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inflammatory intestinal disease

Mariola Paściak, Sabina Górska, Natalia Jawiarczyk, Andrzej Gamian
Structural studies of the major glycolipids produced by two Lactobacillus johnsonii (LJ) strains, LJ 151 isolated from intestinal tract of healthy mice and LJ 142 isolated from mice with experimentally induced inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), were performed. Two major glycolipids, GL1 and GL2, were present in lipid extracts from L. johnsonii 142 and 151 strains. Glycolipid GL1 has been identified as β-D-Glcp-(1→6)-α-D-Galp-(1→2)-α-D-Glcp-diglyceride and GL2 as α-D-Galp-(1→2)-α-D-Glcp-diglyceride...
October 21, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Yaohong Wang, Sudeep P George, Swati Roy, Eric Pham, Amin Esmaeilniakooshkghazi, Seema Khurana
In the small intestine, epithelial cells are derived from stem cells in the crypts, migrate up the villus as they differentiate and are ultimately shed from the villus tips. This process of proliferation and shedding is tightly regulated to maintain the intestinal architecture and tissue homeostasis. Apoptosis regulates both the number of stem cells in the crypts as well as the sloughing of cells from the villus tips. Previously, we have shown that villin, an epithelial cell-specific actin-binding protein functions as an anti-apoptotic protein in the gastrointestinal epithelium...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Julia König, Jerry Wells, Patrice D Cani, Clara L García-Ródenas, Tom MacDonald, Annick Mercenier, Jacqueline Whyte, Freddy Troost, Robert-Jan Brummer
The gastrointestinal tract consists of an enormous surface area that is optimized to efficiently absorb nutrients, water, and electrolytes from food. At the same time, it needs to provide a tight barrier against the ingress of harmful substances, and protect against a reaction to omnipresent harmless compounds. A dysfunctional intestinal barrier is associated with various diseases and disorders. In this review, the role of intestinal permeability in common disorders such as infections with intestinal pathogens, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, obesity, celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, and food allergies will be discussed...
October 20, 2016: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
Yu-Ling Chen, Yi-Ting Chen, Cheng-Feng Lo, Ching-I Hsieh, Shang-Yi Chiu, Chang-Yen Wu, Yu-Shan Yeh, Shu-Hsuan Hung, Po-Hao Cheng, Yu-Hsuan Su, Si-Tse Jiang, Hsian-Jean Chin, Yu-Chia Su
Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic and progressive inflammatory intestinal disease that includes two major types, namely ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease (CD). CD is characterized by intestinal epithelial hyperplasia and inflammatory cell infiltration. Transfer of CD25(-)CD45RB(hi)CD4(+) (naïve) T cells into immunodeficiency mice induces autoimmune colitis with pathological lesions similar to CD and loss of body weight 4 weeks after cell transfer. However, weight loss neither has sufficient sensitivity nor totally matches the pathological findings of CD...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Stefan Tukaj, Anna Görög, Konrad Kleszczyński, Detlef Zillikens, Sarolta Kárpáti, Michael Kasperkiewicz
Inflammation-induced heat shock proteins (HSPs) and hypovitaminosis D have been reported to impact immune responses and to be associated with autoimmune diseases including celiac disease (CD), a gluten-sensitive enteropathy mediated by autoantibodies against tissue transglutaminase (TG2). Recently, we provided evidence for a role of autoantibodies to HSPs in patients with dermatitis herpetiformis (DH), an inflammatory skin disease induced by underlying latent CD. In this study, we aimed at investigating the humoral autoimmune response to HSPs and vitamin D status in CD patients (n=15) presenting without the cutaneous disease manifestation...
October 16, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Yoshiyuki Goto, Satoshi Uematsu, Hiroshi Kiyono
Intestinal epithelial cells apically express glycans, especially α1,2-fucosyl linkages, which work as a biological interface for the host-microbe interaction. Emerging studies have shown that epithelial α1,2-fucosylation is regulated by microbes and by group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s). Dysregulation of the gene (FUT2) encoding fucosyltransferase 2, an enzyme governing epithelial α1,2-fucosylation, is associated with various human disorders, including infection and chronic inflammatory diseases. This suggests a critical role for an interaction between microbes, epithelial cells and ILC3s mediated via glycan residues...
October 19, 2016: Nature Immunology
Rocío López-Posadas, Cristina Mascaraque, Raquel González, María D Suárez, Antonio Zarzuelo, Olga Martínez-Augustin, Fermín Sánchez de Medina
BACKGROUND: Statins have antiinflammatory effects at the cardiovascular level because of inhibition of prenylation, which also probably underlies their therapeutic effects in preclinical models of inflammatory bowel disease. Another inhibitor of prenylation, namely alendronate, reduces colitis in rodents. In this study, we aim to explore the therapeutic potential of second-generation, nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates in 3 preclinical models of colitis. METHODS: The trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid and dextran sulfate sodium models of rat colitis and the adoptive lymphocyte transfer model of colitis in mice were used...
November 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Katarzyna Sznurkowska, Anton Żawrocki, Jacek Sznurkowski, Maciej Zieliński, Piotr Landowski, Katarzyna Plata-Nazar, Ewa Iżycka-Świeszewska, Piotr Trzonkowski, Agnieszka Szlagatys-Sidorkiewicz, Barbara Kamińska
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To determine the proportion of T-regulatory cells (CD4(+)CD25(high)FOXP3(+) cells) in peripheral blood and the number of FOXP3(+) cells in intestinal mucosa of children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and to verify whether these parameters correlate with the activity of the disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 24 patients newly diagnosed for IBD were included in the study: ulcerative colitis (UC; n = 13) and Crohn's disease (CD; n = 11). Seventeen healthy controls (HC) and 16 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) served as a control group for peripheral and intestinal Tregs assessment, respectively...
October 19, 2016: Immunological Investigations
Graeme Milligan, Daniele Bolognini, Eugenia Sergeev
A large number of reviews and commentaries have highlighted the potential role of the short-chain fatty acid receptors GPR41 (FFA3) and, particularly, GPR43 (FFA2) as an interface between the intestinal microbiota and metabolic and inflammatory disorders. However, short-chain fatty acids have very modest potency and display limited selectivity between these two receptors, and studies on receptor knockout mice have resulted in non-uniform conclusions; therefore, selective and high-potency/high-affinity synthetic ligands are required to further explore the contribution of these receptors to health and disease...
October 19, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Ester Pagano, Raffaele Capasso, Fabiana Piscitelli, Barbara Romano, Olga A Parisi, Stefania Finizio, Anna Lauritano, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Angelo A Izzo, Francesca Borrelli
Anecdotal and scientific evidence suggests that Cannabis use may be beneficial in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Here, we have investigated the effect of a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of cannabidiol (CBD), here named CBD BDS for "CBD botanical drug substance," on mucosal inflammation and hypermotility in mouse models of intestinal inflammation. Colitis was induced in mice by intracolonic administration of dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (DNBS). Motility was evaluated in the experimental model of intestinal hypermotility induced by irritant croton oil...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Sungmun Lee, Yeu-Chun Kim, Ji-Ho Park
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the development of inflammatory bowel diseases. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) has a great therapeutic potential by scavenging superoxide that is one of ROS; however, in vivo application is limited especially when it is orally administered. SOD is easily degraded in vivo by the harsh conditions of gastrointestinal tract. Here, we design a zein-alginate based oral drug delivery system that protects SOD from the harsh conditions of gastrointestinal tract and releases it in the environment of the small intestine...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Francesca Palone, Roberta Vitali, Salvatore Cucchiara, Maurizio Mennini, Alessandro Armuzzi, Daniela Pugliese, Renata DʼIncà, Brigida Barberio, Laura Stronati
BACKGROUND: Fecal high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) has been suggested to be a novel noninvasive biomarker of gut inflammation. We aimed to assess the reliability of fecal HMGB1, compared with fecal calprotectin (FC), in detecting intestinal inflammation in pediatric and adult patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and to evaluate the accuracy of HMGB1 in identifying patients with IBD in clinical and endoscopic remission who still have histologic features of inflammation. METHODS: Stool samples from 85 children with IBD (49 Crohn's disease [CD] and 36 ulcerative colitis [UC] and 119 adults [57 Crohn's disease and 62 ulcerative colitis]) were analyzed for the study...
October 13, 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Firas Rinawi, Amit Assa, Corina Hartman, Yael Mozer Glassberg, Vered Nachmias Friedler, Yoram Rosenbach, Ari Silbermintz, Noam Zevit, Raanan Shamir
BACKGROUND: Data describing the incidence and the risk factors for surgical interventions in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD) is inconsistent. Our aim was to describe the rates of intestinal surgery and to identify associated risk factors in a large cohort of children with CD. METHODS: Medical charts of 482 children with CD from the Schneider Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease cohort who were diagnosed between 1981 and 2013 were carefully reviewed retrospectively...
October 13, 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
V V Muthusamy
Cardiovascular disease burden is increasing all over the world. The diagnosis of hypertension is considered when a person has persistently elevated BP (Systolic BP more than 140 mmHg and/or Diastolic BP more than 90 mmHg). Dyslipidemia denotes abnormal levels of lipids in the blood (Total Cholesterol >200 mg%, Low density lipoprotein (LDL) >100 mg%, Triglycerides (TGL) >150 mg% and High density lipoprotein (HDL) <40 mg in men and < 50 mg in women. Hypertension and Dyslipidemia constitute the important components of metabolic syndrome as per the definition of NCEP Guidelines-Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Myung-Shik Lee
Low-grade systemic inflammation in adipose tissues or liver, is an important etiologic factor in insulin resistance. LPS is an important element causing such metabolic inflammation, and intestinal flora is considered a major source of systemic LPS. We studied changes of intestinal microbiota associated with high-fat diet (HFD) that causes insulin resistance and metabolic stress. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that HFD significantly decreased the abundance of a mucin-degrading bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila compared to control diet...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Yaron Niv, Eyal Gal, Violeta Gabovitz, Marcela Hershkovitz, Lev Lichtenstein, Irit Avni
BACKGROUND AND THE STUDY AIM: Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder defined as a transmural inflammation of the bowel wall, affecting the small and large intestine. The Capsule Endoscopy Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CECDAI or Niv score) was devised to measure mucosal disease activity. We extended the Niv score to the colon and have a comprehensive view of the whole intestine. METHODS: We evaluated 3 parameters of intestinal pathology: A, Inflammation; B, Extent of disease; C, Presence of strictures...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Monica D Prakash, Sarah Miller, Sarron Randall-Demllo, Kulmira Nurgali
Cancer development is often associated with chronic inflammation. To date, research into inflammation-induced cancer has largely focused on chemokines, cytokines, and their downstream targets. These inflammatory mediators may promote tumor growth, invasion, metastasis, and facilitate angiogenesis. However, the exact mechanisms by which inflammation promotes neoplasia remain unclear. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by recurrent, idiopathic intestinal inflammation, the complications of which are potentially fatal...
November 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Prasenjit Das, Ramakant Rawat, Anil K Verma, Geetika Singh, Archana G Vallonthaiel, Rajni Yadav, Gaurav P S Gahlot, Amit K Dinda, Vineet Ahuja, Siddhartha Datta Gupta, Sanjay K Agarwal, Govind K Makharia
Tissue transglutaminase 2 enzyme plays a diverse role in intracellular and extracellular functioning. Aberrant expression of anti-TG2 antibody has recently been proposed for extraintestinal identification of celiac disease (CeD), but its utility is questionable. To examine whether anti-TG2 immunohistochemical (IHC) staining can be of diagnostic value in identifying extraintestinal involvement in CeD, tissue blocks of patients with IgA nephropathies (IgAN), minimal change disease, membranous glomerulonephritis, membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis, normal kidney, intestinal biopsies from CeD, tropical sprue, nonspecific duodenitis, and inflammatory bowel disease; liver biopsies from patients with chronic hepatitis B and C, acute liver failure (ALF), and CeD-associated liver diseases were retrieved and subjected to IHC staining for anti-tissue transglutaminase 2 enzyme...
October 7, 2016: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Julian Panes, Vipul Jairath, Barrett G Levesque
Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are heterogeneous inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and therapeutic requirements vary among patients. We have a limited capacity to predict disease progression for individual patients, so it is important that they are evaluated for presence of active disease when symptoms are mild or even absent, when patients are more likely to respond to new treatment interventions. It is then important to monitor responses to treatment, to quickly identify those therapies that are ineffective, modify or change therapy, and avoid disease complications...
October 14, 2016: Gastroenterology
Francesco Russo, Guglielmina Chimienti, Michele Linsalata, Caterina Clemente, Antonella Orlando, Giuseppe Riezzo
BACKGROUND: Ghrelin levels and obestatin/ghrelin ratio have been proposed as activity markers in ulcerative colitis, but no data are available in celiac disease (CD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Our aims were as follows: (a) to assess obestatin and ghrelin concentrations in adult active CD patients, diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-d), and healthy controls (HC) in relation to intestinal permeability; (b) to evaluate the ghrelin-obestatin profile in CD patients after a 1-year gluten-free diet (GFD); and (c) to establish the impact of ghrelin genetics...
October 12, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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