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Deepa Bhartiya, Ambreen Shaikh, Sandhya Anand, Hiren Patel, Sona Kapoor, Kalpana Sriraman, Seema Parte, Sreepoorna Unni
BACKGROUND: Both pluripotent very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells were reported in 2006. In 2012, a Nobel Prize was awarded for iPS technology whereas even today the very existence of VSELs is not well accepted. The underlying reason is that VSELs exist in low numbers, remain dormant under homeostatic conditions, are very small in size and do not pellet down at 250-280g. The VSELs maintain life-long tissue homeostasis, serve as a backup pool for adult stem cells and are mobilized under stress conditions...
September 10, 2016: Human Reproduction Update
Kei X Tan, Michael K Danquah, Amandeep Sidhu, Clarence M Ongkudon, Sie Yon Lau
Cancer is a leading cause of global mortality. Whilst anticancer awareness programs have increased significantly over the years, scientific research into the development of efficient and specific drugs to target cancerous cells for enhanced therapeutic effects has not received much clinical success. Chemotherapeutic agents are incapable of acting specifically on cancerous cells, thus causing low therapeutic effects accompanied by toxicity to surrounding normal tissues. The search for smart, highly specific and efficient cancer treatments and delivery systems continues to be a significant research endeavor...
September 1, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Weishan Zhang, Ning Ning, Xianjun Li, Gang Niu, Lijun Bai, Youmin Guo, Jian Yang
OBJECTIVE: The tumor-to-brain communication has been emphasized by recent converging evidences. This study aimed to compare the difference of brain glucose metabolism between patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and control subjects. METHODS: NSCLC patients prior to oncotherapy and control subjects without malignancy confirmed by 6 months follow-up were collected and underwent the resting state 18F-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) PET/CT. Normalized FDG metabolism was calculated by a signal intensity ratio of each brain region to whole brain...
2016: PloS One
Kotaro Saga, Yasufumi Kaneda
Many drugs have been developed and optimized for the treatment of cancer; however, it is difficult to completely cure cancer with anticancer drugs alone. Therefore, the development of new therapeutic technologies, in addition to new anticancer drugs, is necessary for more effective oncotherapy. Oncolytic viruses are one potential new anticancer strategy. Various oncolytic viruses have been developed for safe and effective oncotherapy. Recently, Sendai virus-based oncotherapy has been reported by several groups, and attention has been drawn to its unique anticancer mechanisms, which are different from those of the conventional oncolytic viruses that kill cancer cells by cancer cell-selective replication...
2015: Oncolytic Virotherapy
Jianmin Liu, Ji Zhang, Liangwen Huang, Xuhong Zhu, Wei Chen, Peng Hu
BACKGROUND: XuefuZhuyu Tang (XZT) is a traditional Chinese herb used for destagnation and is currently being used for oncotherapy. This study was intended to assess the effects of XZT on glioma along with its anticancer mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: U251 cells were divided into five groups: CNC (cells were cultured with normal saline), TSC (cells were treated with TaohongSiwu Tang [TST]), XSC (cells were treated with XZT), THC (cells were treated with homogenate of TST), and XHC (cells were treated with homogenate of XZT)...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
Jiang Wu, Ying Liu, Yuxia Tang, Shouju Wang, Chunyan Wang, Yanjun Li, Xiaodan Su, Jihong Tian, Ying Tian, Jing Pan, Yunyan Su, Hong Zhu, Zhaogang Teng, Guangming Lu
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have attracted increasing attention as vehicles for cancer treatment. Herein, MSC-based synergistic oncotherapy strategy is presented for the first time. To achieve this goal, yolk-shell structured gold nanorod embedded hollow periodic mesoporous organosilica nanospheres (GNR@HPMOs) with high paclitaxel (PTX) loading capability and excellent photothermal transfer ability upon near-infrared (NIR) light irradiation are first prepared. Cytotoxicity and migration assays show that the viability and tumor-homing capability of MSCs are well-retained after internalization of high content of PTX loaded GNR@HPMOs (denoted as GNR@HPMOs-PTX)...
July 20, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Franciele Osmarini Lunardi, Casie Shantel Bass, Marcelo Picinin Bernuci, Roberta Nogueira Chaves, Laritza Ferreira Lima, Renato Félix da Silva, José Ricardo de Figueiredo, Ana Paula Ribeiro Rodrigues
Emergency in vitro fertilization followed by embryo vitrification is one feasible fertility preservation option for cancer patients. However, its clinical application has several limitations. Hormonal stimulation delays the initiation of oncotherapy and it is contraindicated in hormone-sensitive cancers or for use in pre-pubertal females. Vitrification of ovarian cortical tissue prior to the start of cancer treatment could be utilized for autotransplantation or for in vitro maturation of follicles enclosed in ovarian tissue...
2015: JBRA Assisted Reproduction
Jing Wen, Ying-Cheng Huang, Huan-Huan Xiu, Zhi-Ming Shan, Kang-Qing Xu
The stromal interaction molecule (STIM)-calcium release-activated calcium channel protein (ORAI) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) play pivotal roles in the modulation of Ca(2+)-regulated pathways from gene transcription to cell apoptosis by driving calcium-dependent signaling processes. Increasing evidence has implicated the dysregulation of STIM-ORAI and IP3Rs in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. By controlling the activities, structure, and/or expression levels of these Ca(2+)-transporting proteins, malignant cancer cells can hijack them to drive essential biological functions for tumor development...
2016: Chinese Journal of Cancer
O Kalita, R Trojanec, M Megova, M Hajduch, M Vaverka, L Hrabalek, M Zlevorova, J Drabek, L Tuckova, J Vrbkova
OBJECTIVES: Significant progress in treatment strategies improves the expectations of patients with extracranial cancers. Metastases are the primary consideration in patients with cancer history. In the case of neurologic disorders, the patient should undergo brain MRI. A rationale is presented for surgery, whole-brain or stereotactic radiotherapy, or chemotherapy. Recently, we have encountered misdiagnosed primary malignant brain tumours in patients with oncologic history who had been admitted for surgery for brain metastases...
May 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Wen Lai, Cen Chen, Xiaoyuan Ren, In-Seop Lee, Guohua Jiang, Xiangdong Kong
Porous hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres (PHHMs) are the promising biomaterials, owing to their excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability and bioactivity. PHHMs have been used as drug controlled carriers due to their advantages such as large drug loading capacity, nanochannels for drug loading and release and high specific surface area. In this study, PHHMs were prepared successfully in Na2HPO4 solution by an anion-exchange process using vaterite CaCO3 through a hydrothermal method. The previous vaterite CaCO3 was synthesized by a polymer-templated method in the poly(styrene sulfonic acid) sodium salt (PSS) aqueous solutions...
May 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Feng-Zhen Wang, Lei Xing, Zheng-hai Tang, Jin-Jian Lu, Peng-Fei Cui, Jian-Bing Qiao, Lei Jiang, Hu-Lin Jiang, Li Zong
Combination therapy has been developed as a promising therapeutic approach for hepatocellular carcinoma therapy. Here we report a low toxicity and high performance nanoparticle system that was self-assembled from a poly(ethylenimine)-glycyrrhetinic acid (PEI-GA) amphiphilic copolymer as a versatile gene/drug dual delivery nanoplatform. PEI-GA was synthesized by chemical conjugation of hydrophobic GA moieties to the hydrophilic PEI backbone via an acylation reaction. The PEI-GA nanocarrier could encapsulate doxorubicin (DOX) efficiently with loading level about 12% and further condense DNA to form PEI-GA/DOX/DNA complexes to codeliver drug and gene...
April 4, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Qi An, Chao Han, Yubing Zhou, Feng Li, Duolu Li, Xiaojian Zhang, Zujiang Yu, Zhenfeng Duan, Quancheng Kan
Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of death from cancer in the United States. Chemotherapy prolongs survival among patients with advanced disease, but at the cost of clinically significant adverse effects. As a novel promising oncotherapy method, induced differentiation by mitomycin C has been applied for NSCLC therapy at recent year. In this study, the molecular mechanism of differentiation interruption by mitomycin C in the NSCLC line A549 was investigated. High dosage of mitomycin C (300 µM) could significantly inhibit cell proliferation (P < 0...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Guixiang Pan, Tingting Li, Qingqing Zeng, Xiaoming Wang, Yan Zhu
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a prime reason for numerous failed oncotherapy approaches. In the present study, we investigated whether Alisol F 24 acetate (ALI) could reverse the MDR of MCF-7/DOX cells, a multidrug-resistant human breast cancer cell line. We found that ALI was a potent P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor, in the Caco-2-monolayer cell model. ALI showed a significant and concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect on MCF-7/DOX cells in combination with doxorubicin by increasing intracellular accumulation and inducing nuclear migration of doxorubicin...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Junping Zhong, Sihua Yang, Liewei Wen, Da Xing
Here, a novel triggered drug release modality was developed for oncotherapy. Paclitaxel (PTX), perfluorohexane (PFH) and gold nanorods (AuNRs) loaded nanoparticles (PTX-PAnP) were synthesized. Folic acid (FA) conjugated PTX-PAnP (PTX-PAnP-FA) could be selectively taken into folate receptor-overexpressed tumor cells. Upon pulsed laser irradiation, the PTX-PAnP-FA could be rapidly destructed because of the PFH vaporization, resulting in fast drug release, which induced apoptosis of cancer cells efficiently. Stimulated fragmentation of the PTX-PAnP-FA nanoparticles can facilitate multiple mechanisms such as bubble implosion, shockwave generation, and sonoporation that further enhance the therapeutic efficiency...
March 28, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
S Saxena, B J Pramod, B C Dayananda, K Nagaraju
Oncologists all over the globe, relentlessly research on methodologies for detection of cancer and precise localization of cancer therapeutics with minimal adverse effects on healthy tissues. Since the previous decade, the fast growing research in nanotechnology has shown promising possibilities for achieving this dream of every oncologist.Nanorobots (or nanobots) are typical devices ranging in size from 0.1 to 10 μm and constructed of nanoscale or molecular components. Robots will augment the surgeon's motor performance, diagnostic capability and sensations with haptics and augmented reality...
April 2015: Indian Journal of Cancer
Ju-Suk Nam, Ashish Ranjan Sharma, Lich Thi Nguyen, Chiranjib Chakraborty, Garima Sharma, Sang-Soo Lee
Phytochemicals as dietary constituents are being explored for their cancer preventive properties. Quercetin is a major constituent of various dietary products and recently its anti-cancer potential has been extensively explored, revealing its anti-proliferative effect on different cancer cell lines, both in vitro and in vivo. Quercetin is known to have modulatory effects on cell apoptosis, migration and growth via various signaling pathways. Though, quercetin possesses great medicinal value, its applications as a therapeutic drug are limited...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Qiancheng Zhou, Hong-Gang Hu, Lingling Hou
Tumor biomarkers can serve as tools for early detection, diagnosis, prognosis, therapeutic target, response predicting, therapy monitoring of tumors or can be used as surrogate endpoints. Their abilities to assist various clinical decisions make them indispensable tools for current oncotherapies. Therefore, in the past decades, significant effort has been put into finding sensitive, specific, noninvasive, inexpensive, and clinically feasible tumor biomarkers. This review will summarize the recent progress made in different kinds of tumor biomarkers, introduce a promising and versatile novel tumor biomarker called DEK oncoprotein, and lastly, discuss the prospects of tumor biomarkers...
2015: Clinical Laboratory
Sananda Koley, Srabani Chakrabarti, Swapan Pathak, Asim Kumar Manna, Siddhartha Basu
Our study was done to assess the cytological changes due to oncotherapy in breast carcinoma especially on morphometry and proliferative activity. Cytological aspirates were collected from a total of 32 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma both before and after oncotherapy. Morphometry was done on the stained cytological smears to assess the different morphological parameters of cell dimension by using the ocular morphometer and the software AutoCAD 2007. Staining was done with Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) as proliferative markers...
December 2015: Indian Journal of Surgery
Youra Kim, Derek R Clements, Andra M Sterea, Hyun Woo Jang, Shashi A Gujar, Patrick W K Lee
Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized antigen-presenting cells that have a notable role in the initiation and regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. In the context of cancer, appropriately activated DCs can induce anti-tumor immunity by activating innate immune cells and tumor-specific lymphocytes that target cancer cells. However, the tumor microenvironment (TME) imposes different mechanisms that facilitate the impairment of DC functions, such as inefficient antigen presentation or polarization into immunosuppressive DCs...
December 2015: Viruses
Shu Yang, Wenshuai Li, Haimei Sun, Bo Wu, Fengqing Ji, Tingyi Sun, Huanhuan Chang, Ping Shen, Yaxi Wang, Deshan Zhou
BACKGROUND: Silence of the tumor suppressor miR-34c is implicated in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). For the past few years, Resveratrol (Res) has been introduced to oncotherapies alone or with traditional chemotherapeutic drugs. However, the study of molecular mechanism involved in the anti-CRC effect of Res is still ongoing. METHODS: The anti-CRC effect of Res alone or with Oxaliplatin (Oxa) was determined by cell viability assay, soft agar colony formation assay, flow cytometry and real-time cellular analyzer in HT-29 (p53+) and HCT-116 (p53-) CRC cell lines...
2015: BMC Cancer
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