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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029247/plasmodium-falciparum-infection-early-in-pregnancy-has-profound-consequences-for-foetal-growth
#1
Christentze Schmiegelow, Sungwa Matondo, Daniel T R Minja, Mafalda Resende, Caroline Pehrson, Birgitte Bruun Nielsen, Raimos Olomi, Morten A Nielsen, Philippe Deloron, Ali Salanti, John Lusingu, Thor G Theander
Malaria during pregnancy constitutes a large health problem in endemic areas. WHO recommends that interventions are initiated at the first antenatal visit, and these improve pregnancy outcomes. This study evaluated foetal growth by ultrasound and birth outcomes in women who were infected prior to the first antenatal visit (gestational age, GA<120 days) and not later in pregnancy. Compared to uninfected controls, women with early P. falciparum exposure had retarded intrauterine growth between a GA of 212 and 253 days (mean weight gain reduction: 107g [26;188], P=0...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962616/statistical-prediction-of-immunity-to-placental-malaria-based-on-multi-assay-antibody-data-for-malarial-antigens
#2
Chathura Siriwardhana, Rui Fang, Ali Salanti, Rose G F Leke, Naveen Bobbili, Diane Wallace Taylor, John J Chen
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum infections are especially severe in pregnant women because infected erythrocytes (IE) express VAR2CSA, a ligand that binds to placental trophoblasts, causing IE to accumulate in the placenta. Resulting inflammation and pathology increases a woman's risk of anemia, miscarriage, premature deliveries, and having low birthweight (LBW) babies. Antibodies (Ab) to VAR2CSA reduce placental parasitaemia and improve pregnancy outcomes. Currently, no single assay is able to predict if a woman has adequate immunity to prevent placental malaria (PM)...
September 29, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912004/living-systematic-reviews-3-statistical-methods-for-updating-meta-analyses
#3
REVIEW
Mark Simmonds, Georgia Salanti, Joanne McKenzie
A Living systematic review should keep the review current as new research evidence emerges. Any meta-analyses included in the review will also need updating as new material is identified.
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912002/living-systematic-review-1-introduction-the-why-what-when-and-how
#4
REVIEW
Julian H Elliott, Anneliese Synnot, Tari Turner, Mark Simmonds, Elie A Akl, Steve McDonald, Georgia Salanti, Joerg Meerpohl, Harriet MacLehose, John Hilton, David Tovey, Ian Shemilt, James Thomas
Systematic reviews are difficult to keep up to date, but failure to do so leads to a decay in review currency, accuracy, and utility. We are developing a novel approach to systematic review updating termed "Living systematic review" (LSR): systematic reviews that are continually updated, incorporating relevant new evidence as it becomes available. LSRs may be particularly important in fields where research evidence is emerging rapidly, current evidence is uncertain, and new research may change policy or practice decisions...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903924/multivariate-and-network-meta-analysis-of-multiple-outcomes-and-multiple-treatments-rationale-concepts-and-examples
#5
Richard D Riley, Dan Jackson, Georgia Salanti, Danielle L Burke, Malcolm Price, Jamie Kirkham, Ian R White
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739577/common-pitfalls-and-mistakes-in-the-set-up-analysis-and-interpretation-of-results-in-network-meta-analysis-what-clinicians-should-look-for-in-a-published-article
#6
Anna Chaimani, Georgia Salanti, Stefan Leucht, John R Geddes, Andrea Cipriani
OBJECTIVE: Several tools have been developed to evaluate the extent to which the findings from a network meta-analysis would be valid; however, applying these tools is a time-consuming task and often requires specific expertise. Clinicians have little time for critical appraisal, and they need to understand the key elements that help them select network meta-analyses that deserve further attention, optimising time and resources. This paper is aimed at providing a practical framework to assess the methodological robustness and reliability of results from network meta-analysis...
July 24, 2017: Evidence-based Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646922/an-investigation-of-the-impact-of-using-different-methods-for-network-meta-analysis-a-protocol-for-an-empirical-evaluation
#7
Amalia Emily Karahalios, Georgia Salanti, Simon L Turner, G Peter Herbison, Ian R White, Areti Angeliki Veroniki, Adriani Nikolakopoulou, Joanne E Mckenzie
BACKGROUND: Network meta-analysis, a method to synthesise evidence from multiple treatments, has increased in popularity in the past decade. Two broad approaches are available to synthesise data across networks, namely, arm- and contrast-synthesis models, with a range of models that can be fitted within each. There has been recent debate about the validity of the arm-synthesis models, but to date, there has been limited empirical evaluation comparing results using the methods applied to a large number of networks...
June 24, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578824/improving-the-malaria-transmission-blocking-activity-of-a-plasmodium-falciparum-48-45-based-vaccine-antigen-by-spytag-spycatcher-mediated-virus-like-display
#8
Susheel K Singh, Susan Thrane, Christoph M Janitzek, Morten A Nielsen, Thor G Theander, Michael Theisen, Ali Salanti, Adam F Sander
Malaria is a devastating disease caused by Plasmodium parasites, resulting in almost 0.5 million deaths per year. The Pfs48/45 protein exposed on the P. falciparum sexual stages is one of the most advanced antigen candidates for a transmission-blocking (TB) vaccine in the clinical pipeline. However, it remains essential to identify an optimal vaccine formulation that can facilitate induction of a long-lasting TB anti-Pfs48/45 response. Here we report on the development and evaluation of two Pfs48/45-based virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines generated using the AP205 SpyTag/Catcher VLP system...
May 31, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548690/rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-immune-response-towards-a-recombinant-vaccine-targeting-the-parasitic-ciliate-ichthyophthirius-multifiliis
#9
L von Gersdorff Jørgensen, P W Kania, K J Rasmussen, A H Mattsson, J Schmidt, A Al-Jubury, A Sander, A Salanti, K Buchmann
The protective effect in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) of an experimental subunit vaccine targeting antigens in the parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis has been evaluated and compared to effects elicited by a classical parasite homogenate vaccine. Three recombinant parasite proteins (two produced in E. coli and one in insect cells) were combined and injected i.p., and subsequently, protection and antibody responses were analysed. Both the experimental and the benchmark vaccine induced partial but significant protection against I...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541090/sixty-years-of-placebo-controlled-antipsychotic-drug-trials-in-acute-schizophrenia-systematic-review-bayesian-meta-analysis-and-meta-regression-of-efficacy-predictors
#10
REVIEW
Stefan Leucht, Claudia Leucht, Maximilian Huhn, Anna Chaimani, Dimitris Mavridis, Bartosz Helfer, Myrto Samara, Matteo Rabaioli, Susanne Bächer, Andrea Cipriani, John R Geddes, Georgia Salanti, John M Davis
OBJECTIVE: Antipsychotic drug efficacy may have decreased over recent decades. The authors present a meta-analysis of all placebo-controlled trials in patients with acute exacerbations of schizophrenia, and they investigate which trial characteristics have changed over the years and which are moderators of drug-placebo efficacy differences. METHOD: The search included multiple electronic databases. The outcomes were overall efficacy (primary outcome); responder and dropout rates; positive, negative, and depressive symptoms; quality of life; functioning; and major side effects...
October 1, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527688/clinical-development-of-a-var2csa-based-placental-malaria-vaccine-pamvac-quantifying-vaccine-antigen-specific-memory-b-t-cell-activity-in-beninese-primigravidae
#11
Komi Gbédandé, Nadine Fievet, Firmine Viwami, Sem Ezinmegnon, Saadou Issifou, Jean-Philippe Chippaux, Yannelle Dossou, Kabirou Moutairou, Achille Massougbodji, Nicaise Ndam, Willem Adriaan de Jongh, T Max M Søgaard, Ali Salanti, Morten A Nielsen, Meral Esen, Benjamin Mordmüller, Philippe Deloron, Adrian J F Luty
BACKGROUND: The antigen VAR2CSA plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) caused by Plasmodium falciparum. A VAR2CSA-based vaccine candidate, PAMVAC, is under development by an EU-funded multi-country consortium (PlacMalVac project). As part of PAMVAC's clinical development, we quantified naturally acquired vaccine antigen-specific memory B and T cell responses in Beninese primigravidae recruited at the beginning of pregnancy and followed up to delivery and beyond...
May 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484806/chemical-characterisation-of-the-whole-plant-cell-wall-of-archaeological-wood-an-integrated-approach
#12
Luca Zoia, Diego Tamburini, Marco Orlandi, Jeannette Jacqueline Łucejko, Anika Salanti, Eeva-Liisa Tolppa, Francesca Modugno, Maria Perla Colombini
Wood artefacts undergo complex alteration and degradation during ageing, and gaining information on the chemical composition of wood in archaeological artefacts is fundamental to plan conservation strategies. In this work, an integrated analytical approach based on innovative NMR spectroscopy procedures, gel permeation chromatography and analytical pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) was applied for the first time on archaeological wood from the Oseberg collection (Norway), in order to evaluate the chemical state of preservation of the wood components, without separating them...
May 8, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440858/treatment-with-disease-modifying-drugs-for-people-with-a-first-clinical-attack-suggestive-of-multiple-sclerosis
#13
REVIEW
Graziella Filippini, Cinzia Del Giovane, Marinella Clerico, Omid Beiki, Miriam Mattoscio, Federico Piazza, Sten Fredrikson, Irene Tramacere, Antonio Scalfari, Georgia Salanti
BACKGROUND: The treatment of multiple sclerosis has changed over the last 20 years. The advent of disease-modifying drugs in the mid-1990s heralded a period of rapid progress in the understanding and management of multiple sclerosis. With the support of magnetic resonance imaging early diagnosis is possible, enabling treatment initiation at the time of the first clinical attack. As most of the disease-modifying drugs are associated with adverse events, patients and clinicians need to weigh the benefit and safety of the various early treatment options before taking informed decisions...
April 25, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434376/pre-clinical-and-clinical-development-of-the-first-placental-malaria-vaccine
#14
Caroline Pehrson, Ali Salanti, Thor G Theander, Morten A Nielsen
Malaria during pregnancy is a massive health problem in endemic areas. Placental malaria infections caused by Plasmodium falciparum are responsible for up to one million babies being born with a low birth weight every year. Significant efforts have been invested into preventing the condition. Areas covered: Pub Med was searched using the broad terms 'malaria parasite placenta' to identify studies of interactions between parasite and host, 'prevention of placental malaria' to identify current strategies to prevent placental malaria, and 'placental malaria vaccine' to identify pre-clinical vaccine development...
June 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408175/an-oncofetal-glycosaminoglycan-modification-provides-therapeutic-access-to-cisplatin-resistant-bladder-cancer
#15
Roland Seiler, Htoo Zarni Oo, Davide Tortora, Thomas M Clausen, Chris K Wang, Gunjan Kumar, Marina Ayres Pereira, Maj S Ørum-Madsen, Mette Ø Agerbæk, Tobias Gustavsson, Mie A Nordmaj, Jamie R Rich, Nada Lallous, Ladan Fazli, Sherry S Lee, James Douglas, Tilman Todenhöfer, Shaghayegh Esfandnia, Dulguun Battsogt, John S Babcook, Nader Al-Nakouzi, Simon J Crabb, Igor Moskalev, Bernhard Kiss, Elai Davicioni, George N Thalmann, Paul S Rennie, Peter C Black, Ali Salanti, Mads Daugaard
BACKGROUND: Although cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) improves survival of unselected patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC), only a minority responds to therapy and chemoresistance remains a major challenge in this disease setting. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical significance of oncofetal chondroitin sulfate (ofCS) glycosaminoglycan chains in cisplatin-resistant MIBC and to evaluate these as targets for second-line therapy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: An ofCS-binding recombinant VAR2CSA protein derived from the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (rVAR2) was used as an in situ, in vitro, and in vivo ofCS-targeting reagent in cisplatin-resistant MIBC...
July 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292298/erratum-to-characteristics-and-knowledge-synthesis-approach-for-456-network-meta-analyses-a-scoping-review
#16
Wasifa Zarin, Areti Angeliki Veroniki, Vera Nincic, Afshin Vafaei, Emily Reynen, Sanober S Motiwala, Jesmin Antony, Shannon M Sullivan, Patricia Rios, Caitlin Daly, Joycelyne Ewusie, Maria Petropoulou, Adriani Nikolakopoulou, Anna Chaimani, Georgia Salanti, Sharon E Straus, Andrea C Tricco
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131394/novel-adenovirus-encoded-virus-like-particles-displaying-the-placental-malaria-associated-var2csa-antigen
#17
Anne-Marie C Andersson, Mafalda Resende, Ali Salanti, Morten A Nielsen, Peter J Holst
The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum presents antigens on the infected erythrocyte surface that bind human receptors expressed on the vascular endothelium. The VAR2CSA mediated binding to a distinct chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) is a crucial step in the pathophysiology of placental malaria and the CSA binding region of VAR2CSA has been identified as a promising vaccine target against placental malaria. Here we designed adenovirus encoded virus-like particles (VLP) by co-encoding Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) gag and VAR2CSA...
February 22, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088593/additional-considerations-are-required-when-preparing-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-with-multiple-interventions
#18
Anna Chaimani, Deborah M Caldwell, Tianjing Li, Julian P T Higgins, Georgia Salanti
OBJECTIVES: The number of systematic reviews that aim to compare multiple interventions using network meta-analysis is increasing. In this study, we highlight aspects of a standard systematic review protocol that may need modification when multiple interventions are to be compared. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We take the protocol format suggested by Cochrane for a standard systematic review as our reference and compare the considerations for a pairwise review with those required for a valid comparison of multiple interventions...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052774/characteristics-and-knowledge-synthesis-approach-for-456-network-meta-analyses-a-scoping-review
#19
Wasifa Zarin, Areti Angeliki Veroniki, Vera Nincic, Afshin Vafaei, Emily Reynen, Sanober S Motiwala, Jesmin Antony, Shannon M Sullivan, Patricia Rios, Caitlin Daly, Joycelyne Ewusie, Maria Petropoulou, Adriani Nikolakopoulou, Anna Chaimani, Georgia Salanti, Sharon E Straus, Andrea C Tricco
BACKGROUND: Network meta-analysis (NMA) has become a popular method to compare more than two treatments. This scoping review aimed to explore the characteristics and methodological quality of knowledge synthesis approaches underlying the NMA process. We also aimed to assess the statistical methods applied using the Analysis subdomain of the ISPOR checklist. METHODS: Comprehensive literature searches were conducted in MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception until April 14, 2015...
January 5, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012775/comparison-of-functional-assays-used-in-the-clinical-development-of-a-placental-malaria-vaccine
#20
Caroline Pehrson, Kristine K Heno, Yvonne Adams, Mafalda Resende, Line Mathiesen, Max Soegaard, Willem A de Jongh, Thor G Theander, Ali Salanti, Morten A Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Malaria in pregnancy is associated with significant morbidity in pregnant women and their offspring. Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes (IE) express VAR2CSA that mediates binding to chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) in the placenta. Two VAR2CSA-based vaccines for placental malaria are in clinical development. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the robustness and comparability of binding inhibition assays used in the clinical development of placental malaria vaccines...
December 21, 2016: Vaccine
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