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Dezhong Zhang, Chunyu Liu, Kanzhe Li, Yu Chen, Shengping Ruan, Xindong Zhang, Chuannan Li
Applications of ZnO in photodetectors are limited by the great quantity of extrinsic majority carriers due to structural defects and difficult exciton dissociation due to the large exciton binding energy; these generally lead to a higher dark current (Id) and lower light current (Il), severely degrading the responsivity and detectivity. C dots are incorporated into an annealing-free ZnO layer to innovatively construct a local built-in electric field (Ebi) using the difference in the work functions; this simultaneously overcomes the drawbacks of the pristine ZnO photosensitive layer...
March 22, 2018: Nanoscale
Zöe Powis, Kelly D Farwell Hagman, Virginia Speare, Taylor Cain, Kirsten Blanco, Layla S Mowlavi, Emily M Mayerhofer, David Tilstra, Timothy Vedder, Jesse M Hunter, Marilyn Tsang, Lina Gonzalez, Gerald Vockley, Sha Tang
PurposeNeonatal patients are particularly appropriate for utilization of diagnostic exome sequencing (DES), as many Mendelian diseases are known to present in this period of life but often with complex, heterogeneous features. We attempted to determine the diagnostic rates and features of neonatal patients undergoing DES.MethodsThe clinical histories and results of 66 neonatal patients undergoing DES were retrospectively reviewed.ResultsClinical DES identified potentially relevant findings in 25 patients (37...
March 22, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Jonathan D Breeze, Enrico Salvadori, Juna Sathian, Neil McN Alford, Christopher W M Kay
The maser-the microwave progenitor of the optical laser-has been confined to relative obscurity owing to its reliance on cryogenic refrigeration and high-vacuum systems. Despite this, it has found application in deep-space communications and radio astronomy owing to its unparalleled performance as a low-noise amplifier and oscillator. The recent demonstration of a room-temperature solid-state maser that utilizes polarized electron populations within the triplet states of photo-excited pentacene molecules in a p-terphenyl host paves the way for a new class of maser...
March 21, 2018: Nature
Xiaofeng Niu, Shidong Feng, Shaopeng Pan
Structural defects were investigated by a recently proposed structural parameter, quasi-nearest atom (QNA), in a modeled Zr50 Cu50 metallic glass through molecular dynamics simulations. More QNAs around an atom usually means that more defects are located near the atom. Structural analysis reveals that the spatial distribution of the numbers of QNAs displays to be clearly heterogeneous. Furthermore, QNA is closely correlated with cluster connections, especially four-atom cluster connections. Atoms with larger coordination numbers usually have less QNAs...
March 22, 2018: Materials
You Jung Shin, June Seek Choi, Jin Hoon Chung, Jung Yeol Han, Hyun Kyong Ahn, Hyun Mee Ryu
This study aimed to analyse perinatal outcomes in ofloxacin-exposed pregnancies. This prospective study was conducted on 143 singleton pregnancies between January 2001 and April 2014, after oral ofloxacin exposure in the first trimester. A total of 33 exposed mothers were compared with 110 age-matched controls who were not exposed to teratogen. The mean maternal age was 31.4 ± 3.6 years, and the median gestational age was 4.1 weeks at the exposure. No significant differences were observed in either gestational age or in the foetal ultrasonographic long bone length between the exposed and control groups...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Peter Mancuso, Jeffrey L Curtis, Christine M Freeman, Marc Peters-Golden, Jason B Weinberg, Martin G Myers
Leptin is a pleiotropic hormone produced by white adipose tissue that regulates appetite and many physiologic functions including the immune response to infection. Genetic leptin deficiency in humans and mice impairs host defenses against respiratory tract infections. Since leptin deficiency is associated with obesity and other metabolic abnormalities, we generated mice that lack the leptin receptor (LepRb) in cells of the myeloid linage (LysM-LepRb-KO) to evaluate its impact in lean metabolically normal mice in a murine model of pneumococcal pneumonia...
March 22, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Meng-Yi Xu, Albert H C Wong
Schizophrenia is considered primarily as a cognitive disorder. However, functional outcomes in schizophrenia are limited by the lack of effective pharmacological and psychosocial interventions for cognitive impairment. GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) interneurons are the main inhibitory neurons in the central nervous system (CNS), and they play a critical role in a variety of pathophysiological processes including modulation of cortical and hippocampal neural circuitry and activity, cognitive function-related neural oscillations (eg, gamma oscillations) and information integration and processing...
March 22, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Michele P Grieco, Nicolò Bertozzi, Eugenio Grignaffini, Edoardo Raposio
The skin cancers of the head and neck district are localized mostly on the nose, which, by being in the center of the mid-face, has an important aesthetic role. Therefore, many reconstructive techniques have been studied; among them regional skin flaps appeared the most suitable since they guaranteed the oncological radicality as well as a good aesthetic outcome. In this paper, we present our experience with the use of the Zitelli bilobed flap, which is defined as a double transposition flap for the reconstruction of the nose defects...
April 2018: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
Cayetana Vázquez-Diez, Greg FitzHarris
Chromothripsis is a phenomenon observed in cancer cells, wherein a single or few chromosome(s) exhibit vast genomic rearrangements. Recent studies elucidated a striking series of events in which defective segregation of chromosomes causes their incorporation into micronuclei, where they are subject to extensive DNA damage prior to re-joining the main mass of chromosomes in a subsequent cell cycle, which provide an appealing mechanism for the etiology of chromothripsis. Micronuclei are well known to be common in human preimplantation embryos...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Martin Poot
The highly complex structural genome variations chromothripsis, chromoanasynthesis, and chromoplexy are subsumed under the term chromoanagenesis, which means chromosome rebirth. Precipitated by numerous DNA double-strand breaks, they differ in number of and distances between breakpoints, associated copy number variations, order and orientation of segments, and flanking sequences at joining points. Results from patients with the autosomal dominant cancer susceptibility disorder Li-Fraumeni syndrome implicated somatic TP53 mutations in chromothripsis...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Mariona Terradas, Marta Martín, Anna Genescà
The physical isolation of chromosomes within micronuclei offers an attractive mechanistic explanation for the local DNA fragmentation and clustered genome rearrangements that characterize chromothripsis. Localized shattering of the chromatin confined in micronuclei can be a consequence of defects in micronuclei basic general functions, such as DNA replication and repair. The detection of DNA repair and replication defects in micronuclei is described here, as well as the analysis of chromosome breakage and inaccurate reassembly of broken segments in the daughter cells, as indirect methods to detect chromothripsis...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Dustin C Hancks
Chromothripsis is a mutational event driven by tens to hundreds of double-stranded DNA breaks which occur in a single event between a limited number of chromosomes. Following chromosomal shattering, DNA fragments are stitched together in a seemingly random manner resulting in complex genomic rearrangements including sequence shuffling, deletions, and inversions of varying size. This genomic catastrophe has been observed in cancer genomes and the genomes of patients harboring developmental and congenital defects...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Roni A Hazim, David S Williams
The phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments (POSs) by the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is essential for retinal homeostasis. Defects in this process can be caused by mutations in the photoreceptor cells, the RPE cells, or both cell types. This function can be experimentally investigated by performing an in vitro phagocytosis assay, in which cultured RPE cells are challenged with isolated POSs, and subsequently tested for their ability to degrade the POSs. A significant advantage of this approach is that mutant phenotypes can be attributed either to the photoreceptor or the RPE cells, by experimenting with different permutations of mutant and control photoreceptor and RPE cells...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Christopher R Broda, Svetlana B Shugh, Rohan B Parikh, YunFei Wang, Tobias R Schlingmann, Cory V Noel
After an arterial switch operation (ASO), serial imaging is necessary to monitor for maladaptive changes. We compared cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) to 2-D transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in assessing post-operative ASO patients. We performed a retrospective review of patients at a single tertiary care center who underwent an ASO and subsequently had a CMR performed from 7/2010 to 7/2016. Those with single ventricle anatomy, congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries, or previous atrial switch operation were excluded...
March 22, 2018: Pediatric Cardiology
Lei Shen, Jian Liu, Jin-Kang Li, Meng Xu, Lang Yuan, Guo-Qin Zhang, Jian-Yi Wang, Yu-Juan Huang
The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the incidence of crochetage on the R wave in inferior limb leads can be used for the diagnosis of pediatric secundum atrial septal defect (ASD). Two hundred fifty-six children with secundum ASD (case cohort) and 256 age- and gender-matched children without heart disease (control cohort) were included in the study. Statistical analyses were performed to test the relationship between the ASD and the crochetage on the R wave with a single lead and three leads, respectively...
March 22, 2018: Pediatric Cardiology
Ding Li, Jianbo Wang
The mammalian heart is the first organ to form and is critical for embryonic survival and development. With an occurrence of 1%, congenital heart defects (CHDs) are also the most common birth defects in humans, and major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality (Hoffman and Kaplan in J Am Coll Cardiol 39(12):1890-1900, 2002; Samanek in Cardiol Young 10(3):179-185, 2000). Understanding how the heart forms will not only help to determine the etiology and to design diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for CHDs, but may also provide insight into regenerative medicine to repair injured adult hearts...
March 22, 2018: Pediatric Cardiology
Camila Carvalho de Araujo, Suelene A Coelho, Paulo Stahlschmidt, Cassia R T Juliato
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Pregnancy and delivery are well-established risk factors for pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD), but the physiopathology, such as the delivery route, is not well understood. This study evaluated the impact of delivery route on the pelvic floor muscles via 3D ultrasound. METHODS: This review is registered in the PROSPERO database. The criteria for inclusion were prospective studies with 3D translabial ultrasound assessment in primigravida women during pregnancy and postpartum published in English, Spanish or Portuguese between 1980 and 2016...
March 21, 2018: International Urogynecology Journal
Ixora Kamisan Atan, Sylvia Lin, Hans Peter Dietz, Peter Herbison, Peter Donald Wilson
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Levator ani muscle (LAM) and anal sphincter tears are common after vaginal birth and are associated with female pelvic organ prolapse and anal incontinence. The impact of subsequent births on LAM and external anal sphincter (EAS) integrity is less well defined. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of LAM and EAS trauma in primiparous (VP1) and multiparous (VP2+) women who had delivered vaginally to assess if there were differences between the two groups...
March 21, 2018: International Urogynecology Journal
Gileung Lee, Kang-Ie Lee, Yunjoo Lee, Backki Kim, Dongryung Lee, Jeonghwan Seo, Su Jang, Joong Hyoun Chin, Hee-Jong Koh
The split-hull phenotype caused by reduced lemma width and low lignin content is under control of SPH encoding a type-2 13-lipoxygenase and contributes to high dehulling efficiency. Rice hulls consist of two bract-like structures, the lemma and palea. The hull is an important organ that helps to protect seeds from environmental stress, determines seed shape, and ensures grain filling. Achieving optimal hull size and morphology is beneficial for seed development. We characterized the split-hull (sph) mutant in rice, which exhibits hull splitting in the interlocking part between lemma and palea and/or the folded part of the lemma during the grain filling stage...
March 21, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Andrea Veljkovic, Vu Le, Mario Escudero, Peter Salat, Kevin Wing, Murray Penner, Alastair Younger
Reamed intramedullary (IM) screw fixation for proximal fifth metatarsal fractures is technically challenging with potentially devastating complications if basic principles are not followed. A case of an iatrogenic fourth-degree burn after elective reamed IM screw fixation of a proximal fifth metatarsal fracture in a high-level athlete is reported. The case was complicated by postoperative osteomyelitis with third-degree soft-tissue defect. This was successfully treated with staged autologous bone graft reconstruction, tendon reconstruction, and local bi-pedicle flap coverage...
March 21, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
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