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Visceral Leishmania

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784509/lactoferrin-modified-betulinic-acid-loaded-plga-nanoparticles-are-strong-anti-leishmanials
#1
Asim Halder, Divanshu Shukla, Suvadra Das, Partha Roy, Arup Mukherjee, Bhaskar Saha
Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL), caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani, is a potentially fatal disease. The only orally bioavailable drug miltefosine is toxic and the effective liposomal Amphotericin B (AmBisome) is limited by its prohibitive cost and requirement for parenteral administration. Therefore, finding a new potential drug candidate and an alternative delivery system is imperative. We report that Betulinic acid (BA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid from Betula alba bark, was loaded onto uniformly spherical PLGA nanoparticles (BANPs; diameter 187...
May 18, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775225/cytokines-and-chemokines-differentially-regulate-innate-immune-cell-trafficking-during-post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis
#2
Ashish K Singh, Vidya N R Das, Ajay Amit, Manas R Dikhit, Vijaya Mahantesh, Shubhankar K Singh, Shyam Naryan, Krishna Pandey, Pradeep Das, Neena Verma, Sanjiva Bimal
Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is often considered to be the anthroponotic reservoir of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in India. A better understanding of the host immune-response in dermal lesions of PKDL patients is therefore of utmost significance to minimize such patients and to restrict VL transmission. Although the innate immune response is known to play an important role in parasite clearance from dermal lesions, the actual contribution of innate cells to the pathogenicity of PKDL is poorly understood...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774295/serological-investigation-of-visceral-leishmania-infection-in-human-and-its-associated-risk-factors-in-welkait-district-western-tigray-ethiopia
#3
Abrha Bsrat, Mebrahtu Berhe, Endalemaw Gadissa, Habtamu Taddele, Yohannes Tekle, Yohannes Hagos, Adugna Abera, Messele G/Micael, Tehetna Alemayhu, Getachew Gugsa, Abraham Aseffa
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is major neglected public health problem in terms of geographical spread and incidence in Ethiopia. Magnitude, public health impact and dynamics of VL were not well studied in Welkait District, Western Tigray, though the area is known for VL. Hence, this study aimed to determine sero-prevalence of human VL and associated risk factors in Welkait as new foci. A cross sectional study design was employed in this study. Two stage stratified random sampling method was used to select study participants...
February 2018: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773132/leishmania-in-wolves-in-northern-spain-a-spreading-zoonosis-evidenced-by-wildlife-sanitary-surveillance
#4
Alvaro Oleaga, Stefania Zanet, Alberto Espí, Marcia Raquel Pegoraro de Macedo, Christian Gortázar, Ezio Ferroglio
Leishmaniosis is, to date, considered the second most important emerging vector-borne protozoal disease in the world after malaria. The form of zoonotic visceral leishmaniosis found in the Mediterranean basin is caused by Leishmania infantum, and its life cycle includes the domestic dog and a phlebotomine sandfly vector. This complex epidemiological cycle and its high prevalence of subclinical infection, hinder the surveillance and control of L. infantum, and allows it to go unnoticed at the geographical endemicity limits of the parasite or in recently colonized areas...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770328/second-blood-meal-by-female-lutzomyia-longipalpis-enhancement-by-oviposition-and-its-effects-on-digestion-longevity-and-leishmania-infection
#5
C S Moraes, K Aguiar-Martins, S G Costa, P A Bates, R J Dillon, F A Genta
Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in America. Physiological and molecular mechanisms of Leishmania infection in sand flies have been studied during the first gonotrophic cycle. There are few studies about these interactions during the second gonotrophic cycle mainly because of the difficulties maintaining sand flies through sequential feeds. Here we standardized conditions to perform the second blood feed efficiently, and our results show that oviposition is an essential factor for the success of multiple feeds...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745990/an-il-10-dominant-polarization-of-monocytes-is-a-feature-of-indian-visceral-leishmaniasis
#6
Susmita Roy, Debanjan Mukhopadhyay, Shibabrata Mukherjee, Srija Moulik, Soumyadip Chatterji, Nayan Brahme, Netai Pramanik, Rama P Goswami, Bibhuti Saha, Mitali Chatterjee
BACKGROUND: Leishmania donovani, the causative parasite of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) deviously manipulates host monocytes/macrophages to ensure its survival. Although monocytes/macrophages from patients with VL have demonstrated an impaired oxidative burst and antigen presentation, an unanswered yet pertinent question remains as to whether they are deactivated or alternatively activated. METHODS AND RESULTS: The significantly raised plasma levels of IL-4/IL-13 and IL-10 in VL patients suggested a microenvironment conducive for alternative activation of monocytes/macrophages...
May 10, 2018: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745468/epidemiological-evaluation-of-leishmania-infantum-zoonotic-transmission-risk-in-the-recently-established-endemic-area-of-northwestern-italy
#7
E Ferroglio, E Battisti, S Zanet, C Bolla, E Concialdi, A Trisciuoglio, S Khalili, A Biglino
Leishmania infantum infection had been expanding into new areas due to changes in vector and host biology. Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis has become endemic in previously unsuitable areas as vectors find favourable climatic conditions and an increasing number of reservoir dogs are moved between traditionally and new endemic areas. Monitoring vector and disease expansion in areas of recent colonization is needed to understand transmission mechanisms and patterns of disease establishment. Here, we studied the infection status of 815 human blood donors and of 803 sympatric dogs from five, newly endemic, areas in Northwestern Italy...
May 10, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743809/evaluation-of-regulatory-immune-response-in-skin-lesions-of-patients-affected-by-nonulcerated-or-atypical-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-honduras-central-america
#8
Gabriela Venicia Araujo Flores, Carmen Maria Sandoval Pacheco, Thaise Yumie Tomokane, Wilfredo Sosa Ochoa, Concepción Zúniga Valeriano, Claudia Maria Castro Gomes, Carlos Eduardo Pereira Corbett, Marcia Dalastra Laurenti
In Honduras, Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi causes both visceral leishmaniasis (LV) and nonulcerated or atypical cutaneous leishmaniasis (NUCL). NUCL is characterized by mononuclear inflammatory infiltration of the dermis, composed mainly of lymphocytes followed by macrophages with discrete parasitism. Considering that little is known about the pathogenesis of NUCL, the aim of this study was to evaluate the regulatory response in situ in skin lesions of patients affected by NUCL. Biopsies ( n = 20) from human cutaneous nonulcerative lesions were collected and processed by usual histological techniques...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742167/canine-leishmaniasis-genome-wide-analysis-and-antibody-response-to-lutzomyia-longipalpis-saliva
#9
Luís F S Batista, Yuri T Utsunomiya, Thaís B F Silva, Mariana M Carneiro, Joyr S F Paiva, Rafaela B Silva, Thaíse Y Tomokane, Claudio N Rossi, Acácio D Pacheco, Rafaela B P Torrecilha, Fernando T Silveira, Mary Marcondes, Cáris M Nunes, Márcia D Laurenti
The anti-inflammatory properties of sand fly saliva favor the establishment of the Leishmania infantum infection. In contrast, an antibody response against Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva is often associated with a protective cell-mediated response against canine visceral leishmaniasis. Genetic studies may demonstrate to what extent the ability to secrete anti-saliva antibodies depends on genetic or environmental factors. However, the genetic basis of canine antibody response against sand fly saliva has not been assessed...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740532/epidemiological-aspects-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-larestan-and-ghiro-karzin-counties-southwest-of-iran
#10
Nasiri Zahra, Keshavarzi Davood, Akbari Morteza, Soltani Zahra
Objectives: Leishmania parasites are the causative agents of leishmaniasis. The Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) form of the disease is fatal if not treated in most cases. This study examined the epidemiological aspects of VL in two southwest counties of Iran. Methods: This was a retrospective study of hospitalized patients with a laboratory confirmation of VL from Larestan and Ghiro-Karzin Counties. Results: For Larestan county, a decline in the incidence of VL has been observed from 2004 to 2015...
April 2018: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740446/antigenicity-of-leishmania-activated-c-kinase-antigen-lack-in-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-and-protective-effect-of-prime-boost-vaccination-with-pci-neo-lack-plus-attenuated-lack-expressing-vaccinia-viruses-in-hamsters
#11
Laura Fernández, Eugenia Carrillo, Lucas Sánchez-Sampedro, Carmen Sánchez, Ana Victoria Ibarra-Meneses, M Angeles Jimenez, Valter Dos Anjos Almeida, Mariano Esteban, Javier Moreno
Leishmania -activated C-kinase antigen (LACK) is a highly conserved protein among Leishmania species and is considered a viable vaccine candidate for human leishmaniasis. In animal models, prime-boost vaccination with LACK-expressing plasmids plus attenuated vaccinia viruses (modified vaccinia Ankara [MVA] and mutant M65) expressing LACK, has been shown to protect against cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Further, LACK demonstrated to induce the production of protective cytokines in patients with active CL or cured visceral leishmaniasis, as well as in asymptomatic individuals from endemic areas...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737887/current-approaches-to-visceral-leishmaniasis-treatment-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#12
Wanessa Trindade Clemente, Paulo Henrique Orlandi Mourão, Jose María Aguado
The increasing number of transplants performed worldwide and the growing global mobility with migration and travel to and from developing countries and tropical areas are bringing new challenges for the management of transplant infectious diseases, previously less commonly seen, such as Leishmaniasis. However, in this scenario there is a lack of information and the current knowledge is based on a few studies. The selection of the most appropriate treatment depends on various factors, such as patient profile, Leishmania species, disease extent, drug availability, concomitant infections and previous treatments...
May 8, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717371/visceral-leishmaniasis-from-a-non-endemic-himalayan-region-of-nepal
#13
Mitesh Shrestha, Basu Dev Pandey, Jyoti Maharjan, Shyam Prakash Dumre, Prakash Nidhi Tiwari, Krishna Das Manandhar, Sher Bahadur Pun, Kishor Pandey
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic to the southern plains of Nepal. Here, we report the first case of VL from a non-endemic Himalayan region of Nepal. The patient presented with a history of high-grade fever, splenomegaly, and anemia but had not traveled to a VL-endemic region. Visceral leishmaniasis was diagnosed following microscopic detection of the Leishmania species amastigote in a bone marrow aspirate, positive result for the rK39 test, and further validation by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
May 2, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716641/real-time-pcr-applications-for-diagnosis-of-leishmaniasis
#14
REVIEW
Luca Galluzzi, Marcello Ceccarelli, Aurora Diotallevi, Michele Menotta, Mauro Magnani
Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease caused by many Leishmania species, which can infect both humans and other mammals. Leishmaniasis is a complex disease, with heterogeneous clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic infections to lesions at cutaneous sites (cutaneous leishmaniasis), mucosal sites (mucocutaneous leishmaniasis) or in visceral organs (visceral leishmaniasis), depending on the species and host characteristics. Often, symptoms are inconclusive and leishmaniasis can be confused with other co-endemic diseases...
May 2, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712885/leishmania-in-a-patient-with-small-lymphocytic-lymphoma-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#15
Gregory Nicolas, Elliott Koury, Dani Osman, Christian Salibi, Lea Nehme, Stephanie Mitri, Julien-Sami Atef El Sayegh, Linda Rached, George Khoury
BACKGROUND Leishmaniasis is a parasitic infection spread by the bite of infected sand flies that are usually present in the Middle East, Africa, and some parts of Asia and Europe. Leishmaniasis manifests in 3 different forms: Visceral (also known as Kala Azar), which is the most serious type; cutaneous, which is the most common type; and mucocutaneous. The symptoms of this infection range from a silent infection to fever, enlargement of the liver and spleen, weight loss, and pancytopenia. CASE REPORT In this case report, we discuss a 73-year-old man known to have chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), presenting with unremitting fever and who to our surprise was found to have Kala Azar...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704722/substituted-1-5-naphthyridine-derivatives-as-novel-antileishmanial-agents-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation
#16
Ana Tejería, Yolanda Pérez-Pertejo, Rosa M Reguera, Rafael Balaña-Fouce, Concepción Alonso, María González, Gloria Rubiales, Francisco Palacios
Visceral leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that affects, among other areas, both sides of the Mediterranean Basin. The drugs classically used in clinical practice are pentavalent antimonials (SbV ) and amphotericin B, which are nephrotoxic, require parenteral administration, and increasing drug resistance in visceral leishmaniasis has been observed. These circumstances justify the search of new families of compounds to find effective drugs against the disease. Eukaryotic type I DNA topoisomerase (TopIB) has been found essential for the viability of the parasites, and therefore represents a promising target in the development of an antileishmanial therapy...
April 18, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704121/immunodetection-of-hepatic-stellate-cells-in-dogs-with-visceral-leishmaniasis
#17
Natália Cassaro Marques, Pamela Rodrigues Reina Mo Reira, Paulo Henrique Leal Bertolo, Fábio Nelson Gava, Rosemeri de Oliveira Vasconcelos
Hepatic stellate cells (HSC), or Ito cells, store vitamin A when at rest but undergo phenotypic changes in situations of liver injury, which may induce fibrosis, and they may participate in the immune response in the liver. The objective of the present study was to investigate the role of HSC in the livers of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Twenty-eight livers from dogs infected with VL that were living in an area endemic for the disease were evaluated, among which 13 were asymptomatic (A) and 15 were symptomatic (S)...
April 27, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701883/dual-immune-effect-of-inkt-cells-considering-human-cutaneous-and-visceral-leishmaniasis-an-example-of-cell-plasticity-according-to-different-disease-scenarios
#18
Bruna de Gois Macêdo, Rephany Fonseca Peixoto, Bruna Leal Lima Maciel, Juliana de Assis Silva Gomes, Fátima de Lourdes Assunção Araújo de Azevedo, Robson Cavalcanti Veras, Isac Almeida de Medeiros, Teresa Cristina Soares de Lima Grisi, Demétrius Antônio Machado de Araújo, Ian Porto Gurgel do Amaral, Tatjana Keesen de Souza Lima
Although the semi-invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT) are a small subpopulation of cells in the peripheral blood, they are presumed to play a role in early stages of infection against various pathogens, including protozoa. This work investigates the activation status and cytokine profile of iNKT cells during human Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis infection. We studied iNKT cells in symptomatic active visceral patients (AVL) (n=8), symptomatic active cutaneous patients (ACL) (n=13), negative endemic controls (NEC) (n=6) and non-endemic controls (NonEC) (n=6), with and without Total Leishmania antigen stimulus (TLA)...
April 27, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695527/development-and-evaluation-of-a-novel-lamp-assay-for-the-diagnosis-of-cutaneous-and-visceral-leishmaniasis
#19
Emily Rebecca Adams, Gerard Schoone, Inge Versteeg, Maria Adelaida Gomez, Ermias Diro, Yasuyoshi Mori, Desiree Perlee, Tim Downing, Nancy Saravia, Ashenafi Assaye, Asrat Hailu, Audrey Albertini, Joseph Mathu Ndung'u, Henk Schallig
INTRODUCTION: A novel Pan-Leishmania LAMP assay was developed for diagnosis of Cutaneous and Visceral Leishmaniasis (CL & VL) which can be used in near-patient settings. METHODS: Primers were designed on the 18S rDNA and the conserved region of minicircle kDNA selected on the basis of high copy number. LAMP assays were evaluated for CL in a prospective cohort trial of 105 patients in South-West Colombia. Lesion swab samples from CL suspects were collected and tested using LAMP and compared to a composite reference of microscopy AND/OR culture to calculate diagnostic accuracy...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683394/impact-of-4-deltamethrin-impregnated-dog-collars-on-the-prevalence-and-incidence-of-canine-visceral-leishmaniasis
#20
Thaís Aparecida Kazimoto, Sthenia Santos Albano Amora, Fabiano Borges Figueiredo, Jamille Maia E Magalhães, Yannara Barbosa Nogueira Freitas, Maressa Laíse Reginaldo Sousa, Anne Emanuelle Câmara da Silva Melo, Monique Paiva Campos, Nilza Dutra Alves, Guilherme Loureiro Werneck
In Brazil, visceral leishmaniasis is caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum, primarily transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis and with the dog as its main urban reservoir. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of 4% deltamethrin-impregnated dog collars (DMC) DIC, Scalibor® 65 cm model and MSD manufacturer, on the prevalence and incidence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) and on the rate of infection of sandflies by L. infantum. The research was conducted in two areas of the municipality Mossoró, State of Rio Grande do Norte in Northeast of Brazil...
April 23, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
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