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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910306/a-high-speed-two-frame-1-2-ns-gated-x-ray-cmos-imager-used-as-a-hohlraum-diagnostic-on-the-national-ignition-facility-invited
#1
Hui Chen, N Palmer, M Dayton, A Carpenter, M B Schneider, P M Bell, D K Bradley, L D Claus, L Fang, T Hilsabeck, M Hohenberger, O S Jones, J D Kilkenny, M W Kimmel, G Robertson, G Rochau, M O Sanchez, J W Stahoviak, D C Trotter, J L Porter
A novel x-ray imager, which takes time-resolved gated images along a single line-of-sight, has been successfully implemented at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This Gated Laser Entrance Hole diagnostic, G-LEH, incorporates a high-speed multi-frame CMOS x-ray imager developed by Sandia National Laboratories to upgrade the existing Static X-ray Imager diagnostic at NIF. The new diagnostic is capable of capturing two laser-entrance-hole images per shot on its 1024 × 448 pixels photo-detector array, with integration times as short as 1...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900541/tendon-transfer-to-unossified-bone-in-a-porcine-model-potential-implications-for-early-tibialis-anterior-tendon-transfers-in-children-with-clubfeet
#2
Matthew A Halanski, Sam Abrams, Rachel Lenhart, Ellen Leiferman, Teresa Kaiser, Emily Pierce, Rachel Rebekah Franklin, Dayton Opel, Kenneth J Noonan, Thomas D Crenshaw
PURPOSE: Tibialis anterior tendon transfers (TATT) are commonly performed in young children following Ponseti casting for clubfeet. The classic TATT involves advancing the tendon through a hole drilled in the ossified cuneiform. The aim of this study was to determine if tendons transferred through unossified bones have untoward effects on subsequent bone development. METHOD: Twenty-five piglets underwent one of five surgical procedures. An 18-gauge needle was then used to place a tunnel through the bony or cartilaginous portion of the calcaneus (through direct visualization) and isolated slips of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) were placed through the tunnels, as determined by surgical procedure...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Children's Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894558/helicopter-scene-response-for-stroke-patients-a-5-year-experience
#3
Andrew Hawk, Catherine Marco, Matt Huang, Bonnie Chow
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the usefulness of an emergency medical service (EMS)-requested air medical helicopter response directly to the scene for a patient with clinical evidence of an ischemic cerebrovascular accident (CVA) and transport to a regional comprehensive CVA center. METHODS: CareFlight, an air medical critical care transportation service, is based in Dayton, OH. The 3 CareFlight helicopters are geographically located and provided transport to all CVA scene patients in this study...
November 2016: Air Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870047/a-keystone-ecologist-robert-treat-paine-1933-2016
#4
James A Estes, Paul K Dayton, Peter Kareiva, Simon A Levin, Jane Lubchenco, Bruce A Menge, Stephen R Palumbi, Mary E Power, John Terborgh
Robert T. Paine, who passed away on 13 June 2016, is among the most influential people in the history of ecology. Paine was an experimentalist, a theoretician, a practitioner, and proponent of the "ecology of place," and a deep believer in the importance of natural history to ecological understanding. His scientific legacy grew from the discovery of a link between top-down forcing and species diversity, a breakthrough that led to the ideas of both keystone species and trophic cascades, and to our early understanding of the mosaic nature of biological communities, causes of zonation across physical gradients, and the intermediate-disturbance hypothesis of species diversity...
November 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867348/better-targeting-better-efficiency-for-wide-scale-neuronal-transduction-with-the-synapsin-promoter-and-aav-php-b
#5
Kasey L Jackson, Robert D Dayton, Benjamin E Deverman, Ronald L Klein
Widespread genetic modification of cells in the central nervous system (CNS) with a viral vector has become possible and increasingly more efficient. We previously applied an AAV9 vector with the cytomegalovirus/chicken beta-actin (CBA) hybrid promoter and achieved wide-scale CNS transduction in neonatal and adult rats. However, this method transduces a variety of tissues in addition to the CNS. Thus we studied intravenous AAV9 gene transfer with a synapsin promoter to better target the neurons. We noted in systematic comparisons that the synapsin promoter drives lower level expression than does the CBA promoter...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856534/pkm2-cancer-metabolism-and-the-road-ahead
#6
REVIEW
Talya L Dayton, Tyler Jacks, Matthew G Vander Heiden
A major metabolic aberration associated with cancer is a change in glucose metabolism. Isoform selection of the glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase has been implicated in the metabolic phenotype of cancer cells, and specific pyruvate kinase isoforms have been suggested to support divergent energetic and biosynthetic requirements of cells in tumors and normal tissues. PKM2 isoform expression has been closely linked to embryogenesis, tissue repair, and cancer. In contrast, forced expression of the PKM1 isoform has been associated with reduced tumor cell proliferation...
December 2016: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832421/high-resolution-ultrasound-superharmonic-perfusion-imaging-in-vivo-feasibility-and-quantification-of-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-acoustic-angiography
#7
Brooks D Lindsey, Sarah E Shelton, K Heath Martin, Kathryn A Ozgun, Juan D Rojas, F Stuart Foster, Paul A Dayton
Mapping blood perfusion quantitatively allows localization of abnormal physiology and can improve understanding of disease progression. Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound is a low-cost, real-time technique for imaging perfusion dynamics with microbubble contrast agents. Previously, we have demonstrated another contrast agent-specific ultrasound imaging technique, acoustic angiography, which forms static anatomical images of the superharmonic signal produced by microbubbles. In this work, we seek to determine whether acoustic angiography can be utilized for high resolution perfusion imaging in vivo by examining the effect of acquisition rate on superharmonic imaging at low flow rates and demonstrating the feasibility of dynamic contrast-enhanced superharmonic perfusion imaging for the first time...
November 10, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813347/early-high-intensity-versus-low-intensity-rehabilitation-after-total-knee-arthroplasty-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Michael Bade, Tamara Struessel, Michael Dayton, Jared Foran, Raymond Kim, Todd Miner, Pamela Wolfe, Wendy Kohrt, Douglas Dennis, Jennifer Stevens-Lapsley
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the safety and efficacy of a high-intensity progressive rehabilitation protocol (HI) beginning 4 days after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) compared to a low-intensity (LI) rehabilitation protocol. METHODS: One hundred sixty-two participants (aged 63±7 years; 89 females) were randomized to either the HI group or LI group after TKA. Key components of the HI intervention were the utilization of progressive resistance exercises and a rapid progression to weight-bearing exercises and activities...
November 3, 2016: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793099/severe-respiratory-changes-at-end-stage-in-a-fus-induced-disease-state-in-adult-rats
#9
Kasey L Jackson, Hemangini A Dhaibar, Robert D Dayton, Sergio G Cananzi, William G Mayhan, Edward Glasscock, Ronald L Klein
BACKGROUND: Fused in sarcoma (FUS) is an RNA-binding protein associated with the neurodegenerative diseases amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. ALS manifests in patients as a progressive paralysis which leads to respiratory dysfunction and failure, the primary cause of death in ALS. We expressed human FUS in rats to determine if FUS would induce ALS relevant respiratory changes to serve as an early stage disease indicator. The FUS expression was initiated in adult rats by way of an intravenously administered adeno-associated virus vector serotype 9 (AAV9) providing an adult onset model...
October 28, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775903/contrast-enhanced-superharmonic-imaging-for-acoustic-angiography-using-reduced-form-factor-lateral-mode-transmitters-for-intravascular-and-intracavity-applications
#10
Zhuochen Wang, Karl Heath Martin, Wenbin Huang, Paul A Dayton, Xiaoning Jiang
Techniques to image the microvasculature may play an important role in imaging tumor-related angiogenesis and vasa vasorum associated with vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. However, the microvasculature associated with these pathologies is difficult to detect using traditional B-mode ultrasound or even harmonic imaging due to small vessel size and poor differentiation from surrounding tissue. Acoustic angiography, a microvascular imaging technique which utilizes superharmonic imaging (detection of higher order harmonics of microbubble response), can yield a much higher contrast to tissue ratio (CTR) than second harmonic imaging methods...
October 20, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775902/methods-of-generating-sub-micron-phase-shift-perfluorocarbon-droplets-for-applications-in-medical-ultrasonography
#11
Paul S Sheeran, Naomi Matsuura, Mark A Borden, Ross Williams, Terry O Matsunaga, Peter N Burns, Paul A Dayton
Continued advances in the field of ultrasound and ultrasound contrast agents have created new approaches to imaging and medical intervention. Phase-shift perfluorocarbon droplets, which can be vaporized by ultrasound energy to transition from the liquid to the vapor state, are one of the most highly researched alternatives to clinical ultrasound contrast agents (i.e. microbubbles). In this review, part of a special issue on methods in biomedical ultrasonics, we survey current techniques to prepare ultrasound-activated nanoscale phase-shift perfluorocarbon droplets, including sonication, extrusion, homogenization, microfluidics, and microbubble condensation...
October 20, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769009/role-of-g-protein-coupled-estrogen-receptor-1-in-estradiol-17%C3%AE-induced-alterations-in-protein-synthesis-and-protein-degradation-rates-in-fused-bovine-satellite-cell-cultures
#12
E Kamanga-Sollo, K J Thornton, M E White, W R Dayton
In feedlot steers, estradiol-17β (E2) and combined E2 and trenbolone acetate (a testosterone analog) implants enhance rate and efficiency of muscle growth; and, consequently, these compounds are widely used as growth promoters in several countries. Treatment with E2 stimulates protein synthesis rate and suppresses protein degradation rate in fused bovine satellite cell (BSC) cultures; however, the mechanisms involved in these effects are not known with certainty. Although the genomic effects of E2 mediated through the classical estrogen receptors have been characterized, recent studies indicate that binding of E2 to the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER)-1 mediates nongenomic effects of E2 on cellular function...
January 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740481/optimizing-acoustic-activation-of-phase-change-contrast-agents-with-the-activation-pressure-matching-method-a-review
#13
Juan D Rojas, Paul A Dayton
Sub-micron phase-change contrast agents consist of a liquid perfluorocarbon core that can be vaporized by ultrasound (acoustic droplet vaporization) to generate contrast with excellent spatial and temporal control. When these agents, commonly referred to as nanodroplets, are formulated with cores of low boiling-point perfluorocarbons such as decafluorobutane and octafluoropropane, they can be activated with lowmechanical index imaging pulses for diagnostic applications. Since the utilization of minimum mechanical index is often desirable to avoid unnecessary biological effects, enabling consistent activation of these agents in an acoustic field is a challenge because the energy that must be delivered to achieve the vaporization threshold increases with depth due to attenuation...
October 12, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733554/dna-prime-boost-vaccine-regimen-to-increase-breadth-magnitude-and-cytotoxicity-of-the-cellular-immune-responses-to-subdominant-gag-epitopes-of-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-and-hiv
#14
Xintao Hu, Antonio Valentin, Frances Dayton, Viraj Kulkarni, Candido Alicea, Margherita Rosati, Bhabadeb Chowdhury, Rajeev Gautam, Kate E Broderick, Niranjan Y Sardesai, Malcolm A Martin, James I Mullins, George N Pavlakis, Barbara K Felber
HIV sequence diversity and the propensity of eliciting immunodominant responses targeting variable regions of the HIV proteome are hurdles in the development of an effective AIDS vaccine. An HIV-derived conserved element (CE) p24(gag) plasmid DNA (pDNA) vaccine is able to redirect immunodominant responses to otherwise subdominant and often more vulnerable viral targets. By homology to the HIV immunogen, seven CE were identified in SIV p27(Gag) Analysis of 31 rhesus macaques vaccinated with full-length SIV gag pDNA showed inefficient induction (58% response rate) of cellular responses targeting these CE...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723260/targeted-dual-ph-sensitive-lipid-eco-sirna-self-assembly-nanoparticles-facilitate-in-vivo-cytosolic-sieif4e-delivery-and-overcome-paclitaxel-resistance-in-breast-cancer-therapy
#15
Maneesh Gujrati, Amita M Vaidya, Margaret Mack, Dayton Snyder, Anthony Malamas, Zheng-Rong Lu
RNAi-mediated knockdown of oncogenes associated with drug resistance can potentially enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy. Here, we have designed and developed targeted dual pH-sensitive lipid-siRNA self-assembly nanoparticles, RGD-PEG(HZ)-ECO/siRNA, which can efficiently silence the oncogene, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), and consequently resensitize triple-negative breast tumors to paclitaxel. The dual pH-sensitive function of these nanoparticles facilitates effective cytosolic siRNA delivery in cancer cells, both in vitro and in vivo...
November 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686582/intracellular-delivery-and-ultrasonic-activation-of-folate-receptor-targeted-phase-change-contrast-agents-in-breast-cancer-cells-in-vitro
#16
Joseph P Marshalek, Paul S Sheeran, Pier Ingram, Paul A Dayton, Russell S Witte, Terry O Matsunaga
Breast cancer is a diverse and complex disease that remains one of the leading causes of death among women. Novel, outside-of-the-box imaging and treatment methods are needed to supplement currently available technologies. In this study, we present evidence for the intracellular delivery and ultrasound-stimulated activation of folate receptor (FR)-targeted phase-change contrast agents (PCCAs) in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells in vitro. PCCAs are lipid-coated, perfluorocarbon-filled particles formulated as nanoscale liquid droplets capable of vaporization into gaseous microbubbles for imaging or therapy...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682190/autophagy-function-and-its-relationship-to-pathology-clinical-applications-drug-metabolism-and-toxicity
#17
Dayton M Petibone, Waqar Majeed, Daniel A Casciano
Autophagy is a cellular process that facilitates nutrient turnover and removal of expended macromolecules and organelles to maintain homeostasis. The recycling of cytosolic macromolecules and damaged organelles by autophagosomes occurs through the lysosomal degradation pathway. Autophagy can also be upregulated as a prosurvival pathway in response to stress stimuli such as starvation, hypoxia or cell damage. Over the last two decades, there has been a surge in research revealing the basic molecular mechanisms of autophagy in mammalian cells...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672030/breaking-the-cycle-estrous-variation-does-not-require-increased-sample-size-in-the-study-of-female-rats
#18
Alex Dayton, Eric C Exner, John D Bukowy, Timothy J Stodola, Theresa Kurth, Meredith Skelton, Andrew S Greene, Allen W Cowley
Despite the striking differences between male and female physiology, female physiology is understudied. In response, the National Institutes of Health is promulgating new policies to increase the use of female organisms in preclinical research. Females are commonly believed to have greater variability than males because of the estrous cycle, but recent studies call this belief into question. Effects of estrous cycling on mean arterial pressure were assessed in female Dahl S rats using telemetry and vaginal cytometry and found that estrous cycling did not affect mean arterial pressure magnitude or variance...
November 2016: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663214/what-the-primary-care-provider-needs-to-know-to-diagnose-and-care-for-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes
#19
Kristin A Dayton, Janet Silverstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659687/a-pilot-clinical-study-in-characterization-of-malignant-renal-cell-carcinoma-subtype-with-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound
#20
Sandeep K Kasoji, Emily H Chang, Lee B Mullin, Wui K Chong, W Kimryn Rathmell, Paul A Dayton
Malignant renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a diverse set of diseases, which are independently difficult to characterize using conventional MRI and CT protocols due to low temporal resolution to study perfusion characteristics. Because different disease subtypes have different prognoses and involve varying treatment regimens, the ability to determine RCC subtype non-invasively is a clinical need. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has been assessed as a tool to characterize kidney lesions based on qualitative and quantitative assessment of perfusion patterns, and we hypothesize that this technique might help differentiate disease subtypes...
September 22, 2016: Ultrasonic Imaging
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