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Visceral Leishmania

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221113/autochthonous-outbreak-and-expansion-of-canine-visceral-leishmaniasis-uruguay
#1
Dinora Satragno, Paula Faral-Tello, Bruno Canneva, Lorenzo Verger, Alejandra Lozano, Edgardo Vitale, Gonzalo Greif, Carlos Soto, Carlos Robello, Yester Basmadjián
We report an outbreak of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Uruguay. Blood specimens from 11/45 dogs tested positive for Leishmania spp. Specimens of Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies were captured; typing revealed Leishmania infantum. Our findings document an expansion of visceral leishmaniasis to southern South America and risk for vectorborne transmission to humans.
March 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209553/intraspecific-genetic-variability-in-a-population-of-moroccan-leishmania-infantum-revealed-by-pcr-rflp-of-kdna-minicircles
#2
Adil El Hamouchi, Rajaa Ejghal, Moustapha Hida, Meryem Lemrani
In Morocco, Leishmania infantum is the main etiologic agent of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis (VL). This species has been proven to be an opportunistic agent in HIV+ patients and is also responsible of sporadic cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL).This work aims to evaluate the genetic variability of Moroccan L. infantum strains based on PCR-RFLP analysis of the kinetoplastid DNA (kDNA) minicircles. A total of 75 DNA samples extracted from positive Giemsa-stained smears (n=32) and from L. infantum cultures (n=43) was studied...
February 14, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191297/leishmania-infantum-and-epstein-barr-virus-co-infection-in-a-patient-with-hemophagocytosis
#3
Zied Gaifer, Mohamed-Rachid Boulassel
The authors describe a rare case of a 27- year old previously healthy male presenting with high grade fever, pancytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly, high levels of ferritin and triglyceride, suggesting a diagnosis of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) syndrome. Other investigations showed a positive Leishmania infantum serology and high Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) viremia. The diagnosis of a visceral leishmaniasis was confirmed by bone morrow biopsy, which showed Leishman-Donovan bodies and evidence of HLH. The patient received liposomal amphotericin B and he had a complete resolution of his symptoms and clearance of EBV viremia...
December 31, 2016: Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182549/putative-drug-and-vaccine-target-identification-in-leishmania-donovani-membrane-proteins-using-na%C3%A3-ve-bayes-probabilistic-classifier
#4
Arvind Kumar Sinha, Pradeep Singh, Anand Prakash, Dharm Pal, Anuradha Dube, Awanish Kumar
Predicting the role of protein is one of the most challenging problems. There are few approaches available for the prediction of role of unknown protein in terms of drug target or vaccine candidate. We propose here Naïve Bayes probabilistic classifier, a promising method for reliable predictions. This method is tested on the proteins identified in our mass spectrometry based membrane protemics study of Leishmania donovani parasite that causes a fatal disease (Visceral Leishmaniasis) in humans all around the world...
January 2017: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179112/glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-and-trypanothione-reductase-interaction-protects-leishmania-donovani-from-metalloid-mediated-oxidative-stress
#5
Ayan Kumar Ghosh, Savita Saini, Sushmita Das, Abhishek Mandal, Abul Hasan Sardar, Md Yousuf Ansari, Kumar Abhishek, Ajay Kumar, Ruby Singh, Sudha Verma, Asif Equbal, Vahab Ali, Pradeep Das
Exploration of metabolons as viable drug target is rare in kinetoplastid biology. Here we present a novel protein-protein interaction among Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (LdG6PDH) and Trypanothione reductase (LdTryR) of Leishmania donovani displaying interconnection between central glucose metabolism and thiol metabolism of this parasite. Digitonin fractionation patterns observed through immunoblotting indicated localisation of both LdG6PDH and LdTryR in cytosol. In-silico and in-vitro interaction observed by size exclusion chromatography, co-purification, pull-down assay and spectrofluorimetric analysis revealed LdG6PDH and LdTryR physically interact with each other in a NADPH dependent manner...
February 4, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177044/comparison-of-lamp-and-pcr-for-molecular-mass-screening-of-sand-flies-for-leishmania-martiniquensis-infection
#6
Saruda Tiwananthagorn, Hirotomo Kato, Ranchana Yeewa, Amontip Muengpan, Raxsina Polseela, Saovanee Leelayoova
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania martiniquensis infection has been reported in human and domestic animals of Martinique Island, Germany, Switzerland, USA, Myanmar and Thailand. The peculiar clinical features of disseminated cutaneous and visceral forms co-existence render the urgent need of specific diagnostic tool to identify the natural sand fly vectors for effective prevention and control strategies. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of 18S rRNA gene as well as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of minicircle kinetoplast DNA gene (PCR-mkDNA) have never been applied to detect L...
February 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174102/copper-salisylaldoxime-cusal-imparts-protective-efficacy-against-visceral-leishmaniasis-by-targeting-leishmania-donovani-topoisomerase-ib
#7
Manoj Kumar Singh, Siddhartha Kumar Bhaumik, Subir Karmakar, Joydeep Paul, Sudeshna Sawoo, Hemanta K Majumder, Amit Roy
In vitro and in vivo anti-leishmanial efficacy of copper salisylaldoxime (CuSAL), a transition metal complex, was evaluated and the underlying mechanism was studied. In vitro studies revealed that 30 μM of CuSAL causes 96% reduction in parasite burden in infected macrophages. CuSAL is least toxic in host cells. A dose of 5 mg/kg bodyweight per mice on alternate days (5 doses) gives ∼97% protection in both liver and spleen. Moreover, CuSAL potentially inhibits the catalytic activity of LdTOPILS and causes apoptosis of Leishmania parasites through induction of intracellular ROS generation and activation of caspase-like proteases...
February 4, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173714/evaluation-of-the-antileishmanial-potency-toxicity-and-phytochemical-constituents-of-methanol-bark-extract-of-sterculia-villosa
#8
Antu Das, Manash C Das, Niranjan Das, Surajit Bhattacharjee
CONTEXT: Visceral leishmaniasis is a protozoan disease caused by Leishmania donovani parasite. The genus Sterculia (Malvaceae) possesses ethnobotanical potential against this protozoan infection. OBJECTIVE: Determining the potential role of methanol bark extracts from Sterculia villosa Roxb (SVE) and its phytoconstituents against Leishmania donovani promastigotes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SVE was analysed by TLC, UV-Vis, IR spectroscopy and biochemical assays...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167544/nanoliposomal-buparvaquone-immunomodulates-leishmania-l-infantum-infected-macrophages-and-is-highly-effective-in-murine-model
#9
Thais Alves da Costa-Silva, Andrés Jimenez Galisteo, José Angelo Lauletta Lindoso, Leandro R S Barbosa, Andre Gustavo Tempone
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a fatal parasitic neglected disease affecting 1.5 million people worldwide. Based on the drug repositioning approach, the aim of this work was to investigate the in vitro immunomodulatory potential of buparvaquone (BPQ) and to stablish a safe regimen to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of BPQ entrapped into negatively charged nanoliposomes (BPQ-LP) in Leishmania (L.) infantum infected hamsters. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and ζ-potential were applied in order to study the influence of BPQ on the liposome structure...
February 6, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167209/efficacy-of-protease-inhibitor-from-marine-streptomyces-sp-vitbvk2-against-leishmania-donovani-an-in-vitro-study
#10
Veena Sreedharan, K V Bhaskara Rao
In the present study the leishmanicidal effect of potential protease inhibitor producing marine actinobacterial isolate has been investigated against Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis. Among 89 marine actinobacteria isolated from a salt pan in Kanyakumari, only one isolate (BVK2) showed 97% of protease inhibition activity against trypsin. Moderate to high protease inhibitor activity was shown by isolate BVK2 on proteinase (30%) and chymotrypsin (85%). In optimization study for protease inhibitor production glucose as carbon source and casein as nitrogen source showed the best activity...
February 4, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166251/risk-analysis-and-prediction-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-dispersion-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-state-brazil
#11
Anaiá da Paixão Sevá, Liang Mao, Fredy Galvis-Ovallos, Joanna Marie Tucker Lima, Denis Valle
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important neglected disease caused by a protozoan parasite, and represents a serious public health problem in many parts of the world. It is zoonotic in Europe and Latin America, where infected dogs constitute the main domestic reservoir for the parasite and play a key role in VL transmission to humans. In Brazil this disease is caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum chagasi, and is transmitted by the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis. Despite programs aimed at eliminating infection sources, the disease continues to spread throughout the Country...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163725/development-and-validation-of-a-pcr-elisa-for-the-diagnosis-of-symptomatic-and-asymptomatic-infection-by-leishmania-leishmania-infantum
#12
Fernanda Alvarenga Cardoso Medeiros, Luciana Inácia Gomes, Edward Oliveira, Carolina Senra Alves de Souza, Maria Vitória Mourão, Gláucia Fernandes Cota, Letícia Helena Dos Santos Marques, Mariângela Carneiro, Ana Rabello
A kDNA PCR enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (kDNA PCR-ELISA) for the diagnosis of human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) was developed. The detection limit of the reaction, precision measurements, and cut-off of the kDNA PCR-ELISA were defined in a proof-of-concept phase. A reference strain of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and a bank of 14 peripheral blood samples from immunocompetent patients with VL were characterized using techniques considered gold standards, and 11 blood samples obtained from healthy individuals of an endemic area were also assessed...
2017: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160866/withania-somnifera-chemotype-nmitli-101r-significantly-increases-the-efficacy-of-antileishmanial-drugs-by-generating-strong-ifn-%C3%AE-and-il-12-mediated-immune-responses-in-leishmania-donovani-infected-hamsters
#13
Chandra Dev Pati Tripathi, Pramod Kumar Kushawaha, Rajender Singh Sangwan, Chitra Mandal, Shailja Misra-Bhattacharya, Anuradha Dube
BACKGROUND: Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Solanaceae), commonly known as Ashwagandha, is one of the most important medicinal plant in the traditional Indian medical systems. Pharmacological studies have established that root extracts of W. somnifera contain several bioactive constituents called withanolides. The plant has long been used for its several beneficial properties and recently as an immunomodulator. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: A combination therapy including a potential and safe immunostimulant with lower doses of effective drug, which can reduce the parasitic burden and simultaneously can produce an enhancement of adaptive immunity, has proven to be significantly a more effective approach than immunotherapy or drug therapy alone...
January 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160074/parasitism-and-inflammation-in-ear-skin-and-in-genital-tissues-of-symptomatic-and-asymptomatic-male-dogs-with-visceral-leishmaniasis
#14
C G Carvalho Junior, R G Teixeira Neto, V V Lopes, V S Belo, N R Alves, T B de Paula, R I M A Ribeiro, E S Silva
Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is transmitted through vector, although venereal transmission has been suggested. This study aimed to compare the parasitic loads and inflammatory processes in genital tissues with ear skin from seropositive male dogs. Forty-five seropositive dogs were separated into groups containing symptomatic (n = 23) and asymptomatic (n = 22) animals. The control group (n = 2) healthy animals with seronegative and negative results in direct parasitological test. Samples of ear tip skin, prepuce, glans penis, testis, epididymis, and prostate were collected for evaluation of parasitic load and inflammatory infiltrate...
February 3, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146095/synthesis%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-16%C3%A2-new%C3%A2-hybrids%C3%A2-from%C3%A2-tetrahydropyrans-derivatives%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-morita-baylis-hillman%C3%A2-adducts-%C3%A2-in-vitro%C3%A2-screening%C3%A2-against%C3%A2-leishmania%C3%A2-donovani
#15
Suervy Canuto de Oliveira Sousa, Juliana da Câmara Rocha, Tatjana de Souza Lima Keesen, Everton da Paz Silva, Priscilla Anne Castro de Assis, João Paulo Gomes de Oliveira, Saulo Luís Capim, Francisco José Seixas Xavier, Bruno Guimarães Marinho, Fábio Pedrosa Lins Silva, Claudio Gabriel Lima-Junior, Mário Luiz Araújo de Almeida Vasconcellos
Leishmaniases are a group of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) caused by protozoan parasites from >20 Leishmania species. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also known as kala-aza, is the most severe form of leishmaniasis, usually fatal in the absence of treatment in 95% of cases. The Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts (MBHAs) are being explored as drug candidates against several diseases, one of them being leishmaniasis. We present here the design, synthesis and in vitro screening against Leishmania donovani of sixteen new molecular hybrids from analgesic/antiinflammatory tetrahydropyrans derivatives and Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts...
January 30, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141856/transcriptional-profiling-in-experimental-visceral-leishmaniasis-reveals-a-broad-splenic-inflammatory-environment-that-conditions-macrophages-toward-a-disease-promoting-phenotype
#16
Fanping Kong, Omar A Saldarriaga, Heidi Spratt, E Yaneth Osorio, Bruno L Travi, Bruce A Luxon, Peter C Melby
Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL), caused by the intracellular protozoan Leishmania donovani, is characterized by relentlessly increasing visceral parasite replication, cachexia, massive splenomegaly, pancytopenia and ultimately death. Progressive disease is considered to be due to impaired effector T cell function and/or failure of macrophages to be activated to kill the intracellular parasite. In previous studies, we used the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) as a model because it mimics the progressive nature of active human VL...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138050/disseminated-autochthonous-dermal-leishmaniasis-caused-by-leishmania-siamensis-pcm2-trang-in-a-patient-from-central-thailand-infected-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#17
Chavalit Supsrisunjai, Tanawatt Kootiratrakarn, Pailin Puangpet, Thareena Bunnag, Prapaipit Chaowalit, Vesarat Wessagowit
Several case reports of autochthonous leishmaniasis in Thailand have been published since 1996. Most of the previous cases presented with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and were mostly reported in southern part of Thailand. Recently, it has been evident that Leishmania martiniquensis is the main cause of Leishmania infection in Thailand. However, Leishmania siamensis (PCM2 Trang isolate) was found to be of a separate lineage with restricted distribution in southern Thailand and also a cause of disseminated dermal and visceral leishmaniasis in one published case...
January 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137296/laboratory-confirmed-miltefosine-resistant-cases-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-from-india
#18
Saumya Srivastava, Jyotsna Mishra, Anil Kumar Gupta, Amit Singh, Prem Shankar, Sarman Singh
BACKGROUND: Miltefosine unresponsive and relapse cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are increasingly being reported. However, there has been no laboratory confirmed reports of miltefosine resistance in VL. Here, we report two laboratory confirmed cases of VL from India. METHODS: Two patients with VL were referred to us with suspected VL. The first patient was a native of the VL endemic state of Bihar, but residing in Delhi, a VL non-endemic area. He was treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics and antipyretics but was unresponsive to treatment...
January 31, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134092/canine-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-the-metropolitan-area-of-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-pintomyia-fischeri-as-potential-vector-of-leishmania-infantum
#19
Fredy Galvis-Ovallos, Mariana Dantas da Silva, Giulia Baldaconi da Silva Bispo, Alessandra Gutierrez de Oliveira, José Rodriguez Gonçalves Neto, Rosely Dos Santos Malafronte, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi Galati
American visceral leishmaniasis is a zoonosis caused by Leishmania infantum and transmitted mainly by Lutzomyia longipalpis. However, canine cases have been reported in the absence of this species in the Greater São Paulo region, where Pintomyia fischeri and Migonemyia migonei are the predominant species. This raises the suspicion that they could be acting as vectors. Therefore, this study sought to investigate specific vector capacity parameters of these species and to compare them with those of Lu. longipalpis s...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130283/indian-erythrodermic-postkala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis
#20
Gomathy Sethuraman, Neetu Bhari, Poonam Salotra, Venkatesh Ramesh
Postkala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a complication of kala-azar or visceral leishmaniasis and is caused by Leishmania donovani. We describe an Indian male patient with the rarer erythrodermic form of PKDL and multiple unusual skin lesions viz. verrucous, annular and mucosal ulceration.
January 27, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
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