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Visceral Leishmania

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077746/vector-competence-of-lutzomyia-cruzi-naturally-demonstrated-for-leishmania-infantum-and-suspected-for-leishmania-amazonensis
#1
Everton Falcão de Oliveira, Elisa Teruya Oshiro, Wagner Souza Fernandes, Alda Maria Teixeira Ferreira, Alessandra Gutierrez de Oliveira, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi Galati
Corumbá city is one of the oldest visceral leishmaniasis-endemic foci in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, where the transmission of Leishmania infantum has been attributed to Lutzomyia cruzi Aiming at investigating the parameters of the vectorial capacity of Lu. cruzi for L. infantum, a project was undertaken in this city. Among these parameters, vector competence was investigated and the results obtained are reported herein. Of the 12 hamsters exposed to feed wild-caught female sandflies, two developed infection with L...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067090/assessment-of-formulated-amodiaquine-microparticles-in-leishmania-donovani-infected-rats
#2
Henry Nettey, Grace Lovia Allotey-Babington, Isaac Somuah, N'guessan Benoit Banga, Barima Afrane, Seth Kwabena Amponsah, Henrietta Annor, Henry Darko, Kwame Hanson, Anoa Aidoo, Marisa Nyarkoa Broni, Clement Sasu, Alexander Nyarko
The aim of this study was to formulate, characterize and evaluate the activity of Amodiaquine microparticles against Leishmania donovani. Microparticles were formulated by encapsulating the drug in bovine serum albumin using the spray-dryer method. The microparticles were evaluated for size, zeta potential, drug content, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro release profile. The size range of the microparticles formulated was between 1.9 and 10 µm with an average zeta potential of -25.5 mV. Of the expected 20% drug loading, an average of 18...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Microencapsulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065450/the-effects-of-increased-heme-oxygenase-1-on-the-lymphoproliferative-response-in-dogs-with-visceral-leishmaniasis
#3
Breno Fernando Martins de Almeida, Kathlenn Liezbeth Oliveira Silva, Vanessa Marim Chiku, Aline Aparecida Correa Leal, Gabriela Lovizutto Venturin, Luis Gustavo Narciso, Maria Fernanda Cereijido Bersni Fink, Flavia de Rezende Eugênio, Paulo Sergio Patto Dos Santos, Paulo Cesar Ciarlini, Valéria Marçal Felix de Lima
Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is known to affect the cellular immunity of infected dogs, through impairing lymphoproliferation and microbicidal mechanisms. This study examined heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and its metabolites, oxidative stress and IL-10 levels in CVL and investigated correlations between these parameters. Additionally, the effects of HO-1 inhibition on the lymphoproliferative response and cytokine production in lymph node cells (LNCs) from infected dogs were evaluated. Forty-four dogs, 24 controls and 20 dogs with CVL were selected...
December 30, 2016: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064069/immunization-with-leishmania-donovani-protein-disulfide-isomerase-dna-construct-induces-th1-and-th17-dependent-immune-response-and-protection-against-experimental-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-balb-c-mice
#4
Ajay Amit, Vijayamahantesh, Manas R Dikhit, Ashish Kumar Singh, Vikash Kumar, Shashi S Suman, Ashu Singh, Akhilesh Kumar, Ajit Kumar Thakur, Vidyanand Ravi Das, Pradeep Das, Sanjiva Bimal
In the present study, the efficacy of Leishmania donovani protein disulfide isomerase (LdPDI) as a DNA vaccine was evaluated in BALB/C mice. Mice immunized with the LdPDI-DNA construct were found to be the most immuno-reactive, as the construct induced higher T-cell proliferation. The increased T-cell proliferation was associated with a substantial rise in Th1 and Th17+ CD4 cell response and triggered a higher proportion of CD8+ T cells for the release of interferon-gamma along with a reduced splenic parasite load on Days20 and 60 post challenge (PC)...
January 5, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059524/antileishmanial-activity-of-pyrazolopyridine-derivatives-and-their-potential-as-adjunct-therapy-with-miltefosine
#5
Devireddy Anand, Pawan Kumar Yadav, Om P S Patel, Naveen Parmar, Rahul K Maurya, Preeti Vishwakarma, Kanumuri S R Raju, Isha Taneja, Muhammad Wahajuddin, Susanta Kar, Prem P Yadav
A series of pyrazolo(dihydro)pyridines were synthesized and evaluated for antileishmanial efficacy against experimental visceral leishmaniasis. Among all, compounds 6d and 6j exhibited better activity than miltefosine against the intracellular amastigotes. Compound 6j (50 mg/kg/day) was further studied against Leishmania donovani/BALB/c mice via the intraperitoneal route for 5 days and displayed >91 and >93% clearances in splenic and liver parasitic burden, respectively. Combination treatment of 6j with the sub-curative dose of miltefosine (5 mg/kg) in BALB/c mice almost completely ameliorated the disease (>97% inhibition) by augmenting nitric oxide generation and shifting the immune response towards Th1 mode...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054334/comprehensive-candidate-gene-analysis-for-symptomatic-or-asymptomatic-outcomes-of-leishmania-infantum-infection-in-brazil
#6
Jason L Weirather, Priya Duggal, Eliana L Nascimento, Gloria R Monteiro, Daniella R Martins, Henio G Lacerda, Michaela Fakiola, Jenefer M Blackwell, Selma M B Jeronimo, Mary E Wilson
Genetic risk factors contribute to asymptomatic versus symptomatic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) outcomes following infection with Leishmania infantum. We therefore carried out a family-based (n = 918 post-quality control fully genotyped and phenotyped individuals) candidate gene study for symptomatic VL or asymptomatic delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin test phenotypes in highly endemic neighborhoods of northeast Brazil. A total of 248 SNPs were genotyped in 42 genes selected as candidates on the basis of prior genetic, immunological, and transcriptional profiling studies...
January 4, 2017: Annals of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045892/cyclobenzaprine-raises-ros-levels-in-leishmania-infantum-and-reduces-parasite-burden-in-infected-mice
#7
Edézio Ferreira Cunha-Júnior, Valter Viana Andrade-Neto, Marta Lopes Lima, Thais Alves da Costa-Silva, Andres J Galisteo Junior, Maria A Abengózar, Coral Barbas, Luis Rivas, Elmo Eduardo Almeida-Amaral, Andre Gustavo Tempone, Eduardo Caio Torres-Santos
BACKGROUND: The leishmanicidal action of tricyclic antidepressants has been studied and evidences have pointed that their action is linked to inhibition of trypanothione reductase, a key enzyme in the redox metabolism of pathogenic trypanosomes. Cyclobenzaprine (CBP) is a tricyclic structurally related to the antidepressant amitriptyline, differing only by the presence of a double bond in the central ring. This paper describes the effect of CBP in experimental visceral leishmaniasis, its inhibitory effect in trypanothione reductase and the potential immunomodulatory activity...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032106/canine-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-wild-canines-fox-jackal-and-wolf-in-northeastern-iran-using-parasitological-serological-and-molecular-methods
#8
Mehdi Mohebali, Kourosh Arzamani, Zabiholah Zarei, Behnaz Akhoundi, Homa Hajjaran, Saber Raeghi, Zahra Heidari, Seyed Mousa Motavalli-Haghi, Samira Elikaee, Ahmad Mousazadeh-Mojarrad, Zahra Kakoei
BACKGROUND: Although many studies had been conducted on various aspects of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in domestic dogs in the endemic areas of Iran, investigations on CVL in wild canines are rare. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2012 to 2013 in northeast of Iran where human VL is endemic. Wild canines were trapped around the areas where human VL cases had been previously identified. Wild canines were collected and examined both clinically and serologically using direct agglutination test (DAT)...
December 2016: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031196/nanotized-curcumin-and-miltefosine-a-potential-combination-for-the-treatment-of-experimental-visceral-leishmaniasis
#9
Brajendra Tiwari, Richa Pahuja, Pradeep Kumar, Srikanth Kumar Rath, Kailash Chand Gupta, Neena Goyal
Leishmaniasis chemotherapy remains very challenging due to high cost of the drug and its associated toxicity and drug resistance which develops over a period of time. Now-a-days combination therapies (CT) are in use for many diseases like cancer and malaria being more effective and affordable than monotherapy. CT is believed to represent a new explorable strategy for leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease caused by obligate intracellular parasite Leishmania In the present work, we have adopted a rational approach, to investigate the effect of combination of traditional Indian medicine (Ayurveda), a natural product curcumin and miltefosine, the only oral drug for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) using Leishmania (Leishmania) donovani/hamster model...
December 28, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017861/diagnosis-of-mediterranean-visceral-leishmaniasis-by-detection-of-leishmania-related-antigen-in-urine-and-oral-fluid-samples
#10
Meriem Ben-Abid, Yousr Galaï, Zakia Habboul, Rim Ben-Abdelaziz, Ines Ben-Sghaier, Karim Aoun, Aïda Bouratbine
Implementation of simple diagnostic tests using non-invasive collection of biological specimens is of great importance in the diagnosis of pediatric visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum. Latex agglutination kit (KAtex(®)) is widely used in the diagnosis mainly in L. donovani endemic areas. However its utilization in L. infantum endemic regions remains limited and its use on noninvasive biological specimen apart urine was not reported. In this study, KAtex(®) kit was used to detect Leishmania-related antigen in urine and oral fluid of 35 L...
December 22, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017772/novel-%C3%AE-carboline-quinazolinone-hybrids-disrupt-leishmania-donovani-redox-homeostasis-and-show-promising-antileishmanial-activity
#11
Dandugudumula Ramu, Swati Garg, R Ayana, A K Keerthana, Vijeta Sharma, Subhabrata Sen, Soumya Pati, Shailja Singh
Visceral Leishmaniasis is a deadly parasitic disease caused by Leishmania donovani. Paucity exists in the discovery of novel chemotherapeutics against Leishmaniasis. In this study, we synthesized a natural product inspired Diversity Oriented Synthesis library of L. donovani Trypanothione reductase (LdTR) inhibitorμ β-carboline-quinazolinone hybrids, which are different in stereochemical architecture and diverse in the bioactive chemical space. It is noteworthy that chirality affects drug-to-protein binding affinity since proteins in any living system are present only in one of the chiral forms...
December 22, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013190/mycobacterium-indicus-pranii-mw-mediated-protection-against-visceral-leishmaniasis-by-reciprocal-regulation-of-host-dual-specificity-phosphatases
#12
Shabina Parveen, Syamdas Bandhyopadhyay, Sonali Das, Suchandra Bhattacharyya Majumdar, Junaid Jibran Jawed, Bidisha Paul Chowdhury, Bhaskar Saha, Subrata Majumdar
Leishmania donovani resides within the host macrophages by dampening host defence mechanisms and thereby it modulates the host cell functions for its survival. Multiple host cell factors compete during the interplay between the host and the parasite. Roles for dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSPs) are implicated in various pathological conditions. However, the reciprocity of these DUSPs was unknown in L. donovani infection in a susceptible model. Here, we show that Mycobacterium indicus pranii (Mw), an immunomodulator, reciprocally regulates DUSP1 and DUSP6 through the TLR4 pathway...
December 2016: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011960/visceral-leishmaniasis-in-immunocompromised-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-approach-and-evaluation-of-the-recently-released-idsa-guidelines
#13
Pasquale Pagliano, Tiziana Ascione, Giusy Di Flumeri, Giovanni Boccia, Francesco De Caro
Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a chronic infectious disease endemic in tropical and sub-tropical areas including the Mediterranean basin, caused by a group of protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania and transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. Typically, VL is classified as a zoonotic infection when Leishmania infantum is the causative agent and as an anthroponotic one when L. donovani is the causative agent. Immunocompromised patients, in particular HIV positive, are considered at risk of VL. They may present atypical signs and poor response to the treatment due to a compromission of T-helper and regulatory cells activity...
1, 2016: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011169/leishmanicidal-activity-of-the-alkaloid-rich-fraction-from-guatteria-latifolia
#14
C Ferreira, C L A Passos, D C Soares, K P Costa, M J C Rezende, A Q Lobão, A C Pinto, L Hamerski, E M Saraiva
Leishmaniasis is caused by protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Leishmania and includes cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral clinical forms. The drugs currently available for leishmaniasis treatment are pentavalent antimonials, amphotericin B and miltefosine, which present high toxicity, elevated cost and development of parasite resistance. The natural products constitute an important source of substances with leishmanicidal potential. Here we evaluated in vitro the anti-Leishmania amazonensis activity of crude extracts of branches, leaves and fruits of Guatteria latifolia...
December 21, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001216/sandflies-diptera-psychodidae-in-an-urban-area-of-northeastern-brazil
#15
Maria Claudia Ribeiro Agra, Pietra Lemos Costa, Anderson Enio Silva Duque, Efraim Naftali Lopes Soares, Leucio Câmara Alves, Rafael Antonio Nascimento Ramos, Gílcia Aparecida de Carvalho
INTRODUCTION: The sandfly fauna is well studied globally. In Brazil, sandfly fauna is very diverse in the Northeast region, especially in states such as Maranhão, Ceará, and Bahia. However, in the State of Pernambuco, the distribution of these insects is still not well known. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify the different species that constitute the sandfly fauna in an urban area in the Northeast region of Brazil, where an outbreak of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was recently reported...
November 2016: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999807/clinical-and-microbiological-characteristics-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-outbreak-in-a-northern-italian-nonendemic-area-a-retrospective-observational-study
#16
E Franceschini, C Puzzolante, M Menozzi, L Rossi, A Bedini, G Orlando, W Gennari, M Meacci, G Rugna, E Carra, M Codeluppi, C Mussini
Background. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania infantum is endemic in the Mediterranean area. In the last decades a northward spread of the parasite has been observed in Italy. This paper describes a VL outbreak in Modena province (Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy) between 2012 and 2015. Methods. Retrospective, observational study to evaluate epidemiological, microbiological characteristics, and clinical management of VL in patients referring to Policlinico Modena Hospital. Results. Sixteen cases of VL occurred in the study period...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999013/pharmacological-inhibition-of-p110%C3%AE-subunit-of-pi3k-confers-protection-against-experimental-leishmaniasis
#17
Forough Khadem, Ping Jia, Zhirong Mou, Aida Feiz Barazandeh, Dong Liu, Yoav Keynan, Jude E Uzonna
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the immuno-prophylactic and -therapeutic effect of p110δ-specific pharmacological inhibitors (CAL-101 and IC87114), either alone or in combination with amphotericin B, against experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL). METHODS: Female BALB/c mice were infected intravenously with Leishmania donovani or subcutaneously with Leishmania major Prophylactic treatment was initiated 24 h prior to infection, whereas therapeutic treatments with or without amphotericin B were initiated either 1 week or 2 weeks post-infection...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965662/visceral-leishmaniasis-patients-display-altered-composition-and-maturity-of-neutrophils-as-well-as-impaired-neutrophil-effector-functions
#18
Endalew Yizengaw, Mulusew Getahun, Fitsumbrhan Tajebe, Edward Cruz Cervera, Emebet Adem, Getnet Mesfin, Asrat Hailu, Gert Van der Auwera, Vanessa Yardley, Mulualem Lemma, Ziv Skhedy, Ermias Diro, Arega Yeshanew, Roma Melkamu, Bewketu Mengesha, Manuel Modolell, Markus Munder, Ingrid Müller, Yegnasew Takele, Pascale Kropf
Immunologically, active visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is characterized by profound immunosuppression, severe systemic inflammatory responses, and an impaired capacity to control parasite replication. Neutrophils are highly versatile cells, which play a crucial role in the induction as well as the resolution of inflammation, the control of pathogen replication, and the regulation of immune responses. Neutrophil functions have been investigated in human cutaneous leishmaniasis; however, their role in human VL is poorly understood...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960617/nuclear-dna-replication-and-repair-in-parasites-of-the-genus-leishmania-exploiting-differences-to-develop-innovative-therapeutic-approaches
#19
Graciela Uzcanga, Eliana Lara, Fernanda Gutiérrez, Doyle Beaty, Timo Beske, Rommy Teran, Juan-Carlos Navarro, Philippe Pasero, Washington Benítez, Ana Poveda
Leishmaniasis is a common tropical disease that affects mainly poor people in underdeveloped and developing countries. This largely neglected infection is caused by Leishmania spp, a parasite from the Trypanosomatidae family. This parasitic disease has different clinical manifestations, ranging from localized cutaneous to more harmful visceral forms. The main limitations of the current treatments are their high cost, toxicity, lack of specificity, and long duration. Efforts to improve treatments are necessary to deal with this infectious disease...
December 14, 2016: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942942/phylogenetic-analysis-of-hsp70-and-cyt-b-gene-sequences-for-chinese-leishmania-isolates-and-ultrastructural-characteristics-of-chinese-leishmania-sp
#20
Dongmei Yuan, Hanxiao Qin, Jianguo Zhang, Lin Liao, Qiwei Chen, Dali Chen, Jianping Chen
Leishmaniasis is a worldwide epidemic disease caused by the genus Leishmania, which is still endemic in the west and northwest areas of China. Some viewpoints of the traditional taxonomy of Chinese Leishmania have been challenged by recent phylogenetic researches based on different molecular markers. However, the taxonomic positions and phylogenetic relationships of Chinese Leishmania isolates remain controversial, which need for more data and further analysis. In this study, the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) gene and cytochrome b (cyt b) gene were used for phylogenetic analysis of Chinese Leishmania isolates from patients, dogs, gerbils, and sand flies in different geographic origins...
December 9, 2016: Parasitology Research
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