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Neuroinflammation and epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716963/chemokine-ccl2-ccr2-signaling-induces-neuronal-cell-death-via-stat3-activation-and-il-1%C3%AE-production-after-status-epilepticus
#1
Dai-Shi Tian, Jiyun Peng, Madhuvika Murugan, Lijie Feng, Jun-Li Liu, Ukpong B Eyo, Li-Jun Zhou, Rochelle Mogilevsky, Wei Wang, Long-Jun Wu
Elevated levels of chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2) and its receptor CCR2 have been reported in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and in experimental seizures. However, the functional significance and molecular mechanism underlying CCL2-CCR2 signaling in epileptic brain remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that the upregulated CCL2 was mainly expressed in hippocampal neurons and activated microglia from mice 1d after kainic acid (KA)-induced seizures. Taking advantage of CX3CR1(GFP/+):CCR2(RFP/+) double transgenic mice, we demonstrated that CCL2-CCR2 signaling participated in resident microglial activation and blood-derived monocyte infiltration...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677172/neurological-and-psychiatric-associations-in-bullous-pemphigoid-more-than-skin-deep
#2
REVIEW
Anna-Kaisa Försti, Laura Huilaja, Enno Schmidt, Kaisa Tasanen
In elderly patients, bullous pemphigoid (BP) is associated with several comorbidities; the strongest association occurs between BP and neurological diseases. Different types of dementia, Parkinson's disease, cerebrovascular disorders and epilepsy all have a significant association with BP but patients with multiple sclerosis have the highest risk of BP. An existing neurological disorder appears to increase the risk for subsequent BP, but an increased risk for developing some neurological diseases has also been reported following BP diagnosis...
July 4, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675560/neuroinflammation-imaging-markers-for-epileptogenesis
#3
Matthias J Koepp, Eric Årstad, Jens P Bankstahl, Stefanie Dedeurwaerdere, Alon Friedman, Heidrun Potschka, Teresa Ravizza, William H Theodore, Tallie Z Baram
Epilepsy can be a devastating disorder. In addition to debilitating seizures, epilepsy can cause cognitive and emotional problems with reduced quality of life. Therefore, the major aim is to prevent the disorder in the first place: identify, detect, and reverse the processes responsible for its onset, and monitor and treat its progression. Epilepsy often occurs following a latent period of months to years (epileptogenesis) as a consequence of a brain insult, such as head trauma, stroke, or status epilepticus...
July 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675559/neuroinflammation-in-epileptogenesis-insights-and-translational-perspectives-from-new-models-of-epilepsy
#4
Melissa L Barker-Haliski, Wolfgang Löscher, H Steve White, Aristea S Galanopoulou
Animal models have provided a wealth of information on mechanisms of epileptogenesis and comorbidogenesis, and have significantly advanced our ability to investigate the potential of new therapies. Processes implicating brain inflammation have been increasingly observed in epilepsy research. Herein we discuss the progress on animal models of epilepsy and comorbidities that inform us on the potential role of inflammation in epileptogenesis and comorbidity pathogenesis in rodent models of West syndrome and the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) mouse model of viral encephalitis-induced epilepsy...
July 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675059/immunogenetic-predisposing-factors-for-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-hippocampal-sclerosis
#5
Bárbara Leal, João Chaves, Cláudia Carvalho, Andreia Bettencourt, Cláudia Brito, Daniela Boleixa, Joel Freitas, Sandra Brás, João Lopes, João Ramalheira, Paulo P Costa, Berta Martins da Silva, António Martins da Silva
PURPOSE: Neuroinflammation appears as an important epileptogenic mechanism. Experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated an upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and TNF-α, in Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy with Hippocampal Sclerosis (MTLE-HS). Expression of these cytokines can be modulated by polymorphisms such as rs16944 and rs1800629, respectively, both of which have been associated with Febrile Seizures (FS) and MTLE-HS development. The Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) system has also been implicated in diverse epileptic entities suggesting a variable role of this system in epilepsy...
July 4, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637381/role-of-caspase-3-mediated-apoptosis-in-chronic-caspase-3-cleaved-tau-accumulation-and-blood-brain-barrier-damage-in-the-corpus-callosum-after-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#6
Olena Glushakova, Andriy O Glushakov, Cesar Borlongan, Alex Valadka, Ronald L Hayes, Alexander V Glushakov
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may be a significant risk factor for development of neurodegenerative disorders such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE), and Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's (PD) diseases. Chronic TBI is associated with several pathological features that are also characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases, including tau pathologies, caspase-3-mediated apoptosis, neuroinflammation, and microvascular alterations. The goal of this study was to evaluate changes following TBI in cleaved-caspase-3 and caspase-3-cleaved tau truncated at Asp421 and their relationships to cellular markers potentially associated with inflammation and blood-brain (BBB) barrier damage...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608235/ferulic-acid-supplementation-for-management-of-depression-in-epilepsy
#7
Tanveer Singh, Taranjot Kaur, Rajesh Kumar Goel
Neuroinflammation driven altered neurochemical milieu have been reported to play a significant role in pathogenesis of comorbid depression in epilepsy. Most of the antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) such as levetiracetam, taigabine, topiramate have not been reported any significant effect in alleviating neuroinflammation, which may explain their ineffectiveness in ameliorating depression associated with epilepsy. The supplementation of antidepressants (ADs) attracts various pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions with AEDs and was considered unsafe in epilepsy...
June 12, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601603/enhanced-classical-complement-pathway-activation-and-altered-phagocytosis-signaling-molecules-in-human-epilepsy
#8
Season K Wyatt, Thomas Witt, Nicholas M Barbaro, Aaron A Cohen-Gadol, Amy L Brewster
Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation is widely associated with seizures and epilepsy. Although microglial cells are professional phagocytes, less is known about the status of this phenotype in epilepsy. Recent evidence supports that phagocytosis-associated molecules from the classical complement (C1q-C3) play novel roles in microglia-mediated synaptic pruning. Interestingly, in human and experimental epilepsy, altered mRNA levels of complement molecules were reported. Therefore, to identify a potential role for complement and microglia in the synaptodendritic pathology of epilepsy, we determined the protein levels of classical complement proteins (C1q-C3) along with other phagocytosis signaling molecules in human epilepsy...
June 7, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588507/neurovascular-unit-dysfunction-and-blood-brain-barrier-hyperpermeability-contribute-to-schizophrenia-neurobiology-a-theoretical-integration-of-clinical-and-experimental-evidence
#9
REVIEW
Souhel Najjar, Silky Pahlajani, Virginia De Sanctis, Joel N H Stern, Amanda Najjar, Derek Chong
Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder characterized by delusions, hallucinations, negative symptoms, as well as behavioral and cognitive dysfunction. It is a pathoetiologically heterogeneous disorder involving complex interrelated mechanisms that include oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Neurovascular endothelial dysfunction and blood-brain barrier (BBB) hyperpermeability are established mechanisms in neurological disorders with comorbid psychiatric symptoms such as epilepsy, traumatic brain injury, and Alzheimer's disease...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545366/role-of-positron-emission-tomography-for-central-nervous-system-involvement-in-systemic-autoimmune-diseases-status-and-perspectives
#10
Daniele Mauro, Gaetano Barbagallo, Salvatore D'Angelo, Sannino Pasqualina, Saverio Naty, Caterina Bruno, Ignazio Olivieri, Rosa Daniela Grembiale, Francesco Ursini
In the last years, an increasing interest in molecular imaging has been raised by the extending potential of positron emission tomography (PET). The role of PET imaging, originally confined to the oncology setting, is continuously extending thanks to the development of novel radiopharmaceutical and to the implementation of hybrid imaging techniques, where PET scans are combined with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) in order to improve spatial resolution. Early preclinical studies suggested that 18F-FDG PET can detect neuroinflammation; new developing radiopharmaceuticals targeting more specifically inflammation-related molecules are moving in this direction...
May 23, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527061/ketogenic-diet-in-migraine-rationale-findings-and-perspectives
#11
Piero Barbanti, Luisa Fofi, Cinzia Aurilia, Gabriella Egeo, Massimiliano Caprio
Ketogenic diet (KD) is an established treatment for refractory pediatric epilepsy and a promising therapy for diverse neurological diseases. Clinical data on KD in migraine-obtained from 150 patients investigated in case reports and prospective studies-suggest that KD may be a rapid onset effective prophylaxis for episodic and chronic migraine. KD would contribute to restore brain excitability and metabolism and to counteract neuroinflammation in migraine, although its precise mechanism is still unclear. Randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm the usefulness of KD in migraine and to investigate its optimal duration, repeatability, feasibility in normal weight subjects, efficacy in pediatric population and association to conventional migraine prophylaxis...
May 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522414/therapeutic-potential-of-agmatine-for-cns-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Vivian B Neis, Priscila B Rosa, Gislaine Olescowicz, Ana Lúcia S Rodrigues
Agmatine is a neuromodulator that regulates multiple neurotransmitters and signaling pathways. Several studies have focused on elucidating the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of this molecule, which seems to be mediated by a reduction in oxidative damage, neuroinflammation, and proapoptotic signaling. Since these events are implicated in acute and chronic excitotoxicity-related disorders (ischemia, epilepsy, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, neurodegenerative, and psychiatric disorders) as well as in nociception, agmatine has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders...
May 15, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516343/therapeutic-dormancy-to-delay-postsurgical-glioma-recurrence-the-past-present-and-promise-of-focal-hypothermia
#13
REVIEW
Didier Wion
Surgery precedes both radiotherapy and chemotherapy as the first-line therapy for glioma. However, despite multimodal treatment, most glioma patients die from local recurrence in the resection margin. Glioma surgery is inherently lesional, and the response of brain tissue to surgery includes hemostasis, angiogenesis, reactive gliosis and inflammation. Unfortunately, these processes are also associated with tumorigenic side-effects. An increasing amount of evidence indicates that the response to a surgery-related brain injury is hijacked by residual glioma cells and participates in the local regeneration of tumor tissues at the resection margin...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504645/molecular-isoforms-of-high-mobility-group-box-1-are-mechanistic-biomarkers-for-epilepsy
#14
Lauren Elizabeth Walker, Federica Frigerio, Teresa Ravizza, Emanuele Ricci, Karen Tse, Rosalind E Jenkins, Graeme John Sills, Andrea Jorgensen, Luca Porcu, Thimmasettappa Thippeswamy, Tiina Alapirtti, Jukka Peltola, Martin J Brodie, Brian Kevin Park, Anthony Guy Marson, Daniel James Antoine, Annamaria Vezzani, Munir Pirmohamed
Approximately 30% of epilepsy patients do not respond to antiepileptic drugs, representing an unmet medical need. There is evidence that neuroinflammation plays a pathogenic role in drug-resistant epilepsy. The high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1)/TLR4 axis is a key initiator of neuroinflammation following epileptogenic injuries, and its activation contributes to seizure generation in animal models. However, further work is required to understand the role of HMGB1 and its isoforms in epileptogenesis and drug resistance...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489058/the-neuroprotective-effects-of-phenolic-acids-molecular-mechanism-of-action
#15
Dominik Szwajgier, Kamila Borowiec, Katarzyna Pustelniak
The neuroprotective role of phenolic acids from food has previously been reported by many authors. In this review, the role of phenolic acids in ameliorating depression, ischemia/reperfusion injury, neuroinflammation, apoptosis, glutamate-induced toxicity, epilepsy, imbalance after traumatic brain injury, hyperinsulinemia-induced memory impairment, hearing and vision disturbances, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, anti-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Chagas disease and other less distributed diseases is discussed...
May 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462087/identification-of-brain-regions-predicting-epileptogenesis-by-serial-18-f-ge-180-positron-emission-tomography-imaging-of-neuroinflammation-in-a-rat-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#16
Vera Russmann, Matthias Brendel, Erik Mille, Angela Helm-Vicidomini, Roswitha Beck, Lisa Günther, Simon Lindner, Axel Rominger, Michael Keck, Josephine D Salvamoser, Nathalie L Albert, Peter Bartenstein, Heidrun Potschka
Excessive activation of inflammatory signaling pathways seems to be a hallmark of epileptogenesis. Positron emission tomography (PET) allows in vivo detection of brain inflammation with spatial information and opportunities for longitudinal follow-up scanning protocols. Here, we assessed whether molecular imaging of the 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) can serve as a biomarker for the development of epilepsy. Therefore, brain uptake of [(18)F]GE-180, a highly selective radioligand of TSPO, was investigated in a longitudinal PET study in a chronic rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444141/imaging-blood-brain-barrier-dysfunction-as-a-biomarker-for-epileptogenesis
#17
Guy Bar-Klein, Svetlana Lublinsky, Lyn Kamintsky, Iris Noyman, Ronel Veksler, Hotjensa Dalipaj, Vladimir V Senatorov, Evyatar Swissa, Dror Rosenbach, Netta Elazary, Dan Z Milikovsky, Nadav Milk, Michael Kassirer, Yossi Rosman, Yonatan Serlin, Arik Eisenkraft, Yoash Chassidim, Yisrael Parmet, Daniela Kaufer, Alon Friedman
A biomarker that will enable the identification of patients at high-risk for developing post-injury epilepsy is critically required. Microvascular pathology and related blood-brain barrier dysfunction and neuroinflammation were shown to be associated with epileptogenesis after injury. Here we used prospective, longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging to quantitatively follow blood-brain barrier pathology in rats following status epilepticus, late electrocorticography to identify epileptic animals and post-mortem immunohistochemistry to confirm blood-brain barrier dysfunction and neuroinflammation...
June 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397070/ketone-bodies-as-anti-seizure-agents
#18
Timothy A Simeone, Kristina A Simeone, Jong M Rho
There is growing evidence that ketone bodies (KB)-derived from fatty acid oxidation and produced during fasting or consumption of high-fat diets-can exert broad neuroprotective effects. With respect to epilepsy, KB (such as β-hydroxybutyrate or BHB, acetoacetate and acetone) have been shown to block acutely induced and spontaneous recurrent seizures in various animal models. Although the mechanisms underlying the anti-seizure effects of KB have not been fully elucidated, recent experimental studies have invoked ketone-mediated effects on both inhibitory (e...
July 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374921/intracerebral-delivery-of-the-m2-polarizing-cytokine-interleukin-13-using-mesenchymal-stem-cell-implants-in-a-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-in-mice
#19
Idrish Ali, Stephanie Aertgeerts, Debbie Le Blon, Daniele Bertoglio, Chloe Hoornaert, Peter Ponsaerts, Stefanie Dedeurwaerdere
OBJECTIVES: Neuroinflammation plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. We aimed to evaluate whether intracerebral transplantation of interleukin 13-producing mesenchymal stem cells (IL-13 MSCs) induces an M2 microglia/macrophage activation phenotype in the hippocampus with an epileptogenic insult, thereby providing a neuroprotective environment with reduced epileptogenesis. METHODS: Genetically engineered syngeneic IL-13 MSCs or vehicle was injected within the hippocampus 1 week before the intrahippocampal kainic acid-induced status epilepticus (SE) in C57BL/6J mice...
June 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372497/astrocyte-mediated-inflammation-in-cortical-spreading-depression
#20
Amir Ghaemi, Leila Alizadeh, Shahnaz Babaei, Maryam Jafarian, Maryam Khaleghi Ghadiri, Sven G Meuth, Stjepana Kovac, Ali Gorji
Background Cortical spreading depression (CSD) related diseases such as migraine, cerebrovascular diseases, and epilepsy have been associated with reactive astrocytosis, yet the mechanisms of these tissue changes remain unclear. CSD-induced inflammatory response has been proposed to play a role in some neurological disorders and thus may also contribute to reactive astrocytosis. Methods Using ex vivo brain slices and in vitro astrocytic cultures, we aimed to characterize CSD related changes in astrocytes and markers of inflammation by immunocyto- and immunohistochemistry...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
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