Read by QxMD icon Read

Visceral Leishmania

Fernando J Andrade-Narvaez, Elsy Nalleli Loría-Cervera, Erika I Sosa-Bibiano, Nicole R Van Wynsberghe
American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a major public health problem caused by vector-borne protozoan intracellular parasites from the genus Leishmania, subgenera Viannia and Leishmania. Asymptomatic infection is the most common outcome after Leishmania inoculation. There is incomplete knowledge of the biological processes explaining the absence of signs or symptoms in most cases while other cases present a variety of clinical findings. Most studies of asymptomatic infection have been conducted in areas of endemic visceral leishmaniasis...
October 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Sarfaraz Ahmad Ejazi, Pradyot Bhattacharya, Md Asjad Karim Bakhteyar, Aquil Ahmad Mumtaz, Krishna Pandey, Vidya Nand Ravi Das, Pradeep Das, Mehebubar Rahaman, Rama Prosad Goswami, Nahid Ali
BACKGROUND: Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL), a severe parasitic disease, could be fatal if diagnosis and treatment is delayed. Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), a skin related outcome, is a potential reservoir for the spread of VL. Diagnostic tests available for VL such as tissue aspiration are invasive and painful although they are capable of evaluating the treatment response. Serological tests although less invasive than tissue aspiration are incompetent to assess cure. Parasitological examination of slit-skin smear along with the clinical symptoms is routinely used for diagnosis of PKDL...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Partha Pratim Bose, Prakash Kumar
Visceral leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease and may prove fatal if not diagnosed and treated early. The amastigotes of Leishmania donovani nest in the macrophage of human host and thus, determination of parasitic burden in the infected macrophages has been the most crucial step in diagnosis, dose determination and medical management of relapse cases of this fatal disease. Microscopic count following Giemsa staining and other morphological analysis are the classical ways vastly used in the resource stringent endemic areas...
October 5, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Rômulo Pessoa-E-Silva, Lays Adrianne Mendonça Trajano-Silva, Maria Almerice Lopes da Silva, Suênia da Cunha Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Tayná Correia de Goes, Rayana Carla Silva de Morais, Fábio Lopes de Melo, Milena de Paiva-Cavalcanti
The availability of some sorts of biological samples which require noninvasive collection methods has led to an even greater interest in applying molecular biology on visceral leishmaniasis (VL) diagnosis, since these samples increase the safety and comfort of both patients and health professionals. In this context, this work aimed to evaluate the suitability of the urine as a specimen for Leishmania infantum kinetoplast DNA detection by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Subsequent to the reproducibility analysis, the detection limit of the qPCR assay was set at 5fg (~0...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
T N A Oliveira, P E B Guedes, G B Souza, F S Carvalho, R S Alberto Carlos, G R Albuquerque, A D Munhoz, F L Silva
Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. Two distinct forms are recognized: visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). In the Americas, the causative agent of VL is L. infantum chagasi, whereas L. braziliensis is principally responsible for CL. Domestic dogs constitute the main source of VL in urban environments, and have also been implicated in CL epidemiology. We carried out molecular and serological surveys to detect Leishmania infection in dogs from the municipality of Ituberá in Bahia, Brazil...
September 2, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Ayse Sayili, Aysegul Taylan Ozkan, Henk D F H Schallig
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease widespread in the Mediterranean basin, including Cyprus. During the last decades no cases were notified from northern Cyprus, but herein three cases of VL (female: 2, male: 1, median age: 24.6 months) diagnosed during their hospital admission between January 2011 and December 2012 are reported. Diagnosis was based on clinical findings; 1 ≥ 1/64 titer positivity of immunofluorescence antibodies, Leishmania amastigotes in Giemsa-stained slides of bone marrow, as well as molecular identification confirmed that in all three the infecting pathogen was Leishmania infantum Fever, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly were the typical clinical findings...
October 3, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Alicia Castro, Eugenia Carrillo, Juan V San Martín, Laura Botana, Laura Molina, Belén Matía, Laura Fernandez, Luis Horrillo, Ana Ibarra-Meneses, Carmen Sanchez, Jose M Ruiz-Giardin, Javier Moreno
The introduction of HAART resulted in the decrease of Leishmania/HIV co-infection cases; nevertheless, the number of relapses remains high and secondary prophylaxis is recommended. However, secondary prophylaxis is not necessary in all patients, and presents a high risk of toxicity and an elevated cost. Our aim was to study whether specific cellular response to Leishmania infantum (measured by cell proliferation response after stimulation with soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA)), could be a useful tool to attempt a secondary prophylaxis withdrawal...
September 28, 2016: Acta Tropica
Silvia Belinchón-Lorenzo, Juan Carlos Parejo, Virginia Iniesta, Javier Fernández-Cotrina, Rubén Muñoz-Madrid, Isabel Monroy, Victoria Baz, Adela Gómez-Luque, Francisco Javier Serrano-Aguilera, José Luis Barneto, Luis Carlos Gómez-Nieto
Nowadays, searching for alternative non-invasive methods for molecular diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniosis is getting increasingly important. We previously described the presence of Leishmania kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) in canine hair; in this case we hypothesized whether foreign DNA might be present in cerumen of dogs with leishmaniosis, and be detected by Real time quantitative PCR (qPCR). A population of 38 dogs that lived in Leishmania endemic areas was divided in two groups: A (33 dogs with confirmed leishmaniosis by serological techniques) and B (5 healthy dogs)...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Md Golam Hasnain, Mohammad Sohel Shomik, Prakash Ghosh, Mamun Or Rashid, Md Shakhawat Hossain, Shinjiro Hamano, Dinesh Mondal
Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) without previous visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a rare dermatological manifestation of Leishmania infection. To date, most of the reported cases neither showed parasitological confirmation nor explained the outcome of treatment. Herein, we report three confirmed cases that were were successfully cured after miltefosine treatment.
September 26, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Indira Singh Chauhan, Rantidev Shukla, Shagun Krishna, Savita Sekhri, Umesh Kaushik, Sabitha Baby, Chiranjib Pal, Mohammad Imran Siddiqi, Shyam Sundar, Neeloo Singh
Rab proteins form the largest branch of the Ras superfamily. Rab proteins are key regulators of intracellular vesicular transport and membrane trafficking. Although RabGTPases are well-recognized targets in human diseases but are under-explored therapeutically in the Leishmania parasite. Using a quantitative cytofluorimetric assay, we analyzed the composition and organization of Rab6GTPase protein which was found to be primarily localized on the parasite subpellicular membrane and flagellum due to its association with kinesin motor proteins in the cytoskeletal microtubules...
September 22, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Robert G Schaut, Tara L Grinnage-Pulley, Kevin J Esch, Angela J Toepp, Malcolm S Duthie, Randall F Howard, Steven G Reed, Christine A Petersen
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by infection with the obligate intracellular protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum, is a fatal disease of dogs and humans. Protection against VL requires a T helper 1 (Th1) skewed CD4(+) T response, but despite this knowledge, there are currently no approved-to-market vaccines for humans and only three veterinary-use vaccines globally. As VL progresses from asymptomatic to symptomatic, L. infantum-specific interferon gamma (IFNγ) driven-Th1 responses become dampened and a state of immune exhaustion established...
October 17, 2016: Vaccine
R B P Torrecilha, Y T Utsunomiya, A M Bosco, B F Almeida, P P Pereira, L G Narciso, D C M Pereira, L Baptistiolli, L Calvo-Bado, O Courtenay, C M Nunes, P C Ciarlini
Intensity of peripheral parasite infection has an important role in the transmission of Leishmania spp. from one host to another. As parasite load quantification is still an expensive procedure to be used routinely in epidemiological surveillance, the use of surrogate predictors may be an important asset in the identification of dogs with high transmitting ability. The present study examined whether common clinical and laboratory alterations can serve as predictors of peripheral parasitism in dogs naturally infected with Leishmania spp...
September 15, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Manuela S L Nascimento, Marcela D Ferreira, Gustavo F S Quirino, Sandra R Maruyama, Jayendra K Krishnaswamy, Dong Liu, Jonilson Berlink, Denise M Fonseca, Dario S Zamboni, Vanessa Carregaro, Roque P Almeida, Thiago M Cunha, Stephanie S Eisenbarth, João S Silva
IFN-γ and IL-17A-producing cells are described to be related to the protection against Leishmania infantum infection. How the immune system coordinates the balance between Th1 and Th17 during visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is still unknown. Here, we combined transcriptional profiling, by using RNA-seq in human samples, with experimental model, to show that Th17-related genes are suppressed and Th1 signature genes are induced during human VL. The high amount of Th1 in VL was dependent on the NOD2-RIP2 signalling in dendritic cells, which was crucial for IL-12 production through the phosphorylation of MAPK...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Santanu Ghosh, Nabanita Kar, Tanmoy Bera
Oleanolic acid (OA) has low aqueous solubility and low permeability, which results poor bioavailability. To surmount the inadequacy, our aim was to fabricate oleanolic acid loaded poly lactic co- glycolic acid (PLGA)- d-α- tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) nanoparticles, which could be efficacious for the treatment of Leishmania donovani mediated visceral leishmaniasis (VL). OA loaded PLGA- TPGS nanoparticles were prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation technique. Cellular uptake was investigated...
September 17, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Krishna Pandey, Vidyanand Ravidas, Niyamat A Siddiqui, Sanjay K Sinha, Rakesh B Verma, Tripurari P Singh, A C Dhariwal, R K Das Gupta, Pradeep Das
Miltefosine, the only oral drug for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), is being used as the first-line drug under the VL elimination program in the Indian subcontinent. Miltefosine is an oral drug which was used as a topical application for skin metastasis of breast cancer. It was found to be effective against Leishmania donovani The main adverse events (AE) reported previously with miltefosine use includes diarrhea, vomiting, and dehydration. Other AEs include, raised serum alanine transaminase/aspartate aminotransferase and renal parameters such as creatinine...
September 19, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Juliana Perrone Bezerra de Menezes, Amrita Koushik, Satarupa Das, Can Guven, Ariel Siegel, Maria Fernanda Laranjeira-Silva, Wolfgang Losert, Norma W Andrews
Leishmania is an intracellular protozoan parasite that causes a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from self-healing skin lesions to fatal visceralizing disease. As the host cells of choice for all species of Leishmania, macrophages are critical for the establishment of infections. How macrophages contribute to parasite homing to specific tissues and how parasites modulate macrophage function are still poorly understood. In this study, we show that Leishmania amazonensis infection inhibits macrophage roaming motility...
September 18, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
Ana Tejería, Yolanda Pérez-Pertejo, Rosa M Reguera, Rafael Balaña-Fouce, Concepción Alonso, María Fuertes, María González, Gloria Rubiales, Francisco Palacios
Visceral leishmaniasis is a neglected disease of poor and developing countries. The current therapeutic approach is based on pentavalent antimonial (Sb(V)) drugs and amphotericin B, both nephrotoxic and parenterally administered drugs. Therefore, there is a real need of new antileishmanial drugs. Eukaryotic type I DNA topoisomerases (TopIB) have been identified as druggable targets against leishmaniasis. These enzymes are involved in solving topological problems generated during replication, transcription and recombination of DNA...
September 9, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Silvana Ornelas Santos, Jonathan L M Fontes, Daniela F Laranjeira, José Vassallo, Stella Maria Barrouin-Melo, Washington L C Dos-Santos
Severe forms of zoonotic visceral leishmaniosis (ZVL) are associated with disruption of the spleen structure. However, the study of spleen histology requires splenectomy or necropsy. In this work, we present a minimally invasive cell-block technique for studying spleen tissue histology in dogs with ZVL. We examined 13 dogs with and seven dogs without Leishmania infantum infection. The dogs with Leishmania infection had a lower frequency of lymphoid follicles (2/13, Fisher's test, P<0.02) and a higher density of plasma cells (score 3, Fisher's test, P<0...
October 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Laís Moraes Paiz, Maria Rita Donalisio, Virgínia Bodelão Richini-Pereira, Gabriela Motoie, Claudio Luiz Castagna, José Eduardo Tolezano
There is a growing concern about the participation of wild hosts and reservoirs in the epidemiology of leishmaniasis, particularly within the context of increasingly frequent environmental changes and the expansion of the One Health concept. This work is a molecular research of infection by Leishmania spp. among the wildlife of an environmentally protected area located in the municipality of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. The studied area has a history of intense environmental changes, with notifications of human cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the 1990s, and a focus of canine visceral leishmaniasis since 2009...
September 15, 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Supriya Khanra, Nibedeeta Rani Sarraf, Shantanabha Das, Anjan Kumar Das, Syamal Roy, Madhumita Manna
Visceral Leishmaniasis or Kala-azar is caused by the protozoan parasites belonging to the Genus Leishmania. Once thought eradicated from the Indian subcontinent, the disease came back with drug resistance to almost all prevalent drugs. Molecular epidemiological studies revealed the polymorphic nature of the population of the main player of the disease, Leishmania donovani and involvement of other species (L. tropica) and other genus (Leptomonas) with the disease. This makes control measures almost futile. It also strongly demands the characterization of each and every isolate mandatory which is not done...
September 11, 2016: Acta Tropica
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"