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Vonn Walter, Xiaoying Yin, Matthew D Wilkerson, Christopher R Cabanski, Ni Zhao, Ying Du, Mei Kim Ang, Michele C Hayward, Ashley H Salazar, Katherine A Hoadley, Karen Fritchie, Charles J Sailey, Mark C Weissler, William W Shockley, Adam M Zanation, Trevor Hackman, Leigh B Thorne, William D Funkhouser, Kenneth L Muldrew, Andrew F Olshan, Scott H Randell, Fred A Wright, Carol G Shores, D Neil Hayes
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056823.].
2018: PloS One
Mathieu Bonneau, Régis Sabbadin, Fred A Johnson, Bradley Stith
Conversion of wild habitats to human dominated landscape is a major cause of biodiversity loss. An approach to mitigate the impact of habitat loss consists of designating reserves where habitat is preserved and managed. Determining the most valuable areas to preserve in a landscape is called the reserve design problem. There exists several possible formulations of the reserve design problem, depending on the objectives and the constraints. In this article, we considered the dynamic problem of designing a reserve that contains a desired area of several key habitats...
2018: PloS One
Kelly Aubertin, Vincent Quoc Trinh, Michael Jermyn, Paul Baksic, Andrée-Anne Grosset, Joannie Desroches, Karl St-Arnaud, Mirela Birlea, Maria Claudia Vladoiu, Mathieu Latour, Roula Albadine, Fred Saad, Frédéric Leblond, Dominique Trudel
OBJECTIVE: To test if Raman spectroscopy is an appropriate tool for the diagnosis and possibly the grading of prostate cancer. PATIENTS & METHODS: Between 20 and 50 Raman spectra were acquired on 32 fresh and non-processed post-prostatectomy specimens using a macroscopic hand-held Raman spectroscopy probe. Each measured area was characterized and categorized following histopathological criterions like tissue type (extra-prostatic or prostatic), tissue malignancy (benign or malignant), cancer grade (Grade Groups (GG) 1-5), and tissue glandular level...
March 15, 2018: BJU International
Fred Brouns
In the past, different types of diet with a generally low-carbohydrate content (< 50-< 20 g/day) have been promoted, for weight loss and diabetes, and the effectiveness of a very low dietary carbohydrate content has always been a matter of debate. A significant reduction in the amount of carbohydrates in the diet is usually accompanied by an increase in the amount of fat and to a lesser extent, also protein. Accordingly, using the term "low carb-high fat" (LCHF) diet is most appropriate...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Meriem El Ghachi, Nicole Howe, Chia-Ying Huang, Vincent Olieric, Rangana Warshamanage, Thierry Touzé, Dietmar Weichert, Phillip J Stansfeld, Meitian Wang, Fred Kerff, Martin Caffrey
As a protective envelope surrounding the bacterial cell, the peptidoglycan sacculus is a site of vulnerability and an antibiotic target. Peptidoglycan components, assembled in the cytoplasm, are shuttled across the membrane in a cycle that uses undecaprenyl-phosphate. A product of peptidoglycan synthesis, undecaprenyl-pyrophosphate, is converted to undecaprenyl-phosphate for reuse in the cycle by the membrane integral pyrophosphatase, BacA. To understand how BacA functions, we determine its crystal structure at 2...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Demosthenes G Katritsis, Roy M John, Rakesh Latchamsetty, Rahul G Muthalaly, Theodoros Zografos, George D Katritsis, William G Stevenson, Igor R Efimov, Fred Morady
BACKGROUND: Immunohistochemistry studies suggest that the anatomic substrate of the slow pathway in atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) is the left inferior nodal extension. We hypothesized that slow pathway ablation from the left septum is an effective alternative to right-sided ablation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed our databases of AVNRT in search of cases that had used slow pathway ablation from the left septum because of failure of right septal ablation, and then prospectively subjected consenting patients to a left septal-only procedure...
March 2018: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
Fred Stephen Sarfo, Osei Sarfo-Kantanka, Sheila Adamu, Vida Obese, Jennifer Voeks, Raelle Tagge, Vipin Sethi, Bruce Ovbiagele
BACKGROUND: There is an unprecedented rise in the prevalence of stroke in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Secondary prevention guidelines recommend that antihypertensive, statin and antiplatelet therapy be initiated promptly after ischemic stroke and adhered to in a persistent fashion to achieve optimal vascular-risk reduction. However, these goals are seldom realized in routine clinical care settings in SSA due to logistical challenges. We seek to assess whether a polypill containing fixed doses of three antihypertensive agents, a statin and antiplatelet therapy taken once daily per os for 12 months among recent stroke survivors would result in carotid intimal thickness regression compared with usual care (UC)...
March 14, 2018: Trials
Fred Rodriguez, Rajeevan Selvaratnam, Peggy Mann, Rina Kalariya, John R Petersen
Although laboratories may be able to rely on a comprehensive Hurricane Plan during a hurricane, alarming and unanticipated events frequently occur. To minimize disruption of lab operations, it is important to try to mitigate the impact of these unexpected events as quickly as possible, in the quest to minimize negative outcomes. In this article, we discuss approaches to dealing with unanticipated events during and after hurricanes, based on our personal experiences.
March 10, 2018: Laboratory Medicine
Alan S Lewis, Gerrit Ian van Schalkwyk, Mayra Ortiz Lopez, Fred R Volkmar, Marina R Picciotto, Denis G Sukhodolsky
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), particularly the α7 nAChR, are implicated in the pathophysiology of both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and aggressive behavior. We explored the feasibility, tolerability, and preliminary efficacy of targeting nAChRs using transdermal nicotine to reduce aggressive symptoms in adults with ASD. Eight subjects were randomized in a double-blind crossover trial of 7 mg transdermal nicotine or placebo, each for 1 week. All participants tolerated nicotine treatment well...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Christopher J Stapleton, Fred G Barker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Amanda B Zheutlin, Adam M Chekroud, Renato Polimanti, Joel Gelernter, Fred W Sabb, Robert M Bilder, Nelson Freimer, Edythe D London, Christina M Hultman, Tyrone D Cannon
Genetic risk variants for schizophrenia have been linked to many related clinical and biological phenotypes with the hopes of delineating how individual variation across thousands of variants corresponds to the clinical and etiologic heterogeneity within schizophrenia. This has primarily been done using risk score profiling, which aggregates effects across all variants into a single predictor. While effective, this method lacks flexibility in certain domains: risk scores cannot capture nonlinear effects and do not employ any variable selection...
March 9, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Chao-Xiu Melanie He
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Translational Lung Cancer Research
Lynn Ma, Chao-Xiu Melanie He
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Translational Lung Cancer Research
Francesco Agustoni, Fred R Hirsch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Translational Lung Cancer Research
Eric W Riddick, Zhixin Wu, Fred J Eller, Mark A Berhow
Maximizing the reproductive potential of ladybird beetles fed factitious foods or artificial diets, in lieu of natural prey, is a major challenge to cost-effective mass rearing for augmentative biological control. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that compounds in redcedar, Juniperus virginiana , stimulate oviposition in the ladybird Coleomegilla maculata . We also tested the prediction that several bioflavonoids, identified in heartwood fractions, elicited this behavioral response. Phenolic compounds were extracted from J...
2018: International Journal of Insect Science
Fred Sigernes, Mikko Syrjäsuo, Rune Storvold, João Fortuna, Mariusz Eivind Grøtte, Tor Arne Johansen
This study describes rapid prototype construction of small and lightweight push broom Hyper Spectral Imagers (HSI). The dispersive element housings are printed by a thermoplastic 3D printer combined with S-mount optical components and commercial off-the-shelf camera heads. Four models with a mass less than 200 g are presented with a spectral range in the visible to the near-infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The bandpass is in the range from 1.4 - 5 nm. Three test experiments with motorized gimbals to stabilize attitude show that the instruments are capable of push broom spectral imaging from various platforms, including airborne drone to handheld operations...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
Lauren A Demers, Kelly Jedd McKenzie, Ruskin H Hunt, Dante Cicchetti, Raquel A Cowell, Fred A Rogosch, Sheree L Toth, Kathleen M Thomas
BACKGROUND: Individuals with a history of maltreatment show altered amygdala reactivity to emotional stimuli, atypical frontal regulatory control, and differences in frontolimbic connectivity compared with nonmaltreated controls. However, despite early trauma, many individuals who experience maltreatment show resilience or adaptive functioning in adulthood including positive social, educational, and occupational outcomes. METHODS: The present study used a psychophysiological interaction model to examine the effect of adult adaptive functioning on group differences between maltreated and nonmaltreated adults in task-based amygdala functional connectivity...
February 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Steven Ger Nyanjom, Cyrus Tare, Fred Wamunyokoli, George Fredrick Obiero
Tsetse flies (Glossina) are vectors of African trypanosomiasis. Olfaction plays a critical role in Glossina behavior, including larviposition, feeding, and reproduction. Odorant receptors (ORs) are important in insect chemoreception as they bind volatile odorants and transport them to olfactory receptor neurons to elicit behavioral response. To better understand Glossina chemoreception, we used quantitative polymerase chain reaction to examine the expression levels of ORs in female and male Glossina morsitans morsitans Wiedemann, 1850 (Diptera: Glossinidae) antennae and legs...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
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