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Juan D Rojas, Paul A Dayton
Sub-micron phase-change contrast agents consist of a liquid perfluorocarbon core that can be vaporized by ultrasound (acoustic droplet vaporization) to generate contrast with excellent spatial and temporal control. When these agents, commonly referred to as nanodroplets, are formulated with cores of low boiling-point perfluorocarbons such as decafluorobutane and octafluoropropane, they can be activated with lowmechanical index imaging pulses for diagnostic applications. Since the utilization of minimum mechanical index is often desirable to avoid unnecessary biological effects, enabling consistent activation of these agents in an acoustic field is a challenge because the energy that must be delivered to achieve the vaporization threshold increases with depth due to attenuation...
October 12, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Xintao Hu, Antonio Valentin, Frances Dayton, Viraj Kulkarni, Candido Alicea, Margherita Rosati, Bhabadeb Chowdhury, Rajeev Gautam, Kate E Broderick, Niranjan Y Sardesai, Malcolm A Martin, James I Mullins, George N Pavlakis, Barbara K Felber
HIV sequence diversity and the propensity of eliciting immunodominant responses targeting variable regions of the HIV proteome are hurdles in the development of an effective AIDS vaccine. An HIV-derived conserved element (CE) p24(gag) plasmid DNA (pDNA) vaccine is able to redirect immunodominant responses to otherwise subdominant and often more vulnerable viral targets. By homology to the HIV immunogen, seven CE were identified in SIV p27(Gag) Analysis of 31 rhesus macaques vaccinated with full-length SIV gag pDNA showed inefficient induction (58% response rate) of cellular responses targeting these CE...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Maneesh Gujrati, Amita M Vaidya, Margaret Mack, Dayton Snyder, Anthony Malamas, Zheng-Rong Lu
RNAi-mediated knockdown of oncogenes associated with drug resistance can potentially enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy. Here, we have designed and developed targeted dual pH-sensitive lipid-siRNA self-assembly nanoparticles, RGD-PEG(HZ)-ECO/siRNA, which can efficiently silence the oncogene, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), and consequently resensitize triple-negative breast tumors to paclitaxel. The dual pH-sensitive function of these nanoparticles facilitates effective cytosolic siRNA delivery in cancer cells, both in vitro and in vivo...
October 10, 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Joseph P Marshalek, Paul S Sheeran, Pier Ingram, Paul A Dayton, Russell S Witte, Terry O Matsunaga
Breast cancer is a diverse and complex disease that remains one of the leading causes of death among women. Novel, outside-of-the-box imaging and treatment methods are needed to supplement currently available technologies. In this study, we present evidence for the intracellular delivery and ultrasound-stimulated activation of folate receptor (FR)-targeted phase-change contrast agents (PCCAs) in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells in vitro. PCCAs are lipid-coated, perfluorocarbon-filled particles formulated as nanoscale liquid droplets capable of vaporization into gaseous microbubbles for imaging or therapy...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Dayton M Petibone, Waqar Majeed, Daniel A Casciano
Autophagy is a cellular process that facilitates nutrient turnover and removal of expended macromolecules and organelles to maintain homeostasis. The recycling of cytosolic macromolecules and damaged organelles by autophagosomes occurs through the lysosomal degradation pathway. Autophagy can also be upregulated as a prosurvival pathway in response to stress stimuli such as starvation, hypoxia or cell damage. Over the last two decades, there has been a surge in research revealing the basic molecular mechanisms of autophagy in mammalian cells...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Alex Dayton, Eric C Exner, John D Bukowy, Timothy J Stodola, Theresa Kurth, Meredith Skelton, Andrew S Greene, Allen W Cowley
Despite the striking differences between male and female physiology, female physiology is understudied. In response, the National Institutes of Health is promulgating new policies to increase the use of female organisms in preclinical research. Females are commonly believed to have greater variability than males because of the estrous cycle, but recent studies call this belief into question. Effects of estrous cycling on mean arterial pressure were assessed in female Dahl S rats using telemetry and vaginal cytometry and found that estrous cycling did not affect mean arterial pressure magnitude or variance...
November 2016: Hypertension
Kristin A Dayton, Janet Silverstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Sandeep K Kasoji, Emily H Chang, Lee B Mullin, Wui K Chong, W Kimryn Rathmell, Paul A Dayton
Malignant renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a diverse set of diseases, which are independently difficult to characterize using conventional MRI and CT protocols due to low temporal resolution to study perfusion characteristics. Because different disease subtypes have different prognoses and involve varying treatment regimens, the ability to determine RCC subtype non-invasively is a clinical need. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has been assessed as a tool to characterize kidney lesions based on qualitative and quantitative assessment of perfusion patterns, and we hypothesize that this technique might help differentiate disease subtypes...
September 22, 2016: Ultrasonic Imaging
Dayton J Goodell, Megan A Ahern, Jessica Baynard, Vanessa L Wall, Sondra T Bland
Post-weaning social isolation (PSI) has been shown to increase aggressive behavior and alter medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) function in social species such as rats. Here we developed a novel escapable social interaction test (ESIT) allowing for the quantification of escape and social behaviors in addition to mPFC activation in response to an aggressive or nonaggressive stimulus rat. Male rats were exposed to 3 weeks of PSI (ISO) or group (GRP) housing, and exposed to 3 trials, with either no trial, all trials, or the last trial only with a stimulus rat...
September 12, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Emily S Jentes, Alexander J Millman, Michelle Decenteceo, Andrew Klevos, Holly M Biggs, Douglas H Esposito, Heidi McPherson, Carmen Sullivan, Dayton Voorhees, Jim Watkins, Fanancy L Anzalone, Linda Gaul, Sal Flores, Gary W Brunette, Mark J Sotir
Public health investigations can require intensive collaboration between numerous governmental and nongovernmental organizations. We describe an investigation involving several governmental and nongovernmental partners that was successfully planned and performed in an organized, comprehensive, and timely manner with several governmental and nongovernmental partners.
September 6, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Mindi Feilmeier, Paul Dayton, Merrell Kauwe, Andrea Cifaldi, Britney Roberts, Hannah Johnk, Rachel Reimer
: Intercuneiform instability has been recognized as a potential cause of hallux valgus recurrence following tarsal-metatarsal joint (TMTJ) fusion. Recommendations have been made for additional screw placement between the metatarsals and/or the cuneiforms to improve stability. The screw orientation that provides the best stability has not been documented. Twelve cadavers with the first TMTJ fixated were used for testing. Using a consistent force application of 15 pounds in both the transverse and coronal planes, we measured the change in intermetatarsal angle on radiographs...
September 5, 2016: Foot & Ankle Specialist
Waqar Majeed, Shawn Bourdo, Dayton M Petibone, Viney Saini, Kieng Bao Vang, Zeid A Nima, Karrer M Alghazali, Emilie Darrigues, Anindya Ghosh, Fumiya Watanabe, Daniel Casciano, Syed F Ali, Alexandru S Biris
Graphene and its derivative, because of their unique physical, electrical and chemical properties, are an important class of nanomaterials being proposed as foundational materials in nanomedicine as well as for a variety of industrial applications. A major limitation for graphene, when used in biomedical applications, is its poor solubility due to its rather hydrophobic nature. Therefore, chemical functionalities are commonly introduced to alter both its surface chemistry and biochemical activity. Here, we show that surface chemistry plays a major role in the toxicological profile of the graphene structures...
September 4, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Dayton J Goodell, Tim A Benke, K Ulrich Bayer
The Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a major mediator of long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD), two opposing forms of synaptic plasticity underlying learning, memory and cognition. The heterozygous CaMKIIα isoform ko (CaMKIIα(+/-)) mice have a schizophrenia-related phenotype, including impaired working memory. Here, we examined synaptic strength and plasticity in two brain areas implicated in working memory, hippocampus CA1 and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Young CaMKIIα(+/-) mice (postnatal day 12-16; corresponding to a developmental stage well before schizophrenia manifestation in humans) showed impaired hippocampal CA1 LTP...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Brooks D Lindsey, Sarah E Shelton, F Stuart Foster, Paul A Dayton
PURPOSE: The purposes of the present study is to evaluate a new ultrasound molecular imaging approach in its ability to image a preclinical tumor model and to investigate the capacity to visualize and quantify co-registered microvascular and molecular imaging volumes. PROCEDURES: Molecular imaging using the new technique was compared with a conventional ultrasound molecular imaging technique (multi-pulse imaging) by varying the injected microbubble dose and scanning each animal using both techniques...
August 12, 2016: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
L A Pickworth, B A Hammel, V A Smalyuk, A G MacPhee, H A Scott, H F Robey, O L Landen, M A Barrios, S P Regan, M B Schneider, M Hoppe, T Kohut, D Holunga, C Walters, B Haid, M Dayton
First measurements of hydrodynamic growth near peak implosion velocity in an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosion at the National Ignition Facility were obtained using a self-radiographing technique and a preimposed Legendre mode 40, λ=140  μm, sinusoidal perturbation. These are the first measurements of the total growth at the most unstable mode from acceleration Rayleigh-Taylor achieved in any ICF experiment to date, showing growth of the areal density perturbation of ∼7000×. Measurements were made at convergences of ∼5 to ∼10× at both the waist and pole of the capsule, demonstrating simultaneous measurements of the growth factors from both lines of sight...
July 15, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Girish Vitalpur, Shaylar Padgett, Kirsten M Kloepfer, James Slaven, Frederick E Leickly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
R Cameron Wolf, Darrin Adams, Robyn Dayton, Annette Verster, Joe Wong, Marcela Romero, Rafael Mazin, Edmund Settle, Tim Sladden, JoAnne Keatley
Transgender (trans) activists and global health partners have collaborated to develop new tools and guidance for assessing and addressing HIV and other health needs within trans populations. Trans women experience a heavy burden of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), high incidence of violence and difficulties accessing gender-affirming services. At the same time, little has been published on trans men's health, HIV issues, needs and experiences. Young trans people are especially marginalized and vulnerable, with few programmes and services specifically tailored to their needs...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Kasey L Jackson, Robert D Dayton, Ronald L Klein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
Anthony Novell, Christopher B Arena, Omer Oralkan, Paul A Dayton
An ongoing challenge exists in understanding and optimizing the acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) process to enhance contrast agent effectiveness for biomedical applications. Acoustic signatures from vaporization events can be identified and differentiated from microbubble or tissue signals based on their frequency content. The present study exploited the wide bandwidth of a 128-element capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) array for activation (8 MHz) and real-time imaging (1 MHz) of ADV events from droplets circulating in a tube...
June 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Danielle Thiemann, Vanessa Lopez, Ann M Ray, Don Cipollini
Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an invasive insect that has caused widespread mortality of ash species in North America. The ability of emerald ash borer to utilize white fringetree as an alternate host was reported recently. We aimed to determine how long white fringetree has been under attack from emerald ash borer, the degree of attack, and the overall success of this beetle on this novel host. Stems from three of nine infested white fringetrees collected from the Dayton and Cincinnati, OH, areas in the winter of 2015 yielded four live adult emerald ash borers after being held in rearing containers, and numerous older exit holes were observed...
August 2016: Environmental Entomology
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