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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526759/il-2-high-tissue-resident-t-cells-in-the-human-liver-sentinels-for-hepatotropic-infection
#1
Laura J Pallett, Jessica Davies, Emily J Colbeck, Francis Robertson, Navjyot Hansi, Nicholas J W Easom, Alice R Burton, Kerstin A Stegmann, Anna Schurich, Leo Swadling, Upkar S Gill, Victoria Male, TuVinh Luong, Amir Gander, Brian R Davidson, Patrick T F Kennedy, Mala K Maini
The liver provides a tolerogenic immune niche exploited by several highly prevalent pathogens as well as by primary and metastatic tumors. We have sampled healthy and hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected human livers to probe for a subset of T cells specialized to overcome local constraints and mediate immunity. We characterize a population of T-bet(lo)Eomes(lo)Blimp-1(hi)Hobit(lo) T cells found within the intrahepatic but not the circulating memory CD8 T cell pool expressing liver-homing/retention markers (CD69(+)CD103(+) CXCR6(+)CXCR3(+))...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523822/development-of-a-novel-flow-cytometric-immunobead-array-to-quantify-vwf-ag-and-vwf-gpibr-and-its-application-in-acute-myocardial-infarction
#2
Bin Yan, Mengqiao Xu, Yunxiao Zhao, Haijun Guo, Lijun Xia, Changgeng Ruan, Yiming Zhao
OBJECTIVES: Both von Willebrand disease (VWD) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) involve quantitative and qualitative changes in von Willebrand factor (VWF). Our objective was to develop a rapid and precise flow cytometric immunobead array (FCIA) to quantify VWF antigen (VWF:Ag) and ristocetin-triggered platelet glycoprotein Ib binding (VWF:GPIbR), and apply it in a clinical setting. METHODS: Microbeads, coated with monoclonal antibodies for SZ29 or SZ151 IgG, were incubated with diluted plasma...
May 18, 2017: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522585/herpes-simplex-virus-glycoprotein-d-targets-a-specific-dendritic-cell-subset-and-improves-the-performance-of-vaccines-to-human-papillomavirus-associated-tumors
#3
Bruna F M M Porchia, Ana Carolina R Moreno, Rodrigo N Ramos, Mariana O Diniz, Laís Helena T M de Andrade, Daniela S Rosa, José Alexandre M Barbuto, Silvia B Boscardin, Luís Carlos S Ferreira
Cervical cancer is a major public health problem and one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in women. Virtually all cases of cervical cancer, as well as a growing share of anal and head/neck tumors, are associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Despite the effectiveness, the available prophylactic vaccines do not benefit women with cervical lesions or cancer. Therefore, the search of new immunotherapeutic approaches to treat HPV-induced tumors is still a priority. The present study characterizes a therapeutic antitumor vaccine based on the genetic fusion of the Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein D (gD) with the E7 oncoprotein from HPV-16 (gDE7)...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518215/the-tlr9-signaling-pathway-regulates-mr1-mediated-bacterial-antigen-presentation-in-b-cells
#4
Jianyun Liu, Randy R Brutkiewicz
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are conserved T cells that express a semi-invariant TCR (Vα7.2 in humans and Vα19 in mice). The development of MAIT cells requires the antigen (Ag) presenting MHC-related protein 1 (MR1), as well as commensal bacteria. The mechanisms that regulate the functional expression of MR1 molecules and their loading with bacterial Ag in APCs are largely unknown. We have found that treating B cells with the TLR9 agonist CpG increases MR1 surface expression. Interestingly, activation of TLR9 by CpG-A (but not CpG-B) enhances MR1 surface expression...
May 18, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515356/licensing-delineates-helper-and-effector-nk-cell-subsets-during-viral-infection
#5
Anthony E Zamora, Ethan G Aguilar, Can M Sungur, Lam T Khuat, Cordelia Dunai, G Raymond Lochhead, Juan Du, Claire Pomeroy, Bruce R Blazar, Dan L Longo, Jeffrey M Venstrom, Nicole Baumgarth, William J Murphy
Natural killer (NK) cells can be divided into phenotypic subsets based on expression of receptors that bind self-MHC-I molecules, a concept termed licensing or education. Here we show NK cell subsets with different migratory, effector, and immunoregulatory functions in dendritic cell and antigen (ag)-specific CD8+ T cell responses during influenza and murine cytomegalovirus infections. Shortly after infection, unlicensed NK cells localized in draining lymph nodes and produced GM-CSF, which correlated with the expansion and activation of dendritic cells, and resulted in greater and sustained ag-specific T cell responses...
May 18, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515134/identification-of-novel-seroreactive-antigens-in-johne-s-disease-cattle-using-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-protein-array
#6
John P Bannantine, Joseph J Campo, Lingling Li, Arlo Randall, Jozelyn Pablo, Craig A Praul, Juan Antonio Raygoza Garay, Judith R Stabel, Vivek Kapur
Johne's Disease, a chronic gastrointestinal inflammatory disease caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map), is endemic in dairy cattle and other ruminants worldwide and remains a challenge to diagnose using traditional serological methods. Given the close phylogenetic relationship between Map and the human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), we here applied a whole proteome Mtb protein array to identify seroreactive and diagnostic Map antigens. A genome-scale pairwise analysis of amino acid identity between orthologous proteins in Map and Mtb showed an average of 62% identity, with more than half the orthologous proteins sharing > 75% identity...
May 17, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512681/evaluation-of-immune-indices-and-serum-vitamin-d-content-in-children-with-atopic-dermatitis
#7
Agnieszka Lipińska-Opałka, Agata Wawrzyniak, Sławomir Lewicki, Robert Zdanowski, Bolesław Kalicki
The influence of vitamin D on allergic diseases, including atopic dermatitis, is linked to the presence of vitamin D nuclear receptors in immune cells. The present study seeks to determine the possible relationship between serum vitamin D content and immune indices in children with atopic dermatitis. The study was conducted in 19 children with atopic dermatitis. The control consisted of 17 age-matched healthy children. A single significant finding was a distinctly lower number of serum regulatory T cells in atopic dermatitis compared with controls (p < 0...
May 17, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511172/donor-specific-anti-human-leukocyte-antigens-antibodies-acute-rejection-renal-function-and-histology-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-receiving-tacrolimus-and-everolimus
#8
Alexandra Ferreira, Claudia Felipe, Marina Cristelli, Laila Viana, Geovana Basso, Suelen Stopa, Juliana Mansur, Mayara Ivani, Adrieli Bessa, Priscila Ruppel, Wilson Aguiar, Erika Campos, Maria Gerbase-DeLima, Henrique Proença, Helio Tedesco-Silva, José Medina-Pestana
BACKGROUND: This analysis compared efficacy, renal function, and histology in kidney transplant recipients receiving tacrolimus (TAC) combined with everolimus (EVR) or mycophenolate (MPS). METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis from a randomized trial in kidney transplant recipients who received a single 3 mg/kg dose of rabbit antithymocyte globulin (r-ATG), TAC, EVR, and prednisone (PRED; r-ATG/EVR, n = 85), basiliximab (BAS), TAC, EVR, and PRED (BAS/EVR, n = 102) or BAS, TAC, MPS, and PRED (BAS/MPS, n = 101)...
May 17, 2017: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508218/recovery-of-a-paramyxovirus-the-human-metapneumovirus-from-cloned-cdna
#9
B G van den Hoogen, R A M Fouchier
Human metapneumovirus (HMPV), a single-stranded negative-sense RNA virus belonging to the family Paramyxoviridae, is associated with respiratory tract illness, primarily in young children and persons with underlying disease. Based on genetic and antigenic variation, HMPV strains are classified into two serotypes, with isolates NL/1/00 and NL/1/99 as prototypes for serotypes A and B, respectively. The development of plasmid-based reverse genetics systems for both serotypes has resulted in developments of a wide range of vaccine candidates against HMPV infection...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507790/cd69-is-a-direct-hif-1%C3%AE-target-gene-in-hypoxia-as-a-mechanism-enhancing-expression-on-tumor-infiltrating-t-lymphocytes
#10
Sara Labiano, Florinda Meléndez-Rodríguez, Asís Palazón, Álvaro Teijeira, Saray Garasa, Iñaki Etxeberria, M Ángela Aznar, Alfonso R Sánchez-Paulete, Arantza Azpilikueta, Elixabet Bolaños, Carmen Molina, Hortensia de la Fuente, Patricia Maiso, Francisco Sánchez-Madrid, Manuel Ortiz de Landázuri, Julián Aragonés, Ignacio Melero
CD69 is an early activation marker on the surface of T lymphocytes undergoing activation by cognate antigen. We observed intense expression of CD69 on tumor-infiltrating T-lymphocytes that reside in the hypoxic tumor microenvironment and hypothesized that CD69 could be, at least partially, under the control of the transcriptional hypoxia response. In line with this, human and mouse CD3-stimulated lymphocytes cultured under hypoxia (1% O2) showed increased expression of CD69 at the protein and mRNA level. Consistent with these findings, mouse T lymphocytes that had recently undergone hypoxia in vivo, as denoted by pimonidazole staining, were more frequently CD69(+) in the tumor and bone marrow hypoxic tissue compartments...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504710/a1-beta-casein-milk-protein-and-other-environmental-pre-disposing-factors-for-type-1-diabetes
#11
REVIEW
J S J Chia, J L McRae, S Kukuljan, K Woodford, R B Elliott, B Swinburn, K M Dwyer
Globally type 1 diabetes incidence is increasing. It is widely accepted that the pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes is influenced by environmental factors in people with specific human leukocyte antigen haplotypes. We propose that a complex interplay between dietary triggers, permissive gut factors and potentially other influencing factors underpins disease progression. We present evidence that A1 β-casein cows' milk protein is a primary causal trigger of type 1 diabetes in individuals with genetic risk factors...
May 15, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504684/fully-automated-5-plex-fluorescent-immunohistochemistry-with-tyramide-signal-amplification-and-same-species-antibodies
#12
Wenjun Zhang, Antony Hubbard, Tobin Jones, Adriana Racolta, Srabani Bhaumik, Nick Cummins, Liping Zhang, Karl Garsha, Frank Ventura, Mark R Lefever, Zhenqiang Lu, John K Hurley, William A Day, Lidija Pestic-Dragovich, Larry E Morrison, Lei Tang
The ability to simultaneously visualize the presence, abundance, location and functional state of many targets in cells and tissues has been described as a true next-generation approach in immunohistochemistry (IHC). A typical requirement for multiplex IHC (mIHC) is the use of different animal species for each primary (1°Ab) and secondary (2°Ab) antibody pair. Although 1°Abs from different species have been used with differently labeled species-specific 2°Abs, quite often the appropriate combination of antibodies is not available...
May 15, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501500/it-s-about-time-the-development-and-validation-of-a-rapid-optimized-single-antigen-bead-rob-assay-protocol-for-labscreen
#13
Robert S Liwski, Anna L Greenshields, Cathi Murphey, Robert A Bray, Howard M Gebel
The LABScreen single antigen bead assay (SAB) is a method widely used for the identification and monitoring of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies in patients pre-and post-transplant. While accurate testing of patient samples is key for optimal patient care, time can also be important, especially during deceased donor workups or post-transplant assessments. Here we describe the development and validation of the Rapid Optimized SAB (ROB) protocol, a modified version of the One Lambda LABScreen SAB (OLSAB) procedure, which reduces assay time from 85 to 25min (>70% reduction) without impacting assay quality or sensitivity...
May 10, 2017: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494367/enhanced-detection-sensitivity-of-carcinoembryonic-antigen-on-a-plasmonic-nanoimmunosensor-by-transmission-grating-based-total-internal-reflection-scattering-microscopy
#14
Sujin Ahn, Hyunung Yu, Seong Ho Kang
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a glycoprotein associated with colorectal carcinomas and is commonly used as a clinical tumor marker. Enhanced detection sensitivity for the assay of CEA molecules was achieved on a plasmonic nanoimmunosensor by wavelength-dependent transmission grating (TG)-based total internal reflection scattering microscopy (TIRSM). The plasmonic nanoparticles were placed in an evanescent field layer on a glass nanoimmunosensor that produced evanescent wave scattering by the total internal reflection of light from two lasers...
May 4, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489960/swap70-is-a-universal-gef-like-adapter-for-tethering-actin-to-phagosomes
#15
Maksim V Baranov, Natalia H Revelo, Daniëlle R J Verboogen, Martin Ter Beest, Geert van den Bogaart
We recently identified a key role for SWAP70 as the tethering factor stabilizing F-actin filaments on the surface of phagosomes in human dendritic cells by interacting both with Rho-family GTPases and the lipid phosphatidylinositol (3,4)-bisphosphate. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether this role of SWAP70 was general among immune phagocytes. Our data reveal that SWAP70 is recruited to early phagosomes of macrophages and dendritic cells from both human and mouse. The putative inhibitor of SWAP70 sanguinarine blocked phagocytosis and F-actin polymerization, supporting a key role for SWAP70 in phagocytosis as demonstrated previously with knock-down...
May 10, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482963/paradoxical-upgrading-reaction-in-extra-pulmonary-tuberculosis-association-with-vitamin-d-therapy
#16
D A Barr, A K Coussens, S Irvine, N D Ritchie, K Herbert, B Choo-Kang, D Raeside, D J Bell, R A Seaton
SETTING: Glasgow, Scotland, UK. BACKGROUND: Paradoxical reactions in tuberculosis (TB) are a notable example of our incomplete understanding of host-pathogen interactions during anti-tuberculosis treatment. OBJECTIVES: To determine risk factors for a TB paradoxical reaction, and specifically to assess for an independent association with vitamin D use. DESIGN: Consecutive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) negative adult patients treated for extra-pulmonary TB were identified from an Extended Surveillance of Mycobacterial Infections database...
June 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481180/trophoblast-glycoprotein-tpgb-5t4-in-human-placenta-expression-regulation-and-presence-in-extracellular-microvesicles-and-exosomes
#17
S M K Alam, S Jasti, S K Kshirsagar, D S Tannetta, R A Dragovic, C W Redman, I L Sargent, H C Hodes, T L Nauser, T Fortes, A M Filler, K Behan, D R Martin, T A Fields, B K Petroff, M G Petroff
BACKGROUND: Many parallels exist between growth and development of the placenta and that of cancer. One parallel is shared expression of antigens that may have functional importance and may be recognized by the immune system. Here, we characterize expression and regulation of one such antigen, Trophoblast glycoprotein (TPGB; also called 5T4), in the placenta across gestation, in placentas of preeclamptic (PE) pregnancies, and in purified microvesicles and exosomes. METHODS: Trophoblast glycoprotein expression was analyzed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot, and immunohistochemistry...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480307/immune-modulatory-cell-therapy-for-hemophilia-b-based-on-cd20-targeted-lentiviral-gene-transfer-to-primary-b-cells
#18
Xiaomei Wang, Roland W Herzog, Barry J Byrne, Sandeep R P Kumar, Qi Zhou, Christian J Buchholz, Moanaro Biswas
Gene-modified B cells expressing immunoglobulin G (IgG) fusion proteins have been shown to induce tolerance in several autoimmune and other disease models. However, lack of a vector suitable for gene transfer to human B cells has been an obstacle for translation of this approach. To overcome this hurdle, we developed an IgG-human factor IX (hFIX) lentiviral fusion construct that was targeted to specifically transduce cells expressing human CD20 (hCD20). Receptor-specific retargeting by mutating envelope glycoproteins of measles virus (MV)-lentiviral vector (LV) and addition of a single-chain variable fragment specific for hCD20 resulted in gene delivery into primary human and transgenic hCD20 mouse B cells with high specificity...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479174/identification-of-a-defined-linear-epitope-in-the-ospa-protein-of-the-lyme-disease-spirochetes-that-elicits-bactericidal-antibody-responses-implications-for-vaccine-development
#19
Jerilyn R Izac, Lee D Oliver, Christopher G Earnhart, Richard T Marconi
The lipoprotein OspA is produced by the Lyme disease spirochetes primarily in unfed ticks. OspA production is down-regulated by the blood meal and it is not produced in mammals except for possible transient production during late stage infection in patients with Lyme arthritis. Vaccination with OspA elicits antibody (Ab) that can target spirochetes in the tick midgut during feeding and inhibit transmission to mammals. OspA was the primary component of the human LYMErix™ vaccine. LYMErix™ was available from 1998 to 2002 but then pulled from the market due to declining sales as a result of unsubstantiated concerns about vaccination induced adverse events and poor efficacy...
May 31, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471203/-ascites-may-provide-useful-information-for-diagnosis-of-ovarian-cancer
#20
E Stuchlíková, M Zahradníková, R Nenutil, D Valík, B Vojtěšek, M Novotný, L Hernychova
BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological cancer, almost 80% of all patients succumb the disease within 5 years of diagnosis. High mortality is caused especially by nonspecific symptoms, diagnosis in late stages and the absence of a specific biomarker. Currently, the most common diagnostic biomarkers are the membrane glycoprotein Cancer Antigen 125 (CA 125), the Human Epididymal Protein 4 (HE4) and the Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CAE). None of these biomarkers is specific only for ovarian cancer and increased levels may be caused by other diseases...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
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