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Visceral Leishmania

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934263/temporal-dynamics-and-leishmania-infantum-infection-prevalence-of-phlebotomus-perniciosus-diptera-phlebotominae-in-highly-endemic-areas-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-tunisia
#1
Meriem Benabid, Jamila Ghrab, Adel Rhim, Rania Ben-Romdhane, Karim Aoun, Aïda Bouratbine
Phlebotomus perniciosus is one of the major vectors of Leishmania infantum in the Mediterranean basin. The aim of this work was (i) to provide information about abundance and temporal dynamics of this Larroussius species in a hot spot area of visceral leishmaniasis in Tunisia, (ii) to detect L. infantum DNA in wild caught female sandflies and (iii) to measure Phlebotomus perniciosus infection rate throughout the active season. Sandflies were collected monthly during one year using CDC miniature light-traps in house and in animal shelters...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929498/dog-skin-parasite-load-tlr-2-il-10-and-tnf-%C3%AE-expression-and-infectiousness
#2
Dandara Camila Morais Pereira-Fonseca, Fernanda Muller de Oliveira-Rovai, Lílian Aparecida Colebrusco Rodas, Carolina Aparecida Carlin Beloti, Rafaela Beatriz Pintor Torrecilha, Píer Kenji Rauschkolb Katsuda Ito, Saulo Vinícius Avanço, Rafael Silva Cipriano, Yuri Tani Utsunomiya, Roberto Mitsuyoshi Hiramoto, Leontides Calvo-Bado, Orin Courtenay, Gisele Fabrino Machado, Valéria Marçal Felix de Lima, Cáris Maroni Nunes
Visceral leishmaniosis is a zoonotic disease that is transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis sandflies. Dogs are the main peri-urban reservoir of the disease, and progression of canine leishmaniosis is dependent on the type of immune response elaborated against the parasite. Type 1 immunity is characterized by effective cellular response, with production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). In contrast, Type 2 immunity is predominantly humoral, associated with progression of the disease, and mediated by anti-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 10 (IL-10)...
September 20, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915996/alternative-strategy-for-visceral-leishmaniosis-control-hisak70-salmonella-choleraesuis-pulsed-dendritic-cells
#3
Gustavo Domínguez-Bernal, Abel Martínez-Rodrigo, Alicia Mas, M Mar Blanco, José A Orden, Ricardo De La Fuente, Javier Carrión
Here, we describe a novel approach that exploits an attenuated mutant of Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis as carrier to deliver a plasmid encoding protein HisAK70. Subsequently, dendritic cells (DCs) were pulsed with this vaccine vector. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the prepared HisAK70-S. Choleraesuis-pulsed DCs (HisAK70-SAL DCs) against visceral leishmaniosis (VL). In our ex vivo model of infection, the prepared formulations could decrease parasite growth by up to 80% by augmenting the production of IL-12p40 and by reducing arginase activity (ARG)...
October 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903998/shape-form-function-and-leishmania-pathogenicity-from-textbook-descriptions-to-biological-understanding
#4
REVIEW
Jack Sunter, Keith Gull
The shape and form of protozoan parasites are inextricably linked to their pathogenicity. The evolutionary pressure associated with establishing and maintaining an infection and transmission to vector or host has shaped parasite morphology. However, there is not a 'one size fits all' morphological solution to these different pressures, and parasites exhibit a range of different morphologies, reflecting the diversity of their complex life cycles. In this review, we will focus on the shape and form of Leishmania spp...
September 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902293/characterization-of-leishmania-l-infantum-chagasi-in-visceral-leishmaniasis-associated-with-hiv-co-infection-in-northeastern-brazil
#5
Elaine Cristina Bomfim de Lima, Walter Lins Barbosa, Maria Edileuza Felinto de Brito, Fábio Lopes de Melo, Sinval Pinto Brandão, Zulma Maria de Medeiros
Visceral leishmaniasis, associated with HIV/AIDS coinfection, is becoming a more aggressive disease, complicating an accurate prognosis. A 21-year-old HIV-positive female presenting with clinical features of visceral leishmaniasis was enrolled in this study. Bone marrow cytology, Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle culture and kDNA PCR of peripheral blood were all positive. Typing methods, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and ITS1-RFLP PCR of peripheral blood confirmed infection by Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi . PCR has proved to be safer and more affordable than other characterization methods; ITS1-RFLP PCR can diagnose and type Leishmania spp...
August 24, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900667/ammonium-trichloro-1-2-ethanediolato-o-o-tellurate-cures-experimental-visceral-leishmaniasis-by-redox-modulation-of-leishmania-donovani-trypanothione-reductase-and-inhibiting-host-integrin-linked-pi3k-akt-pathway
#6
Preeti Vishwakarma, Naveen Parmar, Pragya Chandrakar, Tanuj Sharma, Manoj Kathuria, Pramod K Agnihotri, Mohammad Imran Siddiqi, Kalyan Mitra, Susanta Kar
In an endeavor to search for affordable and safer therapeutics against debilitating visceral leishmaniasis, we examined antileishmanial potential of ammonium trichloro [1,2-ethanediolato-O,O']-tellurate (AS101); a tellurium based non toxic immunomodulator. AS101 showed significant in vitro efficacy against both Leishmania donovani promastigotes and amastigotes at sub-micromolar concentrations. AS101 could also completely eliminate organ parasite load from L. donovani infected Balb/c mice along with significant efficacy against infected hamsters (˃93% inhibition)...
September 12, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900023/gene-expression-in-leishmania-is-regulated-predominantly-by-gene-dosage
#7
Stefano A Iantorno, Caroline Durrant, Asis Khan, Mandy J Sanders, Stephen M Beverley, Wesley C Warren, Matthew Berriman, David L Sacks, James A Cotton, Michael E Grigg
Leishmania tropica, a unicellular eukaryotic parasite present in North and East Africa, the Middle East, and the Indian subcontinent, has been linked to large outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis in displaced populations in Iraq, Jordan, and Syria. Here, we report the genome sequence of this pathogen and 7,863 identified protein-coding genes, and we show that the majority of clinical isolates possess high levels of allelic diversity, genetic admixture, heterozygosity, and extensive aneuploidy. By utilizing paired genome-wide high-throughput DNA sequencing (DNA-seq) with RNA-seq, we found that gene dosage, at the level of individual genes or chromosomal "somy" (a general term covering disomy, trisomy, tetrasomy, etc...
September 12, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892492/hif-1%C3%AE-is-a-key-regulator-in-potentiating-suppressor-activity-and-limiting-the-microbicidal-capacity-of-mdsc-like-cells-during-visceral-leishmaniasis
#8
Akil Hammami, Belma Melda Abidin, Tania Charpentier, Aymeric Fabié, Annie-Pier Duguay, Krista M Heinonen, Simona Stäger
Leishmania donovani is known to induce myelopoiesis and to dramatically increase extramedullary myelopoiesis. This results in splenomegaly, which is then accompanied by disruption of the splenic microarchitecture, a chronic inflammatory environment, and immunosuppression. Chronically inflamed tissues are typically hypoxic. The role of hypoxia on myeloid cell functions during visceral leishmaniasis has not yet been studied. Here we show that L. donovani promotes the output from the bone marrow of monocytes with a regulatory phenotype that function as safe targets for the parasite...
September 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883727/vaccination-with-poly-d-l-lactide-co-glycolide-nanoparticles-loaded-with-soluble-leishmania-antigens-and-modified-with-a-tnf%C3%AE-mimicking-peptide-or-monophosphoryl-lipid-a-confers-protection-against-experimental-visceral-leishmaniasis
#9
Maritsa Margaroni, Maria Agallou, Evita Athanasiou, Olga Kammona, Costas Kiparissides, Catherine Gaitanaki, Evdokia Karagouni
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) persists as a major public health problem, and since the existing chemotherapy is far from satisfactory, development of an effective vaccine emerges as the most appropriate strategy for confronting VL. The development of an effective vaccine relies on the selection of the appropriate antigen and also the right adjuvant and/or delivery vehicle. In the present study, the protective efficacy of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs), which were surface-modified with a TNFα-mimicking eight-amino-acid peptide (p8) and further functionalized by encapsulating soluble Leishmania infantum antigens (sLiAg) and monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA), a TLR4 ligand, was evaluated against challenge with L...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875178/genetic-validation-of-leishmania-donovani-lysyl-trna-synthetase-shows-that-it-is-indispensable-for-parasite-growth-and-infectivity
#10
Sanya Chadha, N Arjunreddy Mallampudi, Debendra K Mohapatra, Rentala Madhubala
Leishmania donovani is a protozoan parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis. Increasing resistance and severe side effects of existing drugs have led to the need to identify new chemotherapeutic targets. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are ubiquitous and are required for protein synthesis. aaRSs are known drug targets for bacterial and fungal pathogens. Here, we have characterized and evaluated the essentiality of L. donovani lysyl-tRNA synthetase (LdLysRS). Two different coding sequences for lysyl-tRNA synthetases are annotated in the Leishmania genome database...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870535/historical-overview-of-infantile-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-el-agamy-alexandria-egypt
#11
REVIEW
Hala A Kassem, John C Beier, Bahira M El Sawaf
Infantile visceral leishmaniasis (IVL) is considered a rare and neglected disease in Egypt. An outbreak of the disease in El Agamy, Alexandria occurred in 1982 although the disease was previously reported 80 years before. Epidemiological and entomological studies were conducted ever since the 1982 outbreak to identify human cases, the parasite, reservoir host and the sand fly vector. Leishmania infantum MON-98, a new and unique zymodeme, was responsible of the disease. Stray dogs acted as the reservoir host and Phlebotomus langeroni was the proven vector...
September 8, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867354/development-of-a-simple-and-economical-diagnostic-test-for-canine-leishmaniasis
#12
Valeria S García, Verónica D G Gonzalez, Luis Gugliotta, Alexis Burna, Ana Demonte, Diego G Arias, Matías S Cabeza, Sergio A Guerrero
Visceral leishmaniasis is a public health problem worldwide. The early diagnosis in dogs is crucial, since they are an epidemiologically relevant reservoir of the disease. The aim of a field study is to early identify the disease allowing rapid intervention to reduce its effects. We propose an immunoagglutination test as a visual in situ method for diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis. Latex-protein complexes were sensitized by covalent coupling of a chimeric recombinant antigen of Leishmania spp. onto polystyrene latex with carboxyl functionality...
September 1, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867329/patchy-parasitized-skin-governs-leishmania-donovani-transmission-to-sand-flies
#13
Shaden Kamhawi, Tiago D Serafim
Doehl et al. have combined empirical data with computer simulation to demonstrate that RAG-2 mice intravenously infected with Leishmania donovani form heterogeneous skin parasite patches that govern infectiousness to sand flies. This model provides a much-needed tool to explore the relevance of asymptomatic and symptomatic visceral leishmaniasis patients as infection reservoirs.
August 31, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866421/in-vivo-antileishmanial-activity-and-histopathological-evaluation-in-leishmania-infantum-infected-hamsters-after-treatment-with-a-furoxan-derivative
#14
Letícia de Almeida, Thaís Gaban Passalacqua, Luiz Antonio Dutra, Jéssica N Varonez da Fonseca, Rhayanne F Queiroz Nascimento, Kely Braga Imamura, Cleverton Roberto de Andrade, Jean Leandro Dos Santos, Márcia A S Graminha
N-oxide derivatives compounds such as furoxan and benzofuroxan are promising scaffolds for designing of new antileishmanial drugs. A series of furoxan (1,2,5-oxadiazole 2-N-oxide) (compounds 4a-b, and 14a-f) and benzofuroxan (benzo[c][1,2,5]oxadiazole1-N-oxide) (compounds 8a-c) derivatives were evaluated against in vitro cultured L. infantum promastigotes and amastigotes. The compounds exhibited activity against promastigote and intracellular amastigote forms with EC50 values ranging from 2.9 to 71.2μM and 2...
August 31, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844893/tandem-affinity-purification-of-exosome-and-replication-factor-c-complexes-from-the-non-human-infectious-kinetoplastid-parasite-crithidia-fasciculata
#15
Wakisa Kipandula, Terry K Smith, Stuart A MacNeill
Kinetoplastid parasites are responsible for a range of diseases with significant global impact. Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma cruzi cause human African trypanosomiasis and Chagas disease, respectively, while various Leishmania species are responsible for cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Understanding the biology of these organisms is key for effective diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment. The insect parasite Crithidia fasciculata offers a safe and low-cost alternative for studies of kinetoplastid biology...
August 24, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841834/cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-a-severely-immunocompromised-hiv-patient-in-kumbo-northwest-region-of-cameroon-case-report
#16
Larry N Tangie, A Desmond, Leopold N Aminde, Annabel M Ako, P M Halle
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is a rising opportunistic infection in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Cases of leishmania and HIV co-infection have been documented in several countries in the world with most reporting on the association between visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and HIV. We herein report the case of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) occurring in an HIV seropositive patient. CASE PRESENTATION: A 28 year old Cameroonian female diagnosed with HIV for 6 months earlier, presented to our facility with a 3 months history of non-painful rash...
August 25, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837565/leishmania-infection-and-blood-food-sources-of-phlebotomines-in-an-area-of-brazil-endemic-for-visceral-and-tegumentary-leishmaniasis
#17
Antônia Suely Guimarães-E-Silva, Soraia de Oliveira Silva, Rosa Cristina Ribeiro da Silva, Valéria Cristina Soares Pinheiro, José Manuel Macário Rebêlo, Maria Norma Melo
The aims of the study were to determine the blood feeding preferences of sandflies and to identify species of Leishmania that infected phlebotomines in Caxias, Maranhão, Brazil, an area that is highly endemic for leishmaniasis. Sandflies were captured in light traps located in the peridomiciliary environments of randomly selected houses in urban and rural settings between 1800 and 0600 hours on new moon days between March 2013 and February 2015. DNA extracts from 982 engorged female sandflies were submitted to fragment length polymorphism analysis to identify infecting species of Leishmania, and blood sources were identified for 778 of these specimens...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830569/comparative-study-on-the-nocturnal-activity-of-phlebotomine-sand-flies-in-a-highland-and-lowland-foci-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-north-western-ethiopia-with-special-reference-to-phlebotomus-orientalis
#18
Esayas Aklilu, Araya Gebresilassie, Solomon Yared, Mizan Kindu, Habte Tekie, Meshesha Balkew, Alon Warburg, Asrat Hailu, Teshome Gebre-Michael
BACKGROUND: Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), is most probably vectored by Phlebotomus orientalis in north-western Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the nocturnal activity patterns of Ph. orientalis in VL endemic foci of Libo-Kemkem (highland) and Metema (lowland) districts of north-western Ethiopia. METHODS: Sampling of sand flies was conducted bimonthly from January-May 2012 in the highland and from March-June 2013 in the lowland...
August 23, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821261/main-lesions-in-the-central-nervous-system-of-dogs-due-to-leishmania-infantum-infection
#19
Weline Lopes Macau, Joicy Cortez de Sá, Ana Patrícia de Carvalho da Silva, Alessandra Lima Rocha, Renata Mondêgo-Oliveira, Fábio Henrique Evangelista de Andrade, Caroline Magalhães Cunha, Kátia da Silva Calabrese, Ana Lucia Abreu-Silva
BACKGROUND: Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is endemic in São Luís Maranhão/Brazil and it leads a varied clinical picture, including neurological signs. RESULTS: Histopathological evaluation showed that 14 dogs exhibited pathological alterations in at least one of the analyzed areas. Of these, mononuclear inflammatory reaction was the most frequent, although other lesions, such as hemorrhage, chromatolysis and gliosis were also observed. The presence of L...
August 18, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820895/identification-of-leishmania-donovani-antigen-in-circulating-immune-complexes-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-subjects-for-diagnosis
#20
Fauzia Jamal, Pushkar Shivam, Sarita Kumari, Manish Kumar Singh, Abul Hasan Sardar, Pushpanjali, Selvasankar Murugesan, Shyam Narayan, Anil Kumar Gupta, Krishna Pandey, V N R Das, Vahab Ali, Sanjiva Bimal, Pradeep Das, Shubhankar K Singh
The unreliability of most of the existing antibody-based diagnostic kits to discriminate between active and treated VL cases, relapse situation and reinfection are a major hurdle in controlling the cases of Kala-azar in an endemic area. An antigen targeted diagnostic approaches can be an attractive strategy to overcome these problems. Hence, this study was focused on identifying the Leishmania antigens, lies in circulating immune complex (CICs), can be used for diagnostic as well as prognostic purposes. The present study was conducted on peripheral blood samples of 115 human subjects, based on isolation of CICs...
2017: PloS One
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