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spontanous bacterial peritonitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235260/functional-polymorphisms-of-innate-immunity-receptors-are-not-risk-factors-for-the-non-sbp-type-bacterial-infections-in-cirrhosis
#1
Tamas Dinya, Tamas Tornai, Zsuzsanna Vitalis, Istvan Tornai, Boglárka Balogh, David Tornai, Peter Antal-Szalmas, Andrea Sumegi, Hajnalka Andrikovics, Andras Bors, Attila Tordai, Maria Papp
BACKGROUND&AIMS: Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) have a key role in the innate host defense. Functional polymorphisms of various PRRs have been established to contribute to an increased susceptibility to spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). Their role in the development of cirrhosis-associated bacterial infections (BI), beyond SBP or progressive disease course related to pathological bacterial translocation (BT) remains unknown. METHODS: 349 patients with cirrhosis were genotyped for common NOD2 (R702W, G908R and L1007PfsinsC), TLR2 (-16934T>A), and TLR4 (D299G) variants...
December 13, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234197/echocardiographic-and-electrocardiographic-predictors-of-adverse-outcomes-in-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis
#2
Mahek Shah, Soumya Patnaik, Obiora Maludum, Shantanu Patil, Toni Anne De Venecia, Vincent M Figueredo
Background: Patients with cirrhosis who develop Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis (SBP) suffer from cirrhotic cardiomyopathy which is characterized by impaired contractility in response to stress despite a relatively normal resting cardiac output. We hypothesized that electrocardiographic and echocardiographic information would help prognosticate patients developing SBP in addition to existing scoring systems. Methods: Cirrhotic patients admitted to Einstein Medical Center from 01/01/2005 to 6/30/2012 for SBP, and did not receive a transplant within one year, were included...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234192/impact-of-acute-kidney-injury-on-mortality-of-patients-hospitalized-for-complications-of-cirrhosis
#3
Anantha Nuthalapati, Nicholas Schluterman, Anuj Khanna, Deborah Greenberg, Paul J Thuluvath
Background/aims: The mortality of hospitalized patients for complications of cirrhosis is very high. We examined the independent predictors of mortality, particularly the impact of increments in creatinine, in 339 consecutive patients (636 admissions) who were admitted for complications of cirrhosis. Methods: Clinical characteristics, biochemical parameters including serum creatinine levels at various time intervals, and mortality data were recorded for all admissions...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224053/spontaneous-bacteremia-and-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis-share-similar-prognosis-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-a-cohort-study
#4
Sebastián Marciano, Melisa Dirchwolf, Carla S Bermudez, Natalia Sobenko, Leila Haddad, Federico Genre Bert, Laura Barcán, Astrid Smud, Maria Lourdes Posadas-Martínez, Diego Giunta, Adrián Gadano
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Spontaneous bacteremia is a poorly characterized infection in patients with cirrhosis. We compared the incidence of mortality and acute kidney injury in patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and spontaneous bacteremia, and identified risk factors for mortality and acute kidney injury in patients with spontaneous bacteremia. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients with cirrhosis and spontaneous bacteremia or spontaneous bacterial peritonitis from 2008 to 2016 at Hospital Italiano, Buenos Aires...
December 9, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214880/low-ascitic-fluid-total-protein-levels-is-not-associated-to-the-development-of-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis-in-a-cohort-of-274-patients-with-cirrhosis
#5
Silje Mo, Flemming Bendtsen, Signe Skovgaard Wiese, Nina Kimer
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a complication to decompensated cirrhosis. Fluoroquinolones may prevent SBP. However, predictive markers for SBP are wanted. Guidelines suggest that patients with ascitic fluid protein below 15 g/l receive fluoroquinolones to prevent SBP. This study aimed to assess the clinical utility of low ascitic fluid protein in predicting SBP in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. METHODS: A total of 274 patients with cirrhosis and ascites underwent paracentesis between January 2010 and June 2015...
December 7, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199170/what-is-the-long-term-acid-inhibitor-treatment-in-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-what-are-the-potential-problems-related-to-long-term-acid-inhibitor-treatment-in-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-how-should-these-cases-be-followed
#6
İbrahim Hatemi, Sinem Nihal Esatoğlu
The meta-analyses of observational studies (OBS) showed the risk of any fracture and hip fracture slightly increased with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment depending on the dose and regardless of time. This was not observed with histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RA). The risk of bacterial overgrowth and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis were increased with PPI therapy, but not with H2RA. In meta-analyses of OBS, a slight increase was observed in the risk of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in the early stages (<1 month) of PPI use and particularly at high doses...
December 2017: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142474/clinical-features-of-alcoholic-hepatitis-in-latinos-and-caucasians-a-single-center-experience
#7
Rogelio Pinon-Gutierrez, Blythe Durbin-Johnson, Charles H Halsted, Valentina Medici
AIM: To study differences of presentation, management, and prognosis of alcoholic hepatitis in Latinos compared to Caucasians. METHODS: We retrospectively screened 876 charts of Caucasian and Latino patients who were evaluated at University of California Davis Medical Center between 1/1/2002-12/31/2014 with the diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease. We identified and collected data on 137 Caucasians and 64 Latinos who met criteria for alcoholic hepatitis, including chronic history of heavy alcohol use, at least one episode of jaundice with bilirubin ≥ 3...
October 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109849/current-concepts-and-future-strategies-in-the-antimicrobial-therapy-of-emerging-gram-positive-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis
#8
REVIEW
Marco Fiore, Alberto Enrico Maraolo, Ivan Gentile, Guglielmo Borgia, Sebastiano Leone, Pasquale Sansone, Maria Beatrice Passavanti, Caterina Aurilio, Maria Caterina Pace
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is the most common infection in end-stage liver disease patients. SBP is defined as an ascitic fluid infection with a polymorphonuclear leucocyte count ≥ 250/mm(3) without an evident intra-abdominal surgically treatable source. Several mechanisms contribute to SBP occurrence, including translocation of gut bacteria and their products, reduced intestinal motility provoking bacterial overgrowth, alteration of the gut's barrier function and local immune responses. Historically, Gram-negative enteric bacteria have been the main causative agents of SBP, thereby guiding the empirical therapeutic choice...
October 28, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099421/effects-of-atorvastatin-on-portal-hemodynamics-and-clinical-outcomes-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-with-portal-hypertension-a-proof-of-concept-study
#9
Saptarshi Bishnu, Sk M Ahammed, Avik Sarkar, Jabaranjan Hembram, Saswata Chatterjee, Kshaunish Das, Gopal K Dhali, Abhijit Chowdhury, Kausik Das
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Statins can modulate portal microvascular dynamics in patients with cirrhosis. We present data from a proof-of-concept study aimed at comparing combination of propranolol and atorvastatin versus propranolol alone in reducing portal pressure in patients with cirrhosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this open-label proof-of-concept study, 23 consecutive patients with cirrhosis were randomized into group A (incremental dose propranolol, n=12) or group B (atorvastatin 20 mg daily with propranolol in incremental dose, n=11)...
November 2, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098551/ascites-neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocalin-identifies-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis-and-predicts-mortality-in-hospitalized-patients-with-cirrhosis
#10
Giuseppe Cullaro, Grace Kim, Marcus R Pereira, Robert S Brown, Elizabeth C Verna
BACKGROUND: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a marker of both tissue injury and infection. Urine NGAL levels strongly predict acute kidney injury and mortality in patients with cirrhosis, but ascites NGAL is not well characterized. We hypothesized that ascites NGAL level is a marker of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) and mortality risk in patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: Hospitalized patients with cirrhosis and ascites undergoing diagnostic paracentesis were prospectively enrolled and followed until death or discharge...
December 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081656/spontaneous-peritonitis-in-critically-ill-cirrhotic-patients-a-diagnostic-algorithm-for-clinicians-and-future-perspectives
#11
Marco Fiore, Alberto Enrico Maraolo, Sebastiano Leone, Ivan Gentile, Arturo Cuomo, Vincenzo Schiavone, Sabrina Bimonte, Maria Caterina Pace, Marco Cascella
Spontaneous peritonitis (SP) is the most common infection among decompensated end-stage liver disease patients. SP is the infection of ascitic fluid (neutrophil ascitic count ≥250/mL) without an alternative focus of abdominal infection. According to the causative agent, clinicians can make the diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis or spontaneous fungal peritonitis. The mortality rate is very high, ranging from one-fifth of the patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis to four-fifths of the patients with spontaneous fungal peritonitis...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041907/detection-of-bacterial-dna-by-in-situ-hybridization-in-patients-with-decompensated-liver-cirrhosis
#12
Shingo Usui, Hirotoshi Ebinuma, Po-Sung Chu, Nobuhiro Nakamoto, Yoshiyuki Yamagishi, Hidetsugu Saito, Takanori Kanai
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is often difficult to diagnose because bacteria in ascites cannot be detected accurately by conventional culture. In situ hybridization (ISH) was previously developed for rapid detection of genes from bacteria phagocytized by neutrophils. SBP may develop after bacteria enter into the systemic circulation following bacterial translocation. Therefore, we performed ISH to identify bacteria in blood samples collected from patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis (LC)...
October 17, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994123/systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-rifaximin-for-the-prophylaxis-of-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis
#13
REVIEW
A Goel, U Rahim, L H Nguyen, C Stave, M H Nguyen
BACKGROUND: The primary and secondary prevention of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is recommended in high-risk patients with cirrhosis. Several studies evaluating the efficacy of rifaximin for SBP prophylaxis have yielded conflicting results. Rifaximin has the potential advantage of preventing bacterial overgrowth and translocation without the systemic side effects of broad-spectrum antibiotics. AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of rifaximin in the primary and secondary prevention of SBP...
December 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970708/comparative-study-of-community-acquired-and-nosocomial-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis-and-its-variants-in-150-patients
#14
Girisha Balaraju, Mallikarjun Patil, Adarsh C Krishnamurthy, Dheeraj Karanth, Harshad Devarbhavi
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial acquisition of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is debated as having a different microbial etiology and prognosis. Identification of clinical, laboratory predictors of mortality and appropriate empirical antimicrobial selection is necessary to prevent early mortality and morbidity. We aimed to find the clinical and bacteriological profile in nosocomial and community acquired SBP and its variants, and the predictors of mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred and fifty patients with 162 discrete episodes of different types of SBP were analyzed...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963603/intestinal-colonization-with-resistant-bacteria-a-prognostic-marker-of-mortality-in-decompensated-cirrhosis
#15
S Pouriki, G Vrioni, H Sambatakou, A Alexopoulou, L Vasilieva, I Mani, A Tsakris, S P Dourakis
Infections due to drug-resistant (DR) bacteria are increasingly recognized as an emerging problem worldwide. Asymptomatically colonized patients may contribute to the reservoir in the hospital setting, causing both horizontal transmission and endogenous infections. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal colonization with DR bacteria on subsequent clinical infection development and prognosis in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. One hundred seven patients without infection at baseline were screened and prospectively followed-up for 3 months...
September 30, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957773/a-rare-case-report-describing-the-relation-between-sweet-syndrome-and-spontaneous-recurrent-peritonitis
#16
Y Rajjoub, N Saffaf, A Goodman
INTRODUCTION: Sweet syndrome (acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis) is a subset of rare inflammatory disorders, first described by Dr. Robert Douglas Sweet in 1964 (Sweet, 1964). The co-existence of Sweet syndrome and spontaneous recurrent peritonitis has never been previously mentioned in the medical literature. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We report a case of a 37-year old female patient with known idiopathic Sweet syndrome, diagnosed on skin biopsy, who presented with multiple episodes of spontaneous peritonitis...
2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953058/albumin-use-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-in-france-results-of-the-albu-live-survey-a-case-for-better-easl-guidelines-diffusion-and-or-revision
#17
Armand Garioud, Jean-François Cadranel, Arnaud Pauwels, Jean-Baptiste Nousbaum, Thierry Thévenot, Thong Dao, Alexandre Louvet, Philippe Sogni, Nathalie Talbodec, Teresa M Antonini, Christophe Bureau, Dominique Thabut, Laure Elkrief, Vincent Jouannaud, Gilles Macaigne, Brigitte Bernard-Chabert, Hortensia Lison, Laurent Alric, Nicolas Carbonell, Héléne Labadie, Xavier Amiot, Armand Abergel, Bertrand Hanslik, Vincent Leroy, Victor De Lédinghen, Jacques Denis
INTRODUCTION: The use of human albumin for the management of cirrhosis has increased. Recommendations have been published for therapeutic paracentesis (TP), spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP), and type 1 hepatorenal syndrome (HRS). The goal of this survey was to assess the prescription practices of French hepatogastroenterologists. METHODS: All hepatogastroenterologists were contacted. The questionnaire evaluated (1) the use of albumin in validated indications and (2) the prescription of albumin for nonvalidated clinical situations...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944228/clostridium-tertium-peritonitis-and-concurrent-bacteremia-in-a-patient-with-a-history-of-alcoholic-cirrhosis
#18
S Scott Sutton, Mark Jumper, Ansal Shah, Babatunde Edun
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a recognized cause of morbidity and mortality in cirrhotic patients. Enterobacteriaceae have been isolated from the majority of peritonitis cases and the gram negative aerobe Escherichia coli is the most commonly isolated organism. Anaerobic organisms are rarely isolated because of the high oxygen tension in ascetic fluid. We report a patient with a history of alcoholic cirrhosis who developed SBP and concurrent bacteremia with the anaerobe Clostridium tertium. The patient was successfully treated with intravenous antibiotics and was discharged home on oral ciprofloxacin...
July 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944070/rifaximin-versus-norfloxacin-for-prevention-of-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis-a-systematic-review
#19
Gurpartap S Sidhu, Andrew Go, Bashar M Attar, Hemant R Mutneja, Shilpa Arora, Sanjay A Patel
AIM: The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of rifaximin in the prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) as compared with norfloxacin. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, Google Scholar and Cochrane databases from inception to January 2017. Reference lists of articles as well as conference proceedings were manually screened. We included studies that recruited patients with cirrhosis and ascites who met the criteria for primary or secondary SBP prophylaxis as defined by the European Association for the Study of the Liver and American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases...
2017: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919607/impact-of-adrenocortical-insufficiency-on-clinical-parameters-in-haemodynamically-stable-cirrhotic-patients-with-ascites
#20
H Ahmed, M R Karim, R K Paul, M Chowdhury, M S Alam, A Saha, F Rahman, M A Rouf
Cirrhosis has many complications regardless of the aetiology. Complications include splenomegaly, ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatorenal syndrome and hepatocellular carcinoma and also linked to abnormalities in the endocrine system, including abnormal sex hormone metabolism, thyroid disease, osteoporosis, and, most recently identified, adrenal insufficiency. This prospective cohort study was done to evaluate the impact of adrenocortical insufficiency on clinical parameters in haemodynamically stable cirrhotic patients with ascites and had been performed at the inpatient of GHPD Department, BIRDEM, Dhaka, Bangladesh from April 2011 to March 2012...
July 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
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