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Visceral Leishmania

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527882/new-epidemiological-pattern-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-two-pre-saharan-arid-provinces-southern-morocco
#1
Mouad Ait Kbaich, Idriss Mhaidi, Abdelkacem Ezzahidi, Nouredine Dersi, Adil El Hamouchi, Myriam Riyad, Khadija Akarid, Meryem Lemrani
Three Leishmania species are responsible of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Morocco. Zoonotic CL due to Leishmania major and Leishmania infantum, the first is known as established in the eastern arid regions, whereas the latter evolves sporadically, especially in the North. While Leishmania tropica, classically considered anthroponotic, is endemic in the semi-arid regions and is largely distributed throughout the country. The aim of this study was to identify the Leishmania species causing CL in two Provinces in arid pre-Saharan region known as zoonotic CL foci, and to contribute an update to the national data concerning the distribution of Leishmania species in both regions...
May 17, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523421/serological-evidence-of-infection-by-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis-in-dogs-with-leishmaniasis
#2
Tatiane Ferreira Petroni, Lucas Xavier Bonfietti, Tiago Henrique Zaninelli, Eiko Nakagawa Itano, Mario Augusto Ono
Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis prevalent in Latin American countries, caused by the dimorphic fungi Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii. The habitat of these fungi in nature remains undefined, although it is believed that infection occurs by inhalation of infective propagules present in soil. Sentinel animals, such as dogs, can be valuable epidemiological markers of paracoccidioidomycosis. Taking into account that paracoccidioidomycosis and visceral leishmaniasis may occur in the same area, the objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of P...
May 18, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518475/lipid-bodies-accumulation-in-leishmania-infantum-infected-c57bl-6-macrophages
#3
Nilda E Rodríguez, Ryan D Lockard, Elizabeth A Turcotte, Théo Araujo-Santos, Patrícia T Bozza, Valéria M Borges, Mary E Wilson
Lipid bodies (LBs) are intracellular accumulations of neutral lipids surrounded by a single membrane. These organelles are involved in the production of eicosanoids, which modulate immunity by either promoting or dampening inflammatory responses. Leishmania infantum, the etiological agent of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil, is an intracellular parasite that causes disease by suppressing macrophage microbicidal responses. C57BL/6 mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages infected with L. infantum strain LcJ had higher numbers of LB+ cells (P<0...
May 18, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515660/environmental-factors-associated-with-the-distribution-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-endemic-areas-of-bangladesh-modeling-the-ecological-niche
#4
Abu Yousuf Md Abdullah, Ashraf Dewan, Md Rakibul Islam Shogib, Md Masudur Rahman, Md Faruk Hossain
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a parasitic infection (also called kala-azar in South Asia) caused by Leishmania donovani that is a considerable threat to public health in the Indian subcontinent, including densely populated Bangladesh. The disease seriously affects the poorest subset of the population in the subcontinent. Despite the fact that the incidence of VL results in significant morbidity and mortality, its environmental determinants are relatively poorly understood, especially in Bangladesh...
2017: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511275/direct-detection-of-leishmania-from-clinical-samples
#5
John N Waitumbi, Joshua Bast, Nancy Nyakoe, Charles Magiri, Miguel Quintana, Ratree Takhampunya, Anthony L Schuster, Marshall T Van de Wyngaerde, James C McAvin, Russell E Coleman
The ability to rapidly and accurately diagnose leishmaniasis is a military priority. Testing was conducted to evaluate diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of field-expedient Leishmania genus and visceral Leishmania specific dual-fluorogenic, hydrolysis probe (TaqMan), polymerase chain reaction assays previously established for use in vector surveillance. Blood samples of patients with confirmed visceral leishmaniasis and controls without the disease from Baringo District, Kenya, were tested. Leishmania genus assay sensitivity was 100% (14/14) and specificity was 84% (16/19)...
January 2017: U.S. Army Medical Department Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505185/combined-treatment-of-miltefosine-and-paromomycin-delays-the-onset-of-experimental-drug-resistance-in-leishmania-infantum
#6
Sarah Hendrickx, Magali Van den Kerkhof, Dorien Mabille, Paul Cos, Peter Delputte, Louis Maes, Guy Caljon
BACKGROUND: Since miltefosine monotherapy against visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania donovani has been discontinued in the Indian subcontinent due to an increase in the number of treatment failures, single dose liposomal amphotericin B is now advocated as a treatment option of choice. Paromomycin-miltefosine combination therapy can be used as substitute first-line treatment in regions without cold-chain potential. Previous laboratory studies in the closely related species Leishmania infantum have demonstrated that paromomycin monotherapy fairly rapidly selects for resistance producing a phenotype with increased fitness...
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501450/exploring-prognosis-in-chronic-relapsing-visceral-leishmaniasis-among-hiv-infected-patients-circulating-leishmania-dna
#7
Gláucia Fernandes Cota, Marcos Roberto de Sousa, Tália Santana Machado de Assis, Bruna Fernandes Pinto, Ana Rabello
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) affecting HIV-infected patients is considered a challenging condition because of its high mortality and relapse rates. The approach of this condition is still surrounded by many uncertainties, especially regarding the criteria to institute and discontinue secondary prophylaxis for VL. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Leishmania parasitism kinetic assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a possible tool in the prognostic assessment in a context in which patients are receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy and secondary prophylaxis...
May 10, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498840/a-third-generation-vaccine-for-human-visceral-leishmaniasis-and-post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis-first-in-human-trial-of-chad63-kh
#8
Mohamed Osman, Anoop Mistry, Ada Keding, Rhian Gabe, Elizabeth Cook, Sarah Forrester, Rebecca Wiggins, Stefania Di Marco, Stefano Colloca, Loredana Siani, Riccardo Cortese, Deborah F Smith, Toni Aebischer, Paul M Kaye, Charles J Lacey
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL or kala azar) is the most serious form of human leishmaniasis, responsible for over 20,000 deaths annually, and post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a stigmatizing skin condition that often occurs in patients after successful treatment for VL. Lack of effective or appropriately targeted cell mediated immunity, including CD8+ T cell responses, underlies the progression of VL and progression to PKDL, and can limit the therapeutic efficacy of anti-leishmanial drugs...
May 12, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493888/the-mitochondrial-sir2-related-protein-2-sir2rp2-impacts-leishmania-donovani-growth-and-infectivity
#9
Nimisha Mittal, Rohini Muthuswami, Rentala Madhubala
BACKGROUND: Leishmania donovani, a protozoan parasite is the major causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis. Increased toxicity and resistance to the existing repertoire of drugs has been reported. Hence, an urgent need exists for identifying newer drugs and drug targets. Previous reports have shown sirtuins (Silent Information Regulator) from kinetoplastids as promising drug targets. Leishmania species code for three SIR2 (Silent Information Regulator) related proteins. Here, we for the first time report the functional characterization of SIR2 related protein 2 (SIR2RP2) of L...
May 11, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490252/visceral-leishamiosis-in-immunocompromised-host-an-update-and-literature-review
#10
Pasquale Pagliano, Silvano Esposito
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a chronic infectious disease endemic in tropical and sub-tropical areas including the Mediterranean basin, caused by a group of protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania and transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. Immunocompromised patients, in particular HIV positive, are considered at risk of VL. They report atypical signs and poor response to treatment due to impairment of T-helper and regulatory cells activity. Laboratory diagnosis is based on microscopy on bone marrow or spleen aspirates...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487000/experimental-mixed-infection-of-leishmania-leishmania-amazonensis-and-leishmania-l-infantum-in-hamsters-mesocricetus-auratus
#11
Jordanna Luíza DE Lima Celeste, Ana Paula Venuto Moura, João Carlos França-Silva, Gabriela Matos DE Sousa, Soraia Oliveira Silva, Maria Norma Melo, Wagner Luiz Tafuri, Carolina Carvalho Souza, Hélida Monteiro DE Andrade
In South America, visceral leishmaniasis is frequently caused by Leishmania infantum and, at an unknown frequency, by Leishmania amazonensis. Therefore, mixed infections with these organisms are possible. Mixed infections might affect the clinical course, immune response, diagnosis, treatment and epidemiology of the disease. Here we describe the clinical course of mixed infections with L. amazonensis and L. infantum in a hamster model. We show that mixed infections are associated with more severe clinical disease than infection with L...
May 10, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483460/voacamine-alters-leishmania-ultrastructure-and-kills-parasite-by-poisoning-unusual-bi-subunit-topoisomerase-ib
#12
Somenath Roy Chowdhury, Ashish Kumar, Joseane Lima Prado Godinho, Sara Teixeira De Macedo Silva, Aline Araujo Zuma, Sourav Saha, Neha Kumari, Juliany Cola Fernandez Rodrigues, Shyam Sundar, Jean-Claude Dujardin, Syamal Roy, Wanderley De Souza, Sibabrata Mukhopadhyay, Hemanta K Majumder
Indole alkaloids possess a large spectrum of biological activities including anti-protozoal action. Here we report for the first time that voacamine, isolated from the plant Tabernaemontana coronaria, is an antiprotozoal agent effective against a large array of trypanosomatid parasites including Indian strain of Leishmania donovani and Brazilian strains of Leishmania amazonensis and Trypanosoma cruzi. It inhibits the relaxation activity of topoisomerase IB of L. donovani (LdTop1B) and stabilizes the cleavable complex...
May 5, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481276/multi-anti-parasitic-activity-of-arylidene-ketones-and-thiazolidene-hydrazines-against-trypanosoma-cruzi-and-leishmania-spp
#13
Guzmán Álvarez, Cintya Perdomo, Cathia Coronel, Elena Aguilera, Javier Varela, Gonzalo Aparicio, Flavio R Zolessi, Nallely Cabrera, Celeste Vega, Miriam Rolón, Antonieta Rojas de Arias, Ruy Pérez-Montfort, Hugo Cerecetto, Mercedes González
A series of fifty arylideneketones and thiazolidenehydrazines was evaluated against Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis. Furthermore, new simplified thiazolidenehydrazine derivatives were evaluated against Trypanosoma cruzi. The cytotoxicity of the active compounds on non-infected fibroblasts or macrophages was established in vitro to evaluate the selectivity of their anti-parasitic effects. Seven thiazolidenehydrazine derivatives and ten arylideneketones had good activity against the three parasites...
May 7, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476601/leishmania-infantum-dna-detected-in-phlebotomine-species-from-puerto-iguaz%C3%A3%C2%BA-city-misiones-province-argentina
#14
S L Moya, M G Giuliani, M S Santini, M G Quintana, O D Salomón, D J Liotta
In Puerto Iguazú City, Argentina, human and canine Visceral Leishmaniasis cases have been recorded since the year 2010, with Leishmania infantum as the etiological agent and Lutzomyia longipalpis as its main vector. In the present study, polymerase chain reaction and sequencing were used to detect L. infantum DNA in 3.9% of the female sandflies captured in Puerto Iguazú City. This is the first report of L. infantum DNA detection in Micropygomyia quinquefer, and the second one in Lu. longipalpis and Nyssomyia whitmani for Argentina...
May 2, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472733/in-vitro-inhibition-of-leishmania-attachment-to-sandfly-midguts-and-ll-5-cells-by-divalent-metal-chelators-anti-gp63-and-phosphoglycans
#15
Rodrigo Pedro Soares, Ellen Cristina Félix Altoé, Vítor Ennes-Vidal, Simone M da Costa, Elizabeth Ferreira Rangel, Nataly Araújo de Souza, Vanderlei Campos da Silva, Petr Volf, Claudia Masini d'Avila-Levy
Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania infantum are the causative agents of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, respectively. Several aspects of the vector-parasite interaction involving gp63 and phosphoglycans have been individually assayed in different studies. However, their role under the same experimental conditions was not studied yet. Here, the roles of divalent metal chelators, anti-gp63 antibodies and purified type I phosphoglycans (PGs) were evaluated during in vitro parasite attachment to the midgut of the vector...
March 29, 2017: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472338/occurrence-and-probability-maps-of-lutzomyia-longipalpis-and-lutzomyia-cruzi-diptera-psychodidae-phlebotominae-in-brazil
#16
J D Andrade-Filho, R G C Scholte, A L G Amaral, P H F Shimabukuro, O S Carvalho, R L Caldeira
Leishmaniases are serious diseases caused by trypanosomatid protozoans of the genus Leishmania transmitted by the bite of phlebotomine sand flies. We analyzed records pertaining to Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912) and Lutzomyia cruzi (Mangabeira, 1938) in Brazil from the following sources: the collection of phlebotomine sand flies of the Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou/Fiocruz (FIOCRUZ-COLFLEB), the "SpeciesLink" (CRIA) database, from systematic surveys of scientific articles and gray literature (dissertations, theses, and communications), and disease data obtained from the Information System for Notifiable Diseases/Ministry of Health (SINAN/MS)...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471743/pediatric-visceral-leishmaniasis-caused-by-leishmania-infantum-in-northern-cyprus
#17
Pagliano Pasquale, Ascione Tiziana
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465178/oral-delivery-of-ursolic-acid-loaded-nanostructured-lipid-carrier-coated-with-chitosan-oligosaccharides-development-characterization-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-assessment-for-the-therapy-of-leishmaniasis
#18
Suman Das, Santanu Ghosh, Asit Kumar De, Tanmoy Bera
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a life-threatening disease caused by Leishmania donovani due to uncontrolled parasitisation of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. Ursolic acid (UA), a promising anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial and anti-diabetic drug used successfully for treatment of ailments. Development of new delivery system is extremely urgent for UA with better efficacy and fewer side effects. The aim of present research work was to formulate and evaluate the potential anti-leishmanial activity of UA loaded N-octyl-chitosan surface decorated nanostructured lipid carrier system (UA-NLC) for delivery to the macrophages for VL...
April 29, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461317/in-vitro-evaluation-of-antileishmanial-activity-of-computationally-screened-compounds-against-ascorbate-peroxidase-combating-amphotericin-b-drug-resistance
#19
Rani Mansuri, Ashish Kumar, Sindhuprava Rana, Bhavana Panthi, Yousuf Ansari, Sushmita Das, Manas Ranjan Dikhit, Ganesh Chandra Sahoo, Pradeep Das
In Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL), the host macrophages generate oxidative stress to destroy the pathogen, while Leishmania combat the harmful effect of radicals by redox homeostasis through its unique trypanothione cascade. L. donovani Ascorbate Peroxidase (LdAPx) is a redox enzyme that regulates trypanothione cascade and detoxify the effect of H2O2 Absence of LdAPx homologue in human makes it an excellent drug target. In this study, the homology model of LdAPx was built including heme and diverse compounds were prefiltered (PAINS, ADMET and Lipinski's 5) thereafter screened against the LdAPx model...
May 1, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460833/application-of-nanotechnology-in-treatment-of-leishmaniasis-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Maryam Akbari, Ahmad Oryan, Gholamreza Hatam
Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by a protozoan species of the genus Leishmania affecting mostly the developing countries. The disease with current mortality rate of 50,000 deaths per year threatens approximately 350 million people in more than 90 countries all over the world. Cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis are the most frequent forms of the disease. Chemotherapy still relies on the use of pentavalent antimonials, amphotericin B, liposomal amphotericin B and miltefosin...
April 28, 2017: Acta Tropica
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