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Visceral Leishmania

Gustavo F Paz, Jeronimo M N Rugani, Andreza P Marcelino, Célia M F Gontijo
The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between naturally occurring Leishmania spp. infections in dogs (Canis familiaris) and the practical implications of the use of serological and molecular methods to confirm diagnoses. The study population consisted of 96 domestic dogs in southeastern Brazil. Serum samples were tested for the presence of anti-Leishmania immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using four commercial canine visceral leishmaniasis kits. Dogs confirmed positive by immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) were culled and samples from mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen border, bone marrow and ear skin were taken and submitted to DNA extraction...
March 12, 2018: Acta Tropica
Meryem Mniouil, Hajiba Fellah, Fatima Amarir, Abderrahim Sadak, Abdeslam Et-Touys, Youssef Bakri, Aziza Moustachi, Fatima Zahraa Tassou, Mostapha Hida, Mohamed Lyagoubi, El Bachir Adlaoui, Mohamed Rhajaoui, Faiza Sebti
A rapid, sensitive and specific tool for detection of Leishmania infantum infection in Humans would be highly desirable, because it would allow control interventions in endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis. This study was carried out at the Reference National Laboratory of Leishmaniasis (RNLL) in National Institute of Hygiene (NIH) Morocco, in order to evaluate the diagnostic potential of immunochromatographic dipstick test (ICT) rk39 in Moroccan suspected VL patients. A total of 49 admitted patients with strong clinical suspicion of VL and 40 healthy controls were investigated for the performance of the ICT rk39...
March 12, 2018: Acta Tropica
Emeline Riboldi, Flavio Carvalho, Pedro Roosevelt Torres Romão, Regina Bones Barcellos, Graziele Lima Bello, Raquel Rocha Ramos, Rosemari Terezinha de Oliveira, João Pessoa Araújo Júnior, Maria Lucia Rossetti, Eliane Dallegrave
In Brazil, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is expanding and becoming urbanized, especially in non-endemic areas such as the State of Rio Grande do Sul. Considering that infected dogs are the main reservoir for zoonotic VL, this study evaluated the prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, a new area of expansion of VL in Brazil. Serum and plasma from 405 asymptomatic dogs from the municipalities of Canoas (n=107), São Leopoldo (n=216), and Novo Hamburgo (n=82) were tested for CVL using immunochromatographic (DPP® ) and ELISA EIE® assays (2 assays officially adopted by the Brazilian government for the diagnosis of CVL) and real-time PCR to confirm the results...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
José Angelo Lauletta Lindoso, Carlos Henrique Valente Moreira, Beatriz Julieta Celeste, Luiza Keiko Matsuka Oyafuso, Pedro Moreira Folegatti, Eduard Evert Zijlstra
Visceral leishmaniasis is common in Brazil and is caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum/chagasi. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis frequently follows visceral leishmaniasis caused by L. donovani, and para-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis refers to an uncommon presentation wherein it occurs simultaneously along with visceral leishmaniasis. While post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis only occurs occasionally in L. infantum/chagasi infections, it frequently occurs in patients with concomitant immunosuppression (HIV co-infection)...
January 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Iraci Duarte Lima, Adila L M Lima, Carolina de Oliveira Mendes-Aguiar, José F V Coutinho, Mary E Wilson, Richard D Pearson, José Wilton Queiroz, Selma M B Jeronimo
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania infantum became a disease of urban areas in Brazil in the last 30 years and there has been an increase in asymptomatic L. infantum infection with these areas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A retrospective study of human VL was performed in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, for the period of 1990-2014. The data were divided into five-time periods. For all VL cases, data on sex, age, nutritional status and childhood vaccination were collected...
March 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Toolika Singh, Michaela Fakiola, Joyce Oommen, Akhil Pratap Singh, Abhishek K Singh, Noel Smith, Jaya Chakravarty, Shyam Sundar, Jenefer M Blackwell
HLA-DRB1 is the major genetic risk factor for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). We used SNP2HLA to impute HLA-DRB1 alleles and SNPTEST to carry out association analyses in 889 human cases and 977 controls from India. NetMHCIIpan 2.1 was used to map epitopes and binding affinities across 49 Leishmania vaccine candidates, as well as across peptide epitopes captured from dendritic cells treated with crude Leishmania Ag and identified using mass spectrometry and alignment to amino acid sequences of a reference Leishmania genome...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Dalila Y Martínez, Kristien Verdonck, Paul M Kaye, Vanessa Adaui, Katja Polman, Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas, Jean-Claude Dujardin, Marleen Boelaert
BACKGROUND: Tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) is a disease of skin and/or mucosal tissues caused by Leishmania parasites. TL patients may concurrently carry other pathogens, which may influence the clinical outcome of TL. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This review focuses on the frequency of TL coinfections in human populations, interactions between Leishmania and other pathogens in animal models and human subjects, and implications of TL coinfections for clinical practice...
March 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Rodrigo Saar Gomes, Muriel Vilela Teodoro Silva, Jéssica Cristina Dos Santos, Christine van Linge, Juliana Machado Reis, Mauro Martins Teixeira, Sebastião Alves Pinto, Miriam Leandro Dorta, Xiyuan Bai, Edward D Chan, Charles A Dinarello, Milton Adriano Pelli de Oliveira, Leo A B Joosten, Fátima Ribeiro-Dias
Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a chronic parasitic disease caused by Leishmania infantum in the Americas. During VL, several proinflammatory cytokines are produced in spleen, liver and bone marrow. However, the role of IL-32 has not been explored in this disease. IL-32 can induce production of proinflammatory cytokines in innate immune cells and polarize the adaptive immune response. Herein, we discovered that L. infantum antigens induced mainly mRNA expression of the IL-32γ isoform, but also induced low levels of IL-32β transcript in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells...
February 26, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Md Yousuf, Debarati Mukherjee, Somaditya Dey, Saurav Chatterjee, Abhishek Pal, Biswajyoti Sarkar, Chiranjib Pal, Susanta Adhikari
The devastating appearance of numerous drug-unresponsive strains of Leishmania donovani and severe toxic side effects of conventional antileishmanial therapy necessitates the search for novel leads, to treat visceral leishmaniasis efficiently. The current study deals with the synthesis and biological evaluation of a unique C-5 functionalized oxindole based polyphenol to ascertain its activities against L. donovani infection, in vitro. The polyhydroxylated oxindole derivative (1) was generated by coupling styrene derivatives with 5-bromo bis-arylidene oxindole using Heck coupling reaction...
February 12, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
M Echchakery, J Nieto, S Boussaa, N El Fajali, S Ortega, K Souhail, H Aajly, C Chicharro, E Carrillo, J Moreno, A Boumezzough
In Morocco, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a parasitic disease caused by the flagellated protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum. L. infantum is transmitted by the bite of female phlebotomine sandflies, and its main reservoir hosts are domestic dogs. Asymptomatic infection with L. infantum is more frequent than clinically apparent disease. In HIV-infected patients, the risk of clinical VL is increased due to immunosuppression that may reactivate latent infections. However, coinfected subjects do not necessarily develop VL and may remain as asymptomatic carriers depending on their immune status...
February 24, 2018: Parasitology Research
Flávio Luiz Nunes de Carvalho, Emeline de Oliveira Riboldi, Graziele Lima Bello, Raquel Rocha Ramos, Regina Bones Barcellos, Mirela Gehlen, Maria Laura Halon, Pedro Roosevelt Torres Romão, Eliane Dallegrave, Maria Lucia Rosa Rossetti
Although serological assays have been widely used for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL), they present different performances depending on the clinical profile of the dogs. This study evaluated the accuracy of serological tests, immunochromatographic (Dual Path Platform: DPP®) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA EIE®), for CVL in relation to the detection of Leishmania DNA through real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) in samples from symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs from a non-endemic area in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil...
February 26, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Akil Hammami, Belma Melda Abidin, Krista M Heinonen, Simona Stäger
Inflammation, although responsible for controlling infection, is often associated with the pathogenesis of chronic diseases. Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis, induces a strong inflammatory response that leads to splenomegaly and ultimately immune suppression. Inflamed tissues are typically characterized by low levels of oxygen, a microenvironment that triggers the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor 1α (HIF-1α). Although HIF-1α plays an integral role in dendritic cell function, its involvement in the generation of protective Th1 responses against Leishmania has not yet been studied...
February 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Adalberto Alves Pereira-Filho, Raquel Silva Fonteles, Maria da Conceição Abreu Bandeira, Jorge Luiz Pinto Moraes, José Manuel Macário Rebêlo, Maria Norma Melo
Sand flies are very common in the region of Lençóis Maranhenses National Park, an important tourist attraction in Brazil. However, the role of some species and their relative importance locally in Leishmania Ross 1903 transmission is unclear. The objective of this study was to identify Leishmania infection in phlebotomine sand flies collected around the Lençóis Maranhenses National Park, an important conservation area and popular international/national tourist destination with a high incidence of leishmaniasis...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Neeloo Singh, Renu Goel, Ekta Jain
PURPOSE: Although in trypanosomatids, monoxeny (Leptomonas) is ancestral to dixeny (Leishmania), however clinical cases of visceral leishmanisis with Leptomonas co-infection are increasingly being reported from India. Using a proteogenomic approach, we carried out a detailed proteome analysis of these two kinetoplastid parasites viz. Leishmania and its sister Leptomonas, to catalog the key proteins associated with and therefore possibly responsible for phenotype changes in Leptomonas evolution and domestication as co-infection with Leishmania...
February 22, 2018: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
Emily G Armitage, Amjed Q I Alqaisi, Joanna Godzien, Imanol Peña, Alison J Mbekeani, Vanesa Alsonso-Herranz, Ángeles López-Gonzálvez, Julio Martín, Raquel Gabarro, Paul W Denny, Michael P Barrett, Coral Barbas
With the World Health Organization reporting over 30,000 deaths and 200-400,000 new cases annually, visceral Leishmania sis is a serious disease affecting some of the world's poorest people. As drug resistance continues to rise, there is a huge unmet need to improve treatment. Miltefosine remains one of the main treatments for Leishmania sis, yet its mode of action (MoA) is still unknown. Understanding the MoA of this drug and parasite response to treatment could help pave the way for new, more successful treatments for Leishmania sis...
February 20, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Andrew M Thompson, Patrick D O'Connor, Andrew J Marshall, Adrian Blaser, Vanessa Yardley, Louis Maes, Suman Gupta, Delphine Launay, Stephanie Braillard, Eric Chatelain, Baojie Wan, Scott G Franzblau, Zhenkun Ma, Christopher B Cooper, William A Denny
Discovery of the potent antileishmanial effects of antitubercular 6-nitro-2,3-dihydroimidazo[2,1-b][1,3]oxazoles and 7-substituted 2-nitro-5,6-dihydroimidazo[2,1-b][1,3]oxazines stimulated the examination of further scaffolds (e.g., 2-nitro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydroimidazo[2,1-b][1,3]oxazepines) but the results for these seemed less attractive. Following the screening of a 900 compound pretomanid analogue library, several hits with more suitable potency, solubility and microsomal stability were identified, and the superior efficacy of newly synthesized 6R enantiomers with phenylpyridine-based side chains was established through head-to-head assessments in a Leishmania donovani mouse model...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Emrah Ruh, Aysegul Bostanci, Vasfiye Kunter, Ozgur Tosun, Turgut Imir, Henk Schallig, Aysegul Taylan-Ozkan
Background & objectives: Cyprus is located in the eastern part of the Mediterranean Region where leishmaniasis is endemic. The primary objective of this study was to investigate human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the northern region of Cyprus where presence of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) and sandflies has been documented in earlier studies. The secondary objective was to assess the association of leishmaniasis with demographic and epidemiological variables. Methods: Intravenous blood samples were collected from 249 volunteers in Kyrenia district (located in the northern coastal region of Cyprus)...
October 2017: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
Emmanouil Dokianakis, Nikolaos Tsirigotakis, Vasiliki Christodoulou, Nikos Poulakakis, Maria Antoniou
BACKGROUND: Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are vectors of Leishmania spp., protozoan parasites responsible for a group of neglected diseases called leishmaniases. Two sand fly genera, Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia, contain species that are present in the Mediterranean islands of Crete and Cyprus where the visceral (VL), cutaneous (CL) and canine (CanLei) leishmaniases are a public health concern. The risk of transmission of different Leishmania species can be studied in an area by monitoring their vectors...
February 17, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
V Corpas-López, G Merino-Espinosa, C Acedo-Sánchez, V Díaz-Sáez, M C Navarro-Moll, F Morillas-Márquez, J Martín-Sánchez
The use of natural products is a promising approach for treating visceral leishmaniosis. (-)-α-Bisabolol is a sesquiterpene that have been proved active in vivo on Leishmania infantum-infected mice without showing toxicity. A single-centre, parallel-group, randomized, exploratory study was designed to assess its efficacy in a canine leishmaniosis model involving naturally infected dogs. In this clinical trial, 12 dogs were allocated into two groups and were treated with either meglumine antimoniate (100 mg/kg) through subcutaneous route or (-)-α-bisabolol (30 mg/kg) through oral route for two treatment series of 30 days, separated by a 30-day interval...
February 16, 2018: Veterinary Research Communications
Vijayakumar Saravanan, Pradeep Das
Lesihmaniasis is one of the major neglected tropical disease caused by the parasite of the genus Leishmania. The disease has more than one clinical forms and the visceral form is considered fatal. With the lack of potential vaccine, chemotherapy is the major treatment source considered for the control of the disease in the infected people. Drugs including amphotericin B and miltefosine are widely used for the treatment, however, development of resistance by the parasite towards the administered drug and high-toxicity of the drug are of major concern...
February 13, 2018: Acta Tropica
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