for the treatment of major depression. Two network meta-analyses have provided the most comprehensive assessments to date, accounting for both direct and indirect comparisons; however, these reported conflicting interpretation of results. Here, we present a protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis aimed at updating the evidence base and comparing all second-generation as well as selected first-generation antidepressants in terms of efficacy and acceptability in the acute treatment of major depression...
2016: BMJ Open
George C M Siontis, Fabien Praz, Thomas Pilgrim, Dimitris Mavridis, Subodh Verma, Georgia Salanti, Lars Søndergaard, Peter Jüni, Stephan Windecker
AIMS: In view of the currently available evidence from randomized trials, we aimed to compare the collective safety and efficacy of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) vs. surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) across the spectrum of risk and in important subgroups. METHODS AND RESULTS: Trials comparing TAVI vs. SAVR were identified through Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases. The primary outcome was death from any cause at 2 years. We performed random-effects meta-analyses to combine the available evidence and to evaluate the effect in different subgroups...
July 7, 2016: European Heart Journal
Nobuo Sugiura, Thomas Mandel Clausen, Tatsuasa Shioiri, Tobias Gustavsson, Hideto Watanabe, Ali Salanti
Placental malaria, a serious infection caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is characterized by the selective accumulation of infected erythrocytes (IEs) in the placentas of the pregnant women. Placental adherence is mediated by the malarial VAR2CSA protein, which interacts with chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans present in the placental tissue. CS is a linear acidic polysaccharide composed of repeating disaccharide units of D-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine that are modified by sulfate groups at different positions...
June 10, 2016: Glycoconjugate Journal
Caroline Pehrson, Line Mathiesen, Kristine K Heno, Ali Salanti, Mafalda Resende, Ron Dzikowski, Peter Damm, Stefan R Hansson, Christopher L King, Henning Schneider, Christian W Wang, Thomas Lavstsen, Thor G Theander, Lisbeth E Knudsen, Morten A Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Placental malaria occurs when Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes sequester in the placenta. Placental parasite isolates bind to chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) by expression of VAR2CSA on the surface of infected erythrocytes, but may sequester by other VAR2CSA mediated mechanisms, such as binding to immunoglobulins. Furthermore, other parasite antigens have been associated with placental malaria. These findings have important implications for placental malaria vaccine design...
2016: Malaria Journal
J P Higgins, C Del Giovane, A Chaimani, D M Caldwell, G Salanti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2014: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Toshi A Furukawa, Elisabeth Schramm, Erica S Weitz, Georgia Salanti, Orestis Efthimiou, Johannes Michalak, Norio Watanabe, Andrea Cipriani, Martin B Keller, James H Kocsis, Daniel N Klein, Pim Cuijpers
INTRODUCTION: Despite important advances in psychological and pharmacological treatments of persistent depressive disorders in the past decades, their responses remain typically slow and poor, and differential responses among different modalities of treatments or their combinations are not well understood. Cognitive-Behavioural Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP) is the only psychotherapy that has been specifically designed for chronic depression and has been examined in an increasing number of trials against medications, alone or in combination...
2016: BMJ Open
Susan Thrane, Christoph M Janitzek, Sungwa Matondo, Mafalda Resende, Tobias Gustavsson, Willem Adriaan de Jongh, Stine Clemmensen, Will Roeffen, Marga van de Vegte-Bolmer, Geert Jan van Gemert, Robert Sauerwein, John T Schiller, Morten A Nielsen, Thor G Theander, Ali Salanti, Adam F Sander
BACKGROUND: Virus-like particles (VLPs) represent a significant advance in the development of subunit vaccines, combining high safety and efficacy. Their particulate nature and dense repetitive subunit organization makes them ideal scaffolds for display of vaccine antigens. Traditional approaches for VLP-based antigen display require labor-intensive trial-and-error optimization, and often fail to generate dense antigen display. Here we utilize the split-intein (SpyTag/SpyCatcher) conjugation system to generate stable isopeptide bound antigen-VLP complexes by simply mixing of the antigen and VLP components...
2016: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
Toshi A Furukawa, Tomofumi Miura, Anna Chaimani, Stefan Leucht, Andrea Cipriani, Hisashi Noma, Hiroshi Mitsuyasu, Shegenobu Kanba, Georgia Salanti
BACKGROUND: Limitations in the primary studies constitute one important factor to be considered in the grading of recommendations assessment, development, and evaluation (GRADE) system of rating quality of evidence. However, in the network meta-analysis (NMA), such evaluation poses a special challenge because each network estimate receives different amounts of contributions from various studies via direct as well as indirect routes and because some biases have directions whose repercussion in the network can be complicated...
2016: BMC Research Notes
Alessandro Pompoli, Toshi A Furukawa, Hissei Imai, Aran Tajika, Orestis Efthimiou, Georgia Salanti
BACKGROUND: Panic disorder is characterised by the presence of recurrent unexpected panic attacks, discrete periods of fear or anxiety that have a rapid onset and include symptoms such as racing heart, chest pain, sweating and shaking. Panic disorder is common in the general population, with a lifetime prevalence of 1% to 4%. A previous Cochrane meta-analysis suggested that psychological therapy (either alone or combined with pharmacotherapy) can be chosen as a first-line treatment for panic disorder with or without agoraphobia...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Francesco Saliu, Eleonora Longhin, Anika Salanti, Ilaria Degano, Roberto Della Pergola
A mixture of sphingoid esters was isolated (1.4% w/w) from the molecular distillation of crude squid visceral oil. A preliminary investigation on the bioactivity profile and toxic potential of this residue was carried out by in vitro experiments. No cytotoxicity and a moderate lipase inhibition activity were highlighted.
June 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
Myrto T Samara, Markus Dold, Myrsini Gianatsi, Adriani Nikolakopoulou, Bartosz Helfer, Georgia Salanti, Stefan Leucht
IMPORTANCE: In treatment-resistant schizophrenia, clozapine is considered the standard treatment. However, clozapine use has restrictions owing to its many adverse effects. Moreover, an increasing number of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of other antipsychotics have been published. OBJECTIVE: To integrate all the randomized evidence from the available antipsychotics used for treatment-resistant schizophrenia by performing a network meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Biosis, PsycINFO, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, World Health Organization International Trial Registry, and clinicaltrials...
March 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Orestis Efthimiou, Thomas P A Debray, Gert van Valkenhoef, Sven Trelle, Klea Panayidou, Karel G M Moons, Johannes B Reitsma, Aijing Shang, Georgia Salanti
Pairwise meta-analysis is an established statistical tool for synthesizing evidence from multiple trials, but it is informative only about the relative efficacy of two specific interventions. The usefulness of pairwise meta-analysis is thus limited in real-life medical practice, where many competing interventions may be available for a certain condition and studies informing some of the pairwise comparisons may be lacking. This commonly encountered scenario has led to the development of network meta-analysis (NMA)...
September 2016: Research Synthesis Methods
Dimitris Mavridis, Irini Moustaki, Melanie Wall, Georgia Salanti
When considering data from many trials, it is likely that some of them present a markedly different intervention effect or exert an undue influence on the summary results. We develop a forward search algorithm for identifying outlying and influential studies in meta-analysis models. The forward search algorithm starts by fitting the hypothesized model to a small subset of likely outlier-free studies and proceeds by adding studies into the set one-by-one that are determined to be closest to the fitted model of the existing set...
January 9, 2016: Research Synthesis Methods
Anna Babakhanyan, Yeung L Tutterrow, Naveen Bobbili, Ali Salanti, Andrew Wey, Josephine Fogako, Robert J Leke, Rose G F Leke, Diane Wallace Taylor
Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) and insecticide-treated bed nets are the standard of care for preventing malaria in pregnant women. Since these preventive measures reduce exposure to malaria, their influence on the antibody (Ab) response to the parasite antigen VAR2CSA was evaluated in pregnant Cameroonian women exposed to holoendemic malaria. Ab levels to full-length VAR2CSA (FV2), variants of the six Duffy binding like (DBL) domains, and proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2 were measured longitudinally in 92 women before and 147 women after IPT...
March 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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