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Visceral Leishmania

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329329/increased-transmissibility-of-leishmania-donovani-from-the-mammalian-host-to-vector-sand-flies-after-multiple-exposures-to-sand-fly-bites
#1
Joanna G Valverde, Andrea Paun, Ehud Inbar, Audrey Romano, Michael Lewis, Kashinath Ghosh, David Sacks
Background: Patients with active visceral leishmaniasis are important reservoirs in the anthroponotic transmission cycle of Leishmania donovani. The role of the blood or skin as a source of infection to sand flies remains unclear, and the possible effect of multiple exposures to fly bites on transmissibility has not been addressed. Methods: L. donovani infected hamsters were exposed to xenodiagnoses with Lutzomyia longipalpis on the same or different sites on the abdomen on two consecutive days, or by artificial feeding on the skin or blood...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327804/efficacy-and-safety-of-amphotericin-b-deoxycholate-versus-n-methylglucamine-antimoniate-in-pediatric-visceral-leishmaniasis-an-open-label-randomized-and-controlled-pilot-trial-in-brazil
#2
Myrlena Mescouto Borges, Maria Cristina da Silva Pranchevicius, Elza Ferreira Noronha, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra Romero, César Omar Carranza-Tamayo
INTRODUCTION: Despite their high toxicity, antimonials and amphotericin B deoxycholate are commonly used for treating visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Few studies showing conflictive data about their efficacy and adverse events in pediatric population are available. This study aimed to evaluate efficacy and safety of amphotericin B deoxycholate vs. that of N-methylglucamine antimoniate in treating pediatric VL in Brazil. METHODS: This was a randomized, open-label, 2-arm and controlled pilot clinical trial...
January 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327803/serodiagnosis-of-visceral-and-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-human-and-canine-populations-living-in-indigenous-reserves-in-the-brazilian-amazon-region
#3
Julia Teresa Ribeiro de Lima, Solange Maria Gennari, Herbert Sousa Soares, Antonio Humberto Hamad Minervino, Antonio Francisco Malheiros, Fernando Silveira Marques, Márcia Dalastra Laurenti, Rosangela Zacarias Machado, Arlei Marcili, Marcelo Bahia Labruna, Rodrigo Martins Soares
INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is endemic to the Northern, Northeastern, Central-Western, and Southeastern regions of Brazil. We aimed to assess the epidemiological situation of leishmaniasis in humans and dogs in indigenous villages located in the States of Mato Grosso and Tocantins using a serological survey conducted in May 2011. METHODS: Serum samples were collected from 470 humans and 327 dogs living in villages of the Urubu Branco and Tapirapé Karajá indigenous reserves...
January 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327794/seasonality-of-sand-flies-diptera-psychodidae-and-leishmania-dna-detection-in-vector-species-in-an-area-with-endemic-visceral-leishmaniasis
#4
Lara Saraiva, Camila Gonçalves Leite, Ana Cristina Vianna Mariano da Rocha Lima, Luiz Otávio Alves de Carvalho, Agnes Antônia Sampaio Pereira, Jerônimo Marteleto Nunes Rugani, Felipe Dutra Rego, Célia Maria Ferreira Gontijo, José Dilermando Andrade
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniases are a serious health problem in southeast Brazil, including the city of Belo Horizonte (BH), Minas Gerais state (MG), where there are high rates of incidence and mortality due to visceral leishmaniases. BH is divided into nine sanitary districts (SD) of which one, the Venda Nova SD, was selected for this study because it has high rates of positivity for canine leishmaniasis and high incidence of human leishmaniasis. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to survey the sand fly fauna in Venda Nova SD from August 2011 to July 2013 and perform a descriptive analysis of the vector population...
April 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327439/an-in-silico-functional-annotation-and-screening-of-potential-drug-targets-derived-from-leishmania-spp-hypothetical-proteins-identified-by-immunoproteomics
#5
Miguel A Chávez-Fumagalli, Mônica S Schneider, Daniela P Lage, Ricardo A Machado-de-Ávila, Eduardo A F Coelho
Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoan of the Leishmania genus. While no human vaccine is available, drugs such as pentavalent antimonials, pentamidine and amphotericin B are used for treat the patients. However, the high toxicity of these pharmaceutics, the emergence of parasite resistance and/or their high cost have showed to the urgent need of identify new targets to be employed in the improvement of the treatment against leishmaniasis. In a recent immunoproteomics approach performed in the Leishmania infantum species, 104 antigenic proteins were recognized by antibodies in sera of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) dogs...
March 19, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324803/leishmania-donovani-resistant-to-ambisome-or-miltefosine-exacerbates-cd58-expression-on-nk-cells-and-promotes-trans-membrane-migration-in-association-with-cd2
#6
Pushkar Shivam, Sarita Kumari, Fauzia Jamal, Vikash Kumar, Manish Kumar, Sanjiva Bimal, Shyam Narayan, Vidya Nand Ravi Das, Krishna Pandey, Anil Kumar Gupta, Pradeep Das, Shubhankar Kumar Singh
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a disease that is associated with compromised immunity and drug un-responsiveness as well as with the emergence of drug resistance in Leishmania donovani (Ld). Ld down-modulates cellular immunity by manipulating signaling agents, including a higher expression of the adhesion molecule CD58. The expression of CD58 and CD2 on natural killer (NK) cells facilitates intercellular adhesion and signaling. The influence of drug-resistant Ld on the expression of CD58 and CD2 was addressed in this study...
March 16, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321221/leishmania-donovani-nucleoside-hydrolase-nh36-domains-induce-t-cell-cytokine-responses-in-human-visceral-leishmaniasis
#7
Micheli Luize Barbosa Santos, Dirlei Nico, Fabrícia Alvisi de Oliveira, Aline Silva Barreto, Iam Palatnik-de-Sousa, Eugenia Carrillo, Javier Moreno, Paula Mello de Luca, Alexandre Morrot, Daniela Santoro Rosa, Marcos Palatnik, Cristiane Bani-Corrêa, Roque Pacheco de Almeida, Clarisa Beatriz Palatnik-de-Sousa
Development of immunoprotection against visceral leishmaniasis (VL) focused on the identification of antigens capable of inducing a Th1 immune response. Alternatively, antigens targeting the CD8 and T-regulatory responses are also relevant in VL pathogenesis and worthy of being included in a preventive human vaccine. We assessed in active and cured patients and VL asymptomatic subjects the clinical signs and cytokine responses to the Leishmania donovani nucleoside hydrolase NH36 antigen and its N-(F1), central (F2) and C-terminal (F3) domains...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321217/a-vaccine-therapy-for-canine-visceral-leishmaniasis-promoted-significant-improvement-of-clinical-and-immune-status-with-reduction-in-parasite-burden
#8
Bruno Mendes Roatt, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira Aguiar-Soares, Levi Eduardo Soares Reis, Jamille Mirelle de Oliveira Cardoso, Fernando Augusto Siqueira Mathias, Rory Cristiane Fortes de Brito, Sydnei Magno da Silva, Nelder De Figueiredo Gontijo, Sidney de Almeida Ferreira, Jesus G Valenzuela, Rodrigo Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodolfo Cordeiro Giunchetti, Alexandre Barbosa Reis
Herein, we evaluated the treatment strategy employing a therapeutic heterologous vaccine composed of antigens of Leishmania braziliensis associated with MPL adjuvant (LBMPL vaccine) for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in symptomatic dogs naturally infected by Leishmania infantum. Sixteen dogs received immunotherapy with MPL adjuvant (n = 6) or with a vaccine composed of antigens of L. braziliensis associated with MPL (LBMPL vaccine therapy, n = 10). Dogs were submitted to an immunotherapeutic scheme consisting of 3 series composed of 10 subcutaneous doses with 10-day interval between each series...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319012/the-expanding-world-of-human-leishmaniasis
#9
James A Cotton
New Leishmania isolates form a novel group of human parasites related to Leishmania enrietti, with cases in Ghana, Thailand, and Martinique; other relatives infect Australian and South American wildlife. These parasites apparently cause both cutaneous and visceral disease, and may have evolved a novel transmission mechanism exploiting blood-feeding midges.
March 16, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316411/particle-induced-x-ray-emission-study-of-blood-samples-of-indian-kala-azar-patients
#10
Sangita Lahiry, Supriya Khanra, Rajiv Kumar, Anindita Chakraborty, Shyam Sundar, Mathummal Sudarshan, Madhumita Manna
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or Kala-azar (KA) is a neglected tropical disease caused by protozoan parasite, Leishmania sp. and is fatal, if left untreated. In this study, we measured trace elements (K, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Cl, S, Ca, Mn, Cr, Ni, As, Se, Rb and Sr) in the blood of Indian VL patients (32) by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) study. Blood was collected from 36 subjects including healthy controls from Rambagh Kala-azar Hospital, Muzaffarpur, Bihar, India. PIXE experiment was carried out at the Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar, India and data were analyzed by GUPIXWIN software...
March 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301305/molecular-characterization-of-leishmania-parasites-in-giemsa-stained-slides-from-cases-of-human-cutaneous-and-visceral-leishmaniasis-eastern-algeria
#11
Nadia Beldi, Roukaya Mansouri, Jihene Bettaieb, Alia Yaacoub, Hejer Souguir Omrani, Yusr Saadi Ben Aoun, Farida Saadni, Ikram Guizani, Souheila Guerbouj
BACKGROUND: In Algeria, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is due to Leishmania (L.) infantum, while three cutaneous forms (CL) are caused by Leishmania major, Leishmania tropica and Leishmania infantum. In this study, the use of Giemsa-stained slides was evaluated with two PCR techniques, in Eastern Algeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 136 samples corresponding to 100 CL smears (skin scrapings) and 36 VL slides (bone marrow aspirates) collected from 2008 to 2014 were tested...
March 16, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301296/distinct-leishmania-infantum-strains-circulate-in-humans-and-dogs-in-the-emilia-romagna-region-northeastern-italy
#12
Gianluca Rugna, Elena Carra, Francesco Corpus, Mattia Calzolari, Daniela Salvatore, Romeo Bellini, Antonietta Di Francesco, Erica Franceschini, Antonella Bruno, Giovanni Poglayen, Stefania Varani, Fabrizio Vitale, Giuseppe Merialdi
Human leishmaniasis is an emerging problem in Italy and is on the increase in the Emilia-Romagna region, northeastern part of the country. Nevertheless, studies dealing with the molecular characterization of Leishmania spp. circulating in these areas are limited. In the present work, we explored the genetic polymorphism of Leishmania isolates from 28 cases of canine leishmaniasis and three cases of human visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which occurred in 2013-2014 in the Emilia-Romagna region. The characterization was carried out in comparison with nine human isolates of Leishmania from other VL endemic Italian regions and two reference strains...
March 16, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288798/probing-the-efficacy-of-a-heterologous-leishmania-l-viannia-braziliensis-recombinant-enolase-as-a-candidate-vaccine-to-restrict-the-development-of-l-infantum-in-balb-c-mice
#13
Thaís T O Santos, Vívian T Martins, Daniela P Lage, Lourena E Costa, Beatriz C S Salles, Ana M R S Carvalho, Daniel S Dias, Patrícia A F Ribeiro, Miguel A Chávez-Fumagalli, Ricardo A Machado-de-Ávila, Bruno M Roatt, Danielle F de Magalhães-Soares, Daniel Menezes-Souza, Eduardo A F Coelho, Mariana C Duarte
In the present study, the Leishmania braziliensis enolase protein was evaluated as a vaccine candidate against visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The DNA sequence was cloned and the recombinant protein (rEnolase) was evaluated as a vaccine, associated with saponin, as an immune adjuvant. The protective efficacy of the rEnolase plus saponin combination was investigated in BALB/c mice against Leishmania infantum infection. The results revealed that the vaccine induced higher levels of IFN-γ, IL-12, and GM-CSF when a capture ELISA and flow cytometry were performed, as well as an antileishmanial nitrite production after using in vitro stimulation with rEnolase and an antigenic Leishmania preparation...
March 10, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288415/deciphering-the-interplay-between-cysteine-synthase-and-thiol-cascade-proteins-in-modulating-amphotericin-b-resistance-and-survival-of-leishmania-donovani-under-oxidative-stress
#14
Kuljit Singh, Vahab Ali, Krishn Pratap Singh, Parool Gupta, Shashi S Suman, Ayan K Ghosh, Sanjiva Bimal, Krishna Pandey, Pradeep Das
Leishmania donovani is the causative organism of the neglected human disease known as visceral leishmaniasis which is often fatal, if left untreated. The cysteine biosynthesis pathway of Leishmania may serve as a potential drug target because it is different from human host and regulates downstream components of redox metabolism of the parasites; essential for their survival, pathogenicity and drug resistance. However, despite the apparent dependency of redox metabolism of cysteine biosynthesis pathway, the role of L...
March 7, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282232/an-atypical-case-of-leishmaniasis-associated-with-chronic-duodenitis-in-a-dog
#15
Ignacio Ayala, Luis Jesus Bernal, Juan Diego Garcia-Martinez, Miguel Angel Gomez, Jose Antonio Navarro, Antonio Bernabe
We describe an atypical case of duodenal leishmaniasis in a boxer dog presenting with chronic diarrhea and poor general condition. Antidiarrheic therapy was previously administered without success and inflammatory bowel disease localized to the small intestine was suspected, given the chronic clinical signs and by ruling out other known causes of gastrointestinal inflammation. Endoscopic biopsy of duodenum showed a moderate increase in lamina propria lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages. Basophilic bodies were seen in the cytoplasm of numerous macrophages, suggestive of Leishmania spp, confirmed by immunostaining, and a diagnosis of granulomatous duodenitis associated to Leishmania infection was made...
March 2017: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280494/a-chimera-containing-cd4-and-cd8-t-cell-epitopes-of-the-leishmania-donovani-nucleoside-hydrolase-nh36-optimizes-cross-protection-against-leishmania-amazonesis-infection
#16
Marcus Vinícius Alves-Silva, Dirlei Nico, Alexandre Morrot, Marcos Palatnik, Clarisa B Palatnik-de-Sousa
The Leishmania donovani nucleoside hydrolase (NH36) and NH A34480 of Leishmania amazonensis share 93% of sequence identity. In mice, the NH36 induced protection against visceral leishmaniasis is mediated by a CD4+ T cell response against its C-terminal domain (F3). Besides this CD4+ Th1 response, prevention and cure of L. amazonensis infection require also additional CD8+ and regulatory T-cell responses to the NH36 N-terminal (F1 domain). We investigated if mice vaccination with F1 and F3 domains cloned in tandem, in a recombinant chimera, with saponin, optimizes the vaccine efficacy against L...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280488/toll-like-receptor-2-is-required-for-inflammatory-process-development-during-leishmania-infantum-infection
#17
Laís A Sacramento, Jéssica L da Costa, Mikhael H F de Lima, Pedro A Sampaio, Roque P Almeida, Fernando Q Cunha, João S Silva, Vanessa Carregaro
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a chronic and fatal disease caused by Leishmania infantum in Brazil. Leukocyte recruitment to infected tissue is a crucial event for the control of infections such as VL. Among inflammatory cells, neutrophils are recruited to the site of Leishmania infection, and these cells may control parasite replication through oxidative or non-oxidative mechanisms. The recruitment, activation and functions of the neutrophils are coordinated by pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines during recognition of the parasite by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279761/evaluation-of-caax-prenyl-protease-ii-of-leishmania-donovani-as-potential-drug-target-infectivity-and-growth-of-the-parasite-is-significantly-lowered-after-the-gene-knockout
#18
Ruchika Bhardwaj, Mousumi Das, Shalini Singh, Adarsh Kumar Chiranjivi, Sitraraau Vijaya Prabhu, Sanjeev Kumar Singh, Vikash Kumar Dubey
Prenylation pathway is responsible for post translational modification of various signal proteins, including proteins of Ras superfamily. CAAX prenyl proteases are known to be key players in prenylation pathway. In the current study, we have evaluated CAAX prenyl protease II as a possible drug target against Leishmania donovani parasite, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis. Gene knockout strategy was employed to target CAAX prenyl protease II and subsequent effects were studied. CAAX prenyl protease II knockout resulted in significant decrease in growth and infectivity...
March 7, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267441/natural-infection-of-nesokia-indica-with-leishmania-major-and-leishmania-infantum-parasites-in-damghan-city-northern-iran
#19
Behrad Pourmohammadi, Sadegh Mohammadi-Azni, Mohsen Kalantari
Various species of rodents are proven reservoir hosts of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in different provinces of Iran and potential reservoir hosts of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the leishmanial infection of rodents in Damghan city from April to September, 2015. Sum of 100 rodents of three species; Nesokia indica (95), Mus musculus (3), and Microtus socialis (2), were trapped alive and their tissue samples were examined using parasitological and molecular (nested-PCR) methods...
March 4, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263760/integrating-genomics-and-proteomics-permits-identification-of-immunodominant-antigens-associated-with-drug-resistance-in-human-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-india
#20
Neeloo Singh, Shyam Sundar
Resistance of human pathogens like Leishmania to drugs is a growing concern where the multidrug-resistant phenotype renders chemotherapy ineffective. The acquired resistance of Leishmania to antimony has promoted intense research on the mechanisms involved but the question has not been resolved yet. In this study we have explored host-pathogen- drug interactions leading to identification of pharmacological determinants of host macrophages that resist the sodium antimony gluconate (SAG) mediated intracellular parasite killing...
March 3, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
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