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traumatic intracranial hemorrhage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213195/blunt-traumatic-brain-injury-patients-a-role-for-ct-angiography-of-the-head-to-evaluate-non-traumatic-etiologies
#1
REVIEW
Ha Nguyen, Ninh Doan, Michael Gelsomino, Saman Shabani
BACKGROUND: In the setting of trauma, the etiology of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is frequently attributed to the physical, traumatic event. Caution should still be directed towards non-traumatic (or spontaneous) etiologies responsible for the trauma, such as hypertension, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, aneurysms, vascular malformation, and hemorrhagic infarcts. The role for immediate CT angiography (CTA) remains controversial to evaluate for non-traumatic etiologies. METHODS: A systematic review of the available literature in Medline PubMed database...
February 14, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209450/the-effect-of-tranexamic-acid-in-traumatic-brain-injury-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Abolfazl Jokar, Koorosh Ahmadi, Tayyebeh Salehi, Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar
PURPOSE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability. Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) secondary to TBI is associated with a high risk of coagulopathy which leads to increasing risk of hemorrhage growth and higher mortality rate. Therefore, antifibrinolytic agents such as tranexamic acid (TA) might reduce traumatic ICH. The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent of ICH growth after TA administration in TBI patients. METHODS: This single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted on patients with traumatic ICH (with less than 30 ml) referring to the emergency department of Vali-Asr Hospital, Arak, Iran in 2014...
January 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196608/management-of-major-bleeding-events-in-patients-treated-with-dabigatran-for-nonvalvular-atrial-fibrillation-a-retrospective-multicenter-review
#3
Truman J Milling, Christian Fromm, Michael Ganetsky, Daniel J Pallin, Julie Cong, Adam J Singer
STUDY OBJECTIVE: There are limited data on the clinical presentations and management of dabigatran-associated major bleeding outside the clinical trial setting. The aim of this study is to describe clinical characteristics, interventions, and outcomes in patients with dabigatran-associated major bleeding who present to the emergency department (ED). METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational chart review study of dabigatran-treated patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation who presented with acute major bleeding to the ED...
February 3, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192386/spectrum-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-features-in-unilateral-optic-tract-dysfunction
#4
Kristopher M Kowal, Francisco F Rivas Rodriguez, Ashok Srinivasan, Jonathan D Trobe
BACKGROUND: Optic tract dysfunction may be the predominant or only clinical manifestation of an intracranial disorder including mass legion, ischemic infarct, inflammatory disease, and trauma. Documentation of the neuroimaging features of these lesions is limited to reports mostly published before the availability of MRI. This study was undertaken to document the spectrum of MRI features in patients presenting with optic tract dysfunction. METHODS: A retrospective study from 2004 to 2015 at a single tertiary care neuro-ophthalmology service of 24 patients who had unilateral optic tract dysfunction defined by a homonymous hemianopia and a relative afferent pupil defect that could not be attributed to optic neuropathy or retinopathy...
March 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190445/management-of-neurologic-complications-of-coagulopathies
#5
J D Vanderwerf, M A Kumar
Coagulopathy is common in intensive care units (ICUs). Many physiologic derangements lead to dysfunctional hemostasis; these may be either congenital or acquired. The most devastating outcome of coagulopathy in the critically ill is major bleeding, defined by transfusion requirement, hemodynamic instability, or intracranial hemorrhage. ICU coagulopathy often poses complex management dilemmas, as bleeding risk must be tempered with thrombotic potential. Coagulopathy associated with intracranial hemorrhage bears directly on prognosis and outcome...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190439/neurologic-complications-of-polytrauma
#6
R M Jha, L Shutter
Neurologic complications in polytrauma can be classified by etiology and clinical manifestations: neurovascular, delirium, and spinal or neuromuscular problems. Neurovascular complications include ischemic strokes, intracranial hemorrhage, or the development of traumatic arteriovenous fistulae. Delirium and encephalopathy have a reported incidence of 67-92% in mechanically ventilated polytrauma patients. Causes include sedation, analgesia/pain, medications, sleep deprivation, postoperative state, toxic ingestions, withdrawal syndromes, organ system dysfunction, electrolyte/metabolic abnormalities, and infections...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186445/subdural-hematoma-as-a-major-determinant-of-short-term-outcomes-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Jonathan J Lee, David J Segar, John F Morrison, William M Mangham, Shane Lee, Wael F Asaad
OBJECTIVE Early radiographic findings in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) have been studied in hopes of better predicting injury severity and outcome. However, prior attempts have generally not considered the various types of intracranial hemorrhage in isolation and have typically not excluded patients with potentially confounding extracranial injuries. Therefore, the authors examined the associations of various radiographic findings with short-term outcome to assess the potential utility of these findings in future prognostic models...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183837/diagnostic-performance-of-ultrafast-brain-mri-for-evaluation-of-abusive-head-trauma
#8
S F Kralik, M Yasrebi, N Supakul, C Lin, L G Netter, R A Hicks, R A Hibbard, L L Ackerman, M L Harris, C Y Ho
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: MR imaging with sedation is commonly used to detect intracranial traumatic pathology in the pediatric population. Our purpose was to compare nonsedated ultrafast MR imaging, noncontrast head CT, and standard MR imaging for the detection of intracranial trauma in patients with potential abusive head trauma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study was performed in 24 pediatric patients who were evaluated for potential abusive head trauma...
February 9, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175394/185%C3%A2-the-utility-of-thromboelastography-for-predicting-the-risk-of-progression-of-intracranial-hemorrhage-in-traumatic-brain-injury-patients
#9
Abigail J Rao, Amber Laurie, Cole Hilliard, Rochelle Fu, Tori Lennox, Ronald Barbosa, Martin Schreiber, Susan Rowell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2016: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152490/traumatic-tension-pneumocephalus-two-case-reports
#10
Abubaker Al-Aieb, Ruben Peralta, Mohammad Ellabib, Ayman El-Menyar, Hassan Al-Thani
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic pneumocephalus rarely evolves into tension pneumocephalus. It can be devastating if not recognized and treated promptly. CASE PRESENTATION: We presented two cases of post-traumatic tension pneumocephalus. A 30- year old male pedestrian hit by a car presented with right frontal bone fracture extending to right frontal sinuses. He developed pneumocephalus involving all ventricles and subdural space and extending down to foramen magnum with tight basal cistern...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143693/factors-associated-with-adverse-outcomes-in-patients-with-traumatic-intracranial-hemorrhage-and-glasgow-coma-scale-of-15
#11
Natalie Kreitzer, Kimberly Hart, Christopher J Lindsell, Brittany Betham, Yair Gozal, Norberto O Andaluz, Michael S Lyons, Jordan Bonomo, Opeolu Adeoye
Patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) with associated intracranial injury, or complicated mTBI, are at risk of deterioration. Clinical management differs within and between institutions. We conducted an exploratory analysis to determine which of these patients are unlikely to have an adverse outcome and may be future targets for less resource intensive care. This single center retrospective cohort study included patients presenting to the ED with blunt complicated mTBI between January 2001 and December 2010...
January 25, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122702/major-publications-in-the-critical-care-pharmacotherapy-literature-in-2015
#12
Adrian Wong, Michael Erdman, Drayton A Hammond, Tara Holt, Jenna M Holzhausen, Michelle Horng, Lori Lynn Huang, Jennifer Jarvis, Bridgette Kram, Shawn Kram, Christine Lesch, Jessica Mercer, Megan A Rech, Ryan Rivosecchi, Brian Stump, Colleen Teevan, Sarah Day
PURPOSE: Recently published practice guidelines and research reports on pharmacotherapy in critical care patient populations are summarized. SUMMARY: The Critical Care Pharmacotherapy Literature Update (CCPLU) Group is composed of over 50 experienced critical care pharmacists who evaluate 31 peer-reviewed journals monthly to identify literature pertaining to pharmacotherapy in critical care populations. Articles are chosen for summarization in a monthly CCPLU Group publication on the basis of applicability and relevance to clinical practice and strength of study design...
January 25, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099375/routine-neurosurgical-consultation-is-not-necessary-in-mild-blunt-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Paul R Lewis, Casey E Dunne, James D Wallace, Jason B Brill, Richard Y Calvo, Jayraan Badiee, Michael J Sise, Vishal Bansal, C Beth Sise, Steven R Shackford
BACKGROUND: The Brain Trauma Foundation guidelines provide indications for neurosurgical intervention in traumatic brain injury (TBI) with moderate or severe intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). In TBI patients with less severe ICH, the utility of neurosurgical consultation remains unclear. We sought to determine if routine neurosurgical consultation is necessary for mild blunt TBI patients with ICH. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 500 consecutive blunt TBI patients aged 15 years or older with Glasgow Coma Scale score ≥13 and ICH on initial head computed tomography (CT) admitted to a Level 1 trauma center over 28 months...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093693/a-simple-post-mortem-room-angiography-method-for-the-investigation-of-traumatic-basal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#14
Christopher P Johnson, Mike Murphy, George A Johnson, Stephen M Wills, Jonathan E Medcalf
Identifying the site of vascular bleeding in fatal cases of traumatic basal subarachnoid hemorrhage (TBSAH) is important, but can be very difficult to achieve when there is extensive blood clot in the posterior cranial fossa. Post mortem angiography in these circumstances has been reported previously but with mixed results, and is rarely used in current practice within the United Kingdom. We have developed a simple and effective post mortem angiography method, using fluoroscopy and clear modern contrast medium, suitable for use in the autopsy room...
March 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091809/a-review-of-penetrating-brain-trauma-epidemiology-pathophysiology-imaging-assessment-complications-and-treatment
#15
REVIEW
Mona T Vakil, Ajay K Singh
Gunshot injuries are the most common cause of penetrating brain injury (PBI) and carry a high morbidity and mortality. The incidence of PBI has increased over the last decade with an estimated 35,000 civilian deaths annually. Patients that survive to reach the hospital require rapid triage and imaging evaluation. CT findings in conjunction with the Glasgow Coma Scale are typically used to determine which patients are surgical candidates. Radiologists should be familiar with the various injury patterns and imaging findings which are poor prognostic indicators, notably brainstem, bilateral hemispheric, multilobar, or transventricular injuries...
January 14, 2017: Emergency Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076834/risk-factors-for-posttraumatic-epilepsy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Tao Xu, Xinyuan Yu, Shu Ou, Xi Liu, Jinxian Yuan, Hao Huang, Juan Yang, Liang He, Yangmei Chen
OBJECTIVE: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to identify risk factors for posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE). METHODS: Two electronic databases (Medline and Embase) were searched to identify studies with a cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional design reporting on epidemiologic evidence regarding risk factors for PTE. RESULTS: Men had a higher risk of developing PTE than women [relative ratio (RR), 1.32; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1...
January 8, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059632/pseudoaneurysm-formation-due-to-rupture-of-intracranial-aneurysms-case-series-and-literature-review
#17
Motohiro Nomura, Kentaro Mori, Akira Tamase, Tomoya Kamide, Syunsuke Seki, Yu Iida, Tatsu Nakano, Yuichi Kawabata, Taro Kitabatake, Teruyuki Nakajima, Kiyoyuki Yasutake, Kei Egami, Tatsunori Takahashi, Mitsuyuki Takahashi, Kunio Yanagimoto
Background Intracranial pseudoaneurysm formation due to a ruptured non-traumatic aneurysm is extremely rare. We describe the radiological findings and management of pseudoaneurysms due to ruptured cerebral aneurysms in our case series and previously reported cases. Patients and methods Four additional and 20 reported patients presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are included. Radiological findings and clinical features of these patients were reviewed. Results In our series, three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography (3D-CTA) and/or angiography showed an irregular- or snowman-shaped cavity extending from the parent artery...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054290/treatment-of-hyponatremia-in-patients-with-acute-neurological-injury
#18
Theresa Human, Aaron M Cook, Brian Anger, Kathleen Bledsoe, Amber Castle, David Deen, Haley Gibbs, Christine Lesch, Norah Liang, Karen McAllen, Christopher Morrison, Dennis Parker, A Shaun Rowe, Denise Rhoney, Kiranpal Sangha, Elena Santayana, Scott Taylor, Eljim Tesoro, Gretchen Brophy
BACKGROUND: Little data exist regarding the practice of sodium management in acute neurologically injured patients. This study describes the practice variations, thresholds for treatment, and effectiveness of treatment in this population. METHODS: This retrospective, multicenter, observational study identified 400 ICU patients, from 17 centers, admitted for ≥48 h with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), traumatic brain injury (TBI), intraparenchymal hemorrhage, or intracranial tumors between January 1, 2011 and July 31, 2012...
January 4, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054289/procalcitonin-is-a-poor-predictor-of-non-infectious-fever-in-the-neurocritical-care-unit
#19
Karin Halvorson, Sameer Shah, Corey Fehnel, Bradford Thompson, N Stevenson Potter, Mitchell Levy, Linda Wendell
BACKGROUND: Fever is a common occurrence in the Neurocritical Care Unit (NCCU). It is reported that up to 50 % of these fevers are associated with a non-infectious source. As this is a diagnosis of exclusion, a complete fever evaluation must be done to rule out infection. Procalcitonin (PCT) has been identified as a possible biomarker to distinguish infectious from non-infectious etiologies of fever. We hypothesized that PCT could be used as a predictor of infectious fever in febrile patients with intracranial hemorrhage admitted to the NCCU...
January 4, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046516/we-ab-207a-03-a-cbct-head-scanner-for-point-of-care-imaging-of-intracranial-hemorrhage
#20
J Xu, A Sisniega, W Zbijewski, H Dang, J Stayman, X Wang, D Foos, N Aygun, V Koliatsos, J Siewerdsen
PURPOSE: This work reports the design, development, and first technical assessment of a cone-beam CT (CBCT) scanner developed specifically for imaging of acute intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) at the point of care, with target applications in diagnosis and monitoring of traumatic brain injury, stroke, and postsurgical hemorrhage. METHODS: System design employed a task-based image quality model to quantify the influence of factors such as additive noise and high-gain (HG) detector readout on ICH detectability...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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