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Cerebral vasculopathy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220365/binding-of-11-c-pittsburgh-compound-b-correlated-with-white-matter-injury-in-hypertensive-small-vessel-disease
#1
Tetsuya Hashimoto, Chiaki Yokota, Kazuhiro Koshino, Takashi Temma, Makoto Yamazaki, Satoshi Iguchi, Ryo Shimomura, Toshiyuki Uehara, Naoko Funatsu, Tenyu Hino, Kazuo Minematsu, Hidehiro Iida, Kazunori Toyoda
OBJECTIVE: (11)C-Pittsburgh compound-B ((11)C-PIB) positron emission tomography (PET) is used to visualize and quantify amyloid deposition in the brain cortex in pathological conditions such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Intense (11)C-PIB retention is also observed in the white matter (WM) of both healthy individuals and AD patients. However, the clinical implications of this retention in brain WM have not been clarified. We investigated the relationship between the extent of white matter lesions (WMLs) and the binding potential of (11)C-PIB (BPND) in the WM in patients with hypertensive small vessel disease...
February 20, 2017: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179050/cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-in-stroke-medicine
#2
Frank Block, Manuel Dafotakis
BACKGROUND: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a degenerative vasculopathy that is classically associated with lobar intracerebral or sulcal hemorrhage. Its prevalence is estimated at 30% in the seventh decade and 50% in the eighth and ninth decades. In this review, we summarize the risks linked to CAA with respect to the treatment and prevention of stroke. METHODS: This review is based on pertinent publications retrieved by a selective search employing the terms "amyloid cerebral angiopathy," "stroke," "intra - cerebral bleeding," and "acute stroke therapy...
January 20, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159432/large-vessel-vasculopathy-in-children-with-sickle-cell-disease-a-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study-of-infarct-topography-and-focal-atrophy
#3
Kristin P Guilliams, Melanie E Fields, Dustin K Ragan, Yasheng Chen, Cihat Eldeniz, Monica L Hulbert, Michael M Binkley, James N Rhodes, Joshua S Shimony, Robert C McKinstry, Katie D Vo, Hongyu An, Jin-Moo Lee, Andria L Ford
BACKGROUND: Large-vessel vasculopathy (LVV) increases stroke risk in pediatric sickle cell disease beyond the baseline elevated stroke risk in this vulnerable population. The mechanisms underlying this added risk and its unique impact on the developing brain are not established. METHODS: We analyzed magnetic resonance imaging and angiography scans of 66 children with sickle cell disease and infarcts by infarct density heatmaps and Jacobian determinants, a metric utilized to delineate focal volume change, to investigate if infarct location, volume, frequency, and cerebral atrophy differed among hemispheres with and without LVV...
December 7, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149032/unseen-face-of-varicella-zoster-infection-in-adults
#4
Gunchan Paul, Birinder S Paul, Gagandeep Singh
Varicella infection is common in children caused by varicella-zoster virus (VZV). VZV is known to cause cerebral arterial vasculopathy and antibody-mediated hypercoagulable state leading to thrombotic complications in children. Such complications in adults are very rare. We report three cases that represent the unseen face of primary varicella infection in adults. Simultaneous involvement of cortical venous sinus thrombosis and deep vein thrombosis leading to clot in right atrium and pulmonary embolism in first case; cortical venous sinus thrombosis in second case; and deep vein thrombosis in third case...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120049/update-on-mechanism-and-therapeutic-implications-of-spinal-cord-stimulation-and-cerebral-hemodynamics-a-narrative-review
#5
Elisabetta Peppucci, Rina Di Bonaventura, Vincenzo Esposito, Jun Zhong, Gerardo Iacopino, Giuseppe Barbagallo, Massimiliano Visocchi
Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is well known for its early role in the management of chronic pain, mainly failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS), spasticity, and bowel and bladder dysfunction. In more recent years, SCS has been proposed for patients suffering from refractory angina or peripheral vasculopathies in order to gain symptom relief, thus indicating some hemodynamic effect on the peripheral circulation. Taking into account this scientific observation, since the late1980s, researchers have started to investigate the potential effect of SCS on cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation and its possible application in certain pathological settings dealing with vascular pattern dysfunction, such as ischemia, subarachnoid hemorrhage, head trauma, and brain tumors...
2017: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095086/retinal-findings-and-a-novel-tinf2-mutation-in-revesz-syndrome-clinical-and-molecular-correlations-with-pediatric-retinal-vasculopathies
#6
Mrinali P Gupta, Katherine E Talcott, David Y Kim, Suneet Agarwal, Shizuo Mukai
BACKGROUND: Revesz syndrome is a telomere disorder in the dyskeratosis congenita (DKC) spectrum characterized by exudative retinopathy, bone marrow failure, neuroradiographic abnormalities, and integumentary findings. MATERIALS/METHODS: We report the ophthalmologic findings, documented by examinations under anesthesia with clinical photography and fluorescein angiography, as well as the systemic manifestations and genetic and molecular testing, in identical twins with Revesz syndrome, and compare and contrast these features to those of other pediatric retinal vasculopathies...
January 2017: Ophthalmic Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087351/central-nervous-system-vasculitis-in-adults-an-update
#7
REVIEW
Lívia Almeida Dutra, Alexandre Wagner Silva de Souza, Gabriela Grinberg-Dias, Orlando Graziani Povoas Barsottini, Simone Appenzeller
Primary central nervous system vasculitis (PCNSV) is a challenging diagnosis due to broad clinical manifestations and variable specificity and sensitivity of laboratory and imaging diagnostic tools. Differential diagnosis includes reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS), secondary vasculitis of the CNS and other noninflammatory vasculopathies. Brain biopsy is essential for definitive diagnosis and to exclude mimickers. Recent data show that data large-vessel PCNSV present worse prognosis when compared to small-vessel PCNSV...
February 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056747/micrornas-based-predictor-factor-in-patients-with-migraine-ischemic-stroke
#8
Luca Gallelli, Antonio Siniscalchi, Marco Carotenuto, Maria Cristina Caroleo, Erika Cione, Vincenzo Guidetti
Among the clinical spectrum of neurological diseases, migraine is often associated with cerebro-vasculopathy. Impairment of neuroimmune mediators in the central nervous system has been recognized in the pathophysiology of migraine-related stroke. Although genetic correlation was found in patients with migraine-related stroke, the epidemiology of this disease indicate a need in biomarker searching discovery and validation. In this view, small molecule, called microRNAs (miRNAs), able to regulate immune and neuronal processes has been reported in patients with migraine and ischemic stroke and unambiguous miRNAs related to these diseases could be established as new molecular indicator of precocity for clinical and/or pharmacological intervention...
January 4, 2017: MicroRNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028157/brain-histopathology-in-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-identification-of-lesions-associated-with-clinical-neuropsychiatric-lupus-syndromes-and-the-role-of-complement
#9
Daniëlle Cohen, Emilie C Rijnink, Rob J A Nabuurs, Gerda M Steup-Beekman, Maarten J Versluis, Bart J Emmer, Malu Zandbergen, Mark A van Buchem, Cornelia F Allaart, Ron Wolterbeek, Jan A Bruijn, Sjoerd G van Duinen, Tom W J Huizinga, Ingeborg M Bajema
OBJECTIVES: Neuropsychiatric (NP) involvement is a poorly understood manifestation of SLE. We studied post-mortem histopathology in relation to clinical NPSLE syndromes and complement deposition in brains of NPSLE and SLE patients and controls. Furthermore, we investigated the correlation between cerebral post-mortem histopathology and ex vivo 7 T MRI findings in SLE and NPSLE. METHODS: A nationwide search for autopsy material yielded brain tissue from 16 NPSLE and 18 SLE patients...
January 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939902/cilostazol-protects-against-microvascular-brain-injury-in-a-rat-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#10
Yuko Tsukamoto, Eiichiro Nagata, Naoto Fukuyama, Yoshiko Itoh, Hiroko Yuzawa, Saori Kohara, Mie Shimizu, Yoko Takahari, Shunya Takizawa
Cilostazol, a pluripotent phosphodiesterase III-specific inhibitor with anti-platelet and vasculogenic effects, is useful for preventing recurrent brain vascular events, particularly in stroke patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). However, it is unclear whether cilostazol affects autoregulatory responses in small cerebral arteries. Thus, we investigated the effect of cilostazol on diabetic brain vasculopathy in a model of type II DM using male OLETF rats. OLETF rats were treated with either cilostazol (CG) or vehicle (VG) and subjected to microangiography with monochromatic synchrotron radiation to investigate middle cerebral artery (MCA) vasoreactivity following an injection of acetylcholine (Ach)...
December 8, 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924520/histopathological-features-of-middle-cerebral-artery-and-superficial-temporal-artery-from-patients-with-moyamoya-disease-and-enlightenments-on-clinical-treatment
#11
Shou-Jia Sun, Jian-Jian Zhang, Zheng-Wei Li, Zhong-Wei Xiong, Xiao-Lin Wu, Sheng Wang, Kai Shu, Jin-Cao Chen
The histopathological features of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and superficial temporal artery (STA) from moyamoya disease (MMD) and their relationships with gender, age, angiography stage were explored. The causes and the clinical significance of vasculopathy of STA were also discussed. The clinical data and specimens of MCA and STA from 30 MMD patients were collected. Twelve samples of MCA and STA from non-MMD patients served as control group. Histopathological examination was then performed by measuring the thickness of intima and media, and statistical analysis was conducted...
December 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814292/hemorheological-alterations-in-sickle-cell-anemia-and-their-clinical-consequences-the-role-of-genetic-modulators
#12
Marisa Silva, Sofia Vargas, Andreia Coelho, Alexandra Dias, Teresa Ferreira, Anabela Morais, Raquel Maia, Paula Kjöllerström, João Lavinha, Paula Faustino
Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by the HBB:c.20A>T mutation that leads to hemoglobin S synthesis. The disease presents with high clinical heterogeneity characterized by chronic hemolysis, recurrent episodes of vaso-oclusion and infection. This work aimed to characterize by in silico studies some genetic modulators of severe hemolysis and stroke risk in children with SCA, and understand their consequences at the hemorheological level.Association studies were performed between hemolysis biomarkers as well as the degree of cerebral vasculopathy and the inheritance of several polymorphic regions in genes related with vascular cell adhesion and vascular tonus in pediatric SCA patients...
2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805576/protocol-for-isolating-the-mouse-circle-of-willis
#13
Justine Claire Hur, Régis Blaise, Isabelle Limon
The cerebral arterial circle (circulus arteriosus cerebri) or circle of Willis (CoW) is a circulatory anastomosis surrounding the optic chiasma and hypothalamus that supplies blood to the brain and surrounding structures. It has been implicated in several cerebrovascular disorders, including cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA)-associated vasculopathies, intracranial atherosclerosis and intracranial aneurysms. Studies of the molecular mechanisms underlying these diseases for the identification of novel drug targets for their prevention require animal models...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773153/sporadic-case-of-retinal-vasculopathy-with-cerebral-leukodystrophy-hereditary-endotheliopathy-retinopathy-nephropathy-stroke-with-novel-trex1-mutation
#14
Bonnie Scurry, Thomas Wellings, Himanshu Goel, Anja Pluschke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723828/role-of-transcranial-doppler-in-the-evaluation-of-vasculopathy-in-tuberculous-meningitis
#15
Mei-Ling Sharon Tai, Vijay K Sharma
BACKGROUND: Vascular complications are important causes of cerebral infarction in tuberculous meningitis (TBM).Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) is a non-invasive tool that can provide real-time information about cerebral hemodynamics. However, the literature on the role of TCD in the diagnosis or monitoring of vasculopathy associated with TBM is scarce. We explored the role of TCD in the diagnosis and monitoring of TBM-related vasculopathy of the major intracranial arteries...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693106/thrombotic-thrombocytopenic-purpura-with-concomitant-progressive-cerebral-microbleeds
#16
Nariman Noorbakhsh-Sabet, Ramin Zand
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a disease caused by excessive platelet thrombi and multisystem vasculopathy. We report a young patient with refractory TTP who has developed multiple multifocal cerebral microbleeds on his brain magnetic resonance imaging scans. TTP-associated thrombotic microangiopathy resulting in diffuse microthrombi formation in the microcirculation and hypoperfusion might be an underlying etiology.
November 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688895/fatal-cerebral-haemorrhage-in-a-hypertensive-seven-year-old-boy
#17
Herwig Brandtner, Fabio C Monticelli, Harald J Meyer, Ariane Biebl, Herbert Budka
A seven-year-old boy died from autopsy-proven brain haemorrhage due to hypertensive vasculopathy. This emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis and therapy of hypertension in children. Brain haemorrhage is a potentially fatal complication of paediatric hypertension.
September 2016: JRSM Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625380/strictly-lobar-cerebral-microbleeds-are-associated-with-cognitive-impairment
#18
Chih-Ping Chung, Kun-Hsien Chou, Wei-Ta Chen, Li-Kuo Liu, Wei-Ju Lee, Liang-Kung Chen, Ching-Po Lin, Pei-Ning Wang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Different distributions of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are associated with distinct pathological mechanisms. Lobar CMBs are thought to be related to cerebral amyloid angiopathy, whereas deep or infratentorial CMBs are related to hypertensive vasculopathy. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of CMBs and their locations on a variety of cognitive domains. METHODS: Study subjects were selected from the community-based I-Lan Longitudinal Aging Study...
October 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619954/expanding-treatment-for-existing-neurological-disease-extend-an-open-label-phase-ii-clinical-trial-of-hydroxyurea-treatment-in-sickle-cell-anemia
#19
Angela E Rankine-Mullings, Courtney R Little, Marvin E Reid, Deanne P Soares, Carolyn Taylor-Bryan, Jennifer M Knight-Madden, Susan E Stuber, Asha V Badaloo, Karen Aldred, Margaret E Wisdom-Phipps, Teresa Latham, Russell E Ware
BACKGROUND: Cerebral vasculopathy in sickle cell anemia (SCA) begins in childhood and features intracranial arterial stenosis with high risk of ischemic stroke. Stroke risk can be reduced by transcranial doppler (TCD) screening and chronic transfusion therapy; however, this approach is impractical in many developing countries. Accumulating evidence supports the use of hydroxyurea for the prevention and treatment of cerebrovascular disease in children with SCA. Recently we reported that hydroxyurea significantly reduced the conversion from conditional TCD velocities to abnormal velocities; whether hydroxyurea can be used for children with newly diagnosed severe cerebrovascular disease in place of starting transfusion therapy remains unknown...
September 12, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604306/retinal-vasculopathy-with-cerebral-leukoencephalopathy-and-systemic-manifestations
#20
Anine H Stam, Parul H Kothari, Aisha Shaikh, Andreas Gschwendter, Joanna C Jen, Suzanne Hodgkinson, Todd A Hardy, Michael Hayes, Peter A Kempster, Katya E Kotschet, Ingeborg M Bajema, Sjoerd G van Duinen, Marion L C Maat-Schieman, Paulus T V M de Jong, Marc D de Smet, Didi de Wolff-Rouendaal, Greet Dijkman, Nadine Pelzer, Grant R Kolar, Robert E Schmidt, JoAnne Lacey, Daniel Joseph, David R Fintak, M Gilbert Grand, Elizabeth M Brunt, Helen Liapis, Rula A Hajj-Ali, Mark C Kruit, Mark A van Buchem, Martin Dichgans, Rune R Frants, Arn M J M van den Maagdenberg, Joost Haan, Robert W Baloh, John P Atkinson, Gisela M Terwindt, Michel D Ferrari
Cerebroretinal vasculopathy, hereditary vascular retinopathy, and hereditary endotheliopathy, retinopathy, nephropathy and stroke are neurovascular syndromes initially described as distinct entities. Recently they were shown to be one disease caused by C-terminal frame-shift mutations in TREX1, which was termed 'retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukodystrophy'. Here we defined the genetic and clinicopathologic spectrum of this clinically and pathophysiologically poorly characterized and frequently misdiagnosed fatal neurovascular disorder...
September 6, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
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