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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826581/uncommon-causes-of-cerebral-microbleeds
#1
REVIEW
Nariman Noorbakhsh-Sabet, Varun Chandi Pulakanti, Ramin Zand
BACKGROUND: Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are small and round perivascular hemosiderin depositions detectable by gradient echo sequences or susceptibility-weighted imaging. Cerebral microbleeds are common among patients with hypertension, cerebral ischemia, or cerebral amyloid angiopathy. In this article, we describe uncommon causes of CMBs. METHODS: We searched Pubmed with the keyword CMBs for relevant studies and looked for different uncommon causes of CMBs. RESULTS: CMBs have several uncommon etiologies including posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, infective endocarditis, brain radiation therapy, cocaine abuse, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, traumatic brain injury, intravascular lymphomatosis or proliferating angio-endotheliomatosis, moyamoya disease, sickle cell anemia/β-thalassemia, cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy subcortical infarcts, and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), genetic syndromes, or obstructive sleep apnea...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760945/inactivation-of-nitric-oxide-synthesis-exacerbates-the-development-of-alzheimer-disease-pathology-in-appps1-mice-amyloid-precursor-protein-presenilin-1
#2
Diana Cifuentes, Marine Poittevin, Philippe Bonnin, Anta Ngkelo, Nathalie Kubis, Tatyana Merkulova-Rainon, Bernard I Lévy
The epidemiological link between hypertension and Alzheimer disease is established. We previously reported that hypertension aggravates the Alzheimer-like pathology in APPPS1 mice (amyloid precursor protein/presenilin-1, mouse model of Alzheimer disease) with angiotensin II-induced hypertension, in relation with hypertension and nitric oxide deficiency. To provide further insights into the role of nitric oxide in the hypertension-Alzheimer disease cross-talk, we studied the effects of nitric oxide blockade in APPPS1 mice using N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) alone or in combination with hydralazine, to normalize blood pressure...
July 31, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720528/postoperative-dilatation-of-superficial-temporal-artery-associated-with-transient-neurological-symptoms-after-direct-bypass-surgery-for-moyamoya-angiopathy
#3
Daizo Ishii, Takahito Okazaki, Toshinori Matsushige, Katsuhiro Shinagawa, Nobuhiko Ichinose, Shigeyuki Sakamoto, Kaoru Kurisu
OBJECTIVE: In moyamoya angiopathy (MMA), transient neurological symptoms (TNS) are occasionally observed after superficial temporal artery (STA)-middle cerebral artery (MCA) direct bypass surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between TNS and postoperative MR images, as well as perform a perfusion study. METHODS: A total of 52 hemispheres in 33 consecutive patients with MMA were reviewed. TNS were defined as reversible neurological dysfunction without any apparent intracranial infarction or hemorrhage...
July 15, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610434/isoflavones-and-gastrointestinal-infection-two-potential-triggers-for-reversible-cerebral-vasoconstriction-syndrome
#4
Björn Machner, Tobias Boppel, Thomas Münte
Background Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is an important differential diagnosis of singular or recurrent thunderclap headache. Prognosis is generally good, however complications of the transient segmental vasospasms of cerebral arteries such as stroke, subarachnoidal hemorrhage and brain edema may worsen the clinical outcome. Although the exact pathomechanism is still unclear, various vasoactive substances and conditions (e.g. post partum) have been identified as triggering RCVS. Cases We report on the clinical course and management of two cases of typical RCVS that were associated with two different precipitants previously not described: A gastrointestinal infection and isoflavones, which are phytoestrogens used for menopausal vasomotor symptoms...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320141/functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-responses-in-cadasil
#5
Ikreet Cheema, Aaron R Switzer, Cheryl R McCreary, Michael D Hill, Richard Frayne, Bradley G Goodyear, Eric E Smith
OBJECTIVES: The magnitude of the blood oxygen dependent level (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) response to visual stimulation is reduced in the small vessel disease cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), reflecting impaired vascular reactivity. We determined whether BOLD responses were reduced in another small vessel disease, cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). METHODS: BOLD fMRI data were collected using a visual stimulus (contrast-reversing checkerboard) and motor task (finger-tapping)...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157751/inherited-and-uncommon-causes-of-stroke
#6
REVIEW
Jennifer Juhl Majersik
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article is a practical guide to identifying uncommon causes of stroke and offers guidance for evaluation and management, even when large controlled trials are lacking in these rarer forms of stroke. RECENT FINDINGS: Fabry disease causes early-onset stroke, particularly of the vertebrobasilar system; enzyme replacement therapy should be considered in affected patients. Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), often misdiagnosed as multiple sclerosis, causes migraines, early-onset lacunar strokes, and dementia...
February 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056358/administrations-of-human-adult-ischemia-tolerant-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-factors-reduce-amyloid-beta-pathology-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Taoufiq Harach, Fabien Jammes, Charles Muller, Nicolas Duthilleul, Victoria Cheatham, Valentin Zufferey, David Cheatham, Yelizaveta A Lukasheva, Theo Lasser, Tristan Bolmont
The impact of human adult ischemia-tolerant mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and factors (stem cell factors) on cerebral amyloid beta (Aβ) pathology was investigated in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To this end, hMSCs were administered intravenously to APPPS1 transgenic mice that normally develop cerebral Aβ. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction biodistribution revealed that intravenously delivered hMSCs were readily detected in APPPS1 brains 1 hour following administration, and dropped to negligible levels after 1 week...
March 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915588/reversible-cerebral-vasoconstriction-syndrome
#8
Michael Perdices, Geoffrey Herkes
Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is a relatively rare, non-progressive angiopathy frequently heralded by severe thunderclap headache. It is characterised by vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries which usually resolves within three months of onset. Transient focal neurological signs may occur, and persistent deficits associated with haemorrhagic comorbidities have been reported in a small percentage of individuals. In this paper we report the case of RH, a 36-year-old woman who presented at a university teaching hospital in Sydney with a clinical history and radiological evidence consistent with RCVS...
December 5, 2016: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762527/post-partum-angiopathy-presenting-as-ischemic-stroke
#9
Pooja Gupta, Anshu Rohatgi, Samir Patel
Post-partum angiopathy is grouped within the category of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndromes. It is considered to be a rare but under-recognized cause of stroke especially in pregnancy. We present the case of a 24 year old female who presented with hemiparesis and seizure, and turned out to be a case of post partum angiopathy.
September 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726164/limitations-of-the-hcmec-d3-cell-line-as-a-model-for-a%C3%AE-clearance-by-the-human-blood-brain-barrier
#10
Elisanne A L M Biemans, Lieke Jäkel, Robert M W de Waal, H Bea Kuiperij, Marcel M Verbeek
Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy are characterized by accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) at the cerebrovasculature due to decreased clearance at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). However, the exact mechanism of Aβ clearance across this barrier has not been fully elucidated. The hCMEC/D3 cell line has been characterized as a valid model for the BBB. In this study we evaluated the use of this model to study Aβ clearance across the BBB, with an emphasis on brain-to-blood directional permeability...
July 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640182/the-critical-care-management-of-spontaneous-intracranial-hemorrhage-a-contemporary-review
#11
REVIEW
Airton Leonardo de Oliveira Manoel, Alberto Goffi, Fernando Godinho Zampieri, David Turkel-Parrella, Abhijit Duggal, Thomas R Marotta, R Loch Macdonald, Simon Abrahamson
Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), defined as nontraumatic bleeding into the brain parenchyma, is the second most common subtype of stroke, with 5.3 million cases and over 3 million deaths reported worldwide in 2010. Case fatality is extremely high (reaching approximately 60 % at 1 year post event). Only 20 % of patients who survive are independent within 6 months. Factors such as chronic hypertension, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and anticoagulation are commonly associated with ICH. Chronic arterial hypertension represents the major risk factor for bleeding...
September 18, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618323/white-matter-diseases-with-radiologic-pathologic-correlation
#12
REVIEW
Nicolae Sarbu, Robert Y Shih, Robert V Jones, Iren Horkayne-Szakaly, Laura Oleaga, James G Smirniotopoulos
White matter diseases include a wide spectrum of disorders that have in common impairment of normal myelination, either by secondary destruction of previously myelinated structures (demyelinating processes) or by primary abnormalities of myelin formation (dysmyelinating processes). The pathogenesis of many white matter diseases remains poorly understood. Demyelinating disorders are the object of this review and will be further divided into autoimmune, infectious, vascular, and toxic-metabolic processes. Autoimmune processes include multiple sclerosis and related diseases: tumefactive demyelinating lesions, Balo concentric sclerosis, Marburg and Schilder variants, neuromyelitis optica (Devic disease), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalopathy (Hurst disease)...
September 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26910197/distinguishing-clinical-and-radiological-features-of-non-traumatic-convexal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#13
J Graff-Radford, J E Fugate, J Klaas, K D Flemming, R D Brown, A A Rabinstein
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The full spectrum of causes of convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage (cSAH) requires further investigation. Therefore, our objective was to describe the spectrum of clinical and imaging features of patients with non-traumatic cSAH. METHODS: A retrospective observational study of consecutive patients with non-traumatic cSAH was performed at a tertiary referral center. The underlying cause of cSAH was characterized and clinical and imaging features that predict a specific etiology were identified...
May 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26890776/cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-caa-related-inflammation-comparison-of-inflammatory-caa-and-amyloid-%C3%AE-related-angiitis
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Shuguang Chu, Feijia Xu, Ya Su, Hong Chen, Xin Cheng
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation (CAA-ri) is a relatively rare syndrome of reversible encephalopathy and could be divided into two subtypes of inflammatory CAA (ICAA) and amyloid-β-related angiitis (ABRA) according to histopathology. We present a case of pathologically proved ABRA with partial seizures and headache, and a focal lesion in the right temporal lobes on magnetic resonance imaging. Summarized from previous 139 ABRA and ICAA cases, ABRA is preferred when the lesion is enhanced on MRI and requires combination drug therapy, while ICAA is highly suspected with ApoE genotype of ɛ4/ɛ4...
2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26842068/pharmacological-removal-of-serum-amyloid-p-component-from-intracerebral-plaques-and-cerebrovascular-a%C3%AE-amyloid-deposits-in-vivo
#15
Raya Al-Shawi, Glenys A Tennent, David J Millar, Angela Richard-Londt, Sebastian Brandner, David J Werring, J Paul Simons, Mark B Pepys
Human amyloid deposits always contain the normal plasma protein serum amyloid P component (SAP), owing to its avid but reversible binding to all amyloid fibrils, including the amyloid β (Aβ) fibrils in the cerebral parenchyma plaques and cerebrovascular amyloid deposits of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). SAP promotes amyloid fibril formation in vitro, contributes to persistence of amyloid in vivo and is also itself directly toxic to cerebral neurons. We therefore developed (R)-1-[6-[(R)-2-carboxy-pyrrolidin-1-yl]-6-oxo-hexanoyl]pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid (CPHPC), a drug that removes SAP from the blood, and thereby also from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), in patients with AD...
February 2016: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26729476/pulsations-with-reflected-boundary-waves-a-hydrodynamic-reverse-transport-mechanism-for-perivascular-drainage-in-the-brain
#16
M Coloma, J D Schaffer, R O Carare, P R Chiarot, P Huang
Beta-amyloid accumulation within arterial walls in cerebral amyloid angiopathy is associated with the onset of Alzheimer's disease. However, the mechanism of beta-amyloid clearance along peri-arterial pathways in the brain is not well understood. In this study, we investigate a transport mechanism in the arterial basement membrane consisting of forward-propagating waves and their reflections. The arterial basement membrane is modeled as a periodically deforming annulus filled with an incompressible single-phase Newtonian fluid...
August 2016: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26491895/imaging-of-cerebrovascular-disease-in-pregnancy-and-the-puerperium
#17
REVIEW
Lotfi Hacein-Bey, Panayiotis N Varelas, John L Ulmer, Leighton P Mark, Kesav Raghavan, James M Provenzale
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to review the unique physiologic changes that characterize pregnancy and the puerperium, some that substantially affect the cerebrovascular system. Conditions that can cause neurologic deterioration and share features with preeclampsia-eclampsia include postpartum angiopathy, reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, and amniotic fluid embolism. Other conditions not specific to this patient group include cerebral venous thrombosis, cervicocephalic arterial dissection, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke, which can pose specific diagnostic and therapeutic challenges...
January 2016: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26471406/cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-related-inflammation-a-potentially-reversible-cause-of-dementia-with-characteristic-imaging-findings
#18
Prashant Raghavan, Seamus Looby, T David Bourne, Max Wintermark
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy with inflammation (CAA-I) is a less well-recognized clinically and radiologically distinct subtype of CAA. We aim to describe the imaging manifestations of this uncommon entity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of the medical records and imaging database yielded 9 patients with clinical and radiological findings compatible with CAA-I. The neurological findings at presentation, MRI findings including the presence of white matter involvement, mass effect, microhemorrhages and contrast enhancement, treatment provided and outcome were evaluated...
February 2016: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26142259/stroke-like-episodes-heralding-a-reversible-encephalopathy-microbleeds-as-the-key-to-the-diagnosis-of-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-related-inflammation-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#19
REVIEW
Marcelo D Mendonça, André Caetano, Miguel Pinto, Vera Cruz e Silva, Miguel Viana-Baptista
BACKGROUND: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a common, often asymptomatic disease. Lobar intracerebral hemorrhage is the most frequent manifestation of CAA. Nevertheless, presentation of CAA with subacute cognitive decline, seizures, or headache with concomitant hyperintensities on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences and neuropathologic evidence of inflammation has been described. This disorder is known as CAA-related inflammation (CAA-ri). METHODS: Description of a stroke-like presentation of CAA-ri and systematic review of case reports and case series of CAA-ri...
September 2015: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26096511/the-inflammatory-form-of-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-or-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-related-inflammation-caari
#20
REVIEW
Howard S Kirshner, Michael Bradshaw
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation (CAARI) is a recently recognized syndrome of reversible encephalopathy seen in a subset of patients with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). CAA is a disorder of the elderly in which amyloid peptides are deposited in the walls of cerebral arteries, leading to microhemorrhages, macrohemorrhages, and eventually dementia. In a few cases, the amyloid deposition is accompanied by inflammation or edema. The clinical syndrome of CAARI is distinguished by subacute neurobehavioral symptoms, headaches, seizures, and stroke-like signs, contrasting the acute intracranial hemorrhage typically seen in CAA...
August 2015: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
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