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Minor neurocognitive disorder

Jesus Ramirez-Bermudez, Jesus Higuera-Calleja, Mariana Espinola-Nadurille, Teresa Corona
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to explore the presence of neuropsychiatric disorders in patients with neurocysticercosis (NCC). METHOD: Patients with untreated NCC (n = 45) and healthy controls (n = 45) underwent psychiatric and neuropsychological assessments. RESULTS: The majority of patients in the NCC group (64.4%) had at least 1 psychiatric diagnosis, compared with a minority in the control group (31.1%). The frequency of neurocognitive disorders, and particularly dementia (major neurocognitive disorder), was significantly higher in the group of patients with NCC...
August 5, 2016: Asia-Pacific Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Pacific Rim College of Psychiatrists
Cinzia Galasso, Livia Casarelli, Nadia El Malhany, Maria B Pitzianti, Simonetta Spiridigliozzi, Paolo Curatolo, Augusto Pasini
BACKGROUND: Neurofibromatosis type 1 is a common neurogenetic disorder affecting nervous system, caused by germiline mutations of the NF1 gene. Although the clinical diagnosis of NF1 is defined by presence of cafe-au-laits spots, freckling and benign tumours (neurofibromatosis), neurocognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric disorders are reported in comorbidity. Children with NF1 show higher incidence of executive deficits, such attention, response inhibition, executive planning and problem solving, working memory, and learning impairment...
July 8, 2016: Minerva Pediatrica
Alison V James, Ilanit Hasson-Ohayon, Jenifer Vohs, Kyle S Minor, Bethany L Leonhardt, Kelly D Buck, Sunita George, Paul H Lysaker
OBJECTIVES: Both dysfunctional self-appraisal and metacognitive deficits, or impairments in the ability to form complex and integrated ideas about oneself and others, may contribute to social deficits in schizophrenia. Little is known, however, about how they interact with each other. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that both higher metacognition and more positive self-appraisal are necessary for increased social functioning. METHODS: Concurrent assessments of self-appraisal, metacognition, and social functioning were gathered from 66 adults with schizophrenia in a non-acute phase of disorder...
August 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
S J W Walvoort, A J Wester, M C Doorakkers, R P C Kessels, J I M Egger
BACKGROUND: It is evident from the dsm-iv-tr that alcohol-related impairment is extremely difficult to classify accurately. As a result, cognitive deficits can easily be overlooked. The dsm-5, however, incorporates a new category, namely 'neurocognitive disorders', which may lead to significant improvements in clinical practice. AIM: To compare the classification of alcohol-related cognitive dysfunction in dsm-iv-tr and dsm-5 and to discuss the clinical relevance of the revised classification in the dsm-5...
2016: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
J-C Bier
Cognitive disorders are a common problem, especially for older people. Dementia, recently renamed "major neurocognitive disorder" in DSM-5 is a complex subject. Age, vascular risk factors, subjective decline and its objectivation, are all risk factor for such neurocognitive disorders. Face to minor neurocognitive disorder, decline seemed more associated with the presence of structural atrophy or functional metabolic modification. It seems however more and more clear that, at least actually, such a diagnosis should not be done as early as possible but well timely and individually correct...
September 2015: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
G Ritov, B Boltyansky, G Richter-Levin
Human reactions to trauma exposure are extremely diverse, with some individuals exhibiting only time-limited distress and others qualifying for posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis (PTSD). Furthermore, whereas most PTSD patients mainly display fear-based symptoms, a minority of patients display a co-morbid anhedonic phenotype. We employed an individual profiling approach to model these intriguing facets of the psychiatric condition in underwater-trauma exposed rats. Based on long-term assessments of anxiety-like and anhedonic behaviors, our analysis uncovered three separate phenotypes of stress response; an anxious, fear-based (38%), a co-morbid, fear-anhedonic (15%), and an exposed-unaffected group (47%)...
May 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Michael Do, Linda K Byrne, Alan J Pearce
BACKGROUND: Multi-site repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been applied experimentally in the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). NEW METHOD: This study was conducted to systematically evaluate the safety, tolerability and neurocognitive effects of rTMS applied to three cortical regions over a period of three months. NEW METHOD: Twenty healthy participants aged 22-33 years were randomly allocated to receive one session of active or sham stimulation of low and high frequency rTMS applied sequentially to the pre-supplementary motor area, right-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left-orbitofrontal cortex totalling 9 min...
January 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Kenneth J Murray, Denise Cummins, Marijka Batterham, Garry Trotter, Loretta Healey, Catherine C O'Connor
HIV associated minor neurocognitive disorder (MND) may be difficult to identify as key signs and symptoms (S & S) may be due to other clinical conditions. Using a self-assessment booklet "HIV and associated MND" we recruited 123 people living with HIV (PLHIV) from three sites: two hospital HIV clinics and a sexual health clinic in Sydney, Australia. Patients may down play S & S. Caregivers may notice subtle changes. By including caregivers, we aimed to find whether the caregivers noticed S & S undetected by the PLHIV...
2016: AIDS Care
Julie M Wood, Sanjay Gupta
BACKGROUND: According to the Alzheimer's Disease 2014 Facts and Figures report, an estimated 5 million older Americans are living with Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States and the only 1 among the top 10 that cannot be prevented, cured, or even slowed. Predictably, AD puts an enormous cost burden on the U.S. health care system, with costs expected to soar to $1.2 trillion in 2050. Many individuals with minor cognitive impairment do not seek treatment and/or delay treatment until perceptible deficits indicative of moderate stage of disease are present...
August 2015: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
Kyle S Minor, Matthew P Marggraf, Beshaun J Davis, Lauren Luther, Jenifer L Vohs, Kelly D Buck, Paul H Lysaker
Disentangling links between neurocognition, social cognition, and metacognition offers the potential to improve interventions for these cognitive processes. Disorganized symptoms have shown promise for explaining the limiting relationship that neurocognition holds with both social cognition and metacognition. In this study, primary aims included: 1) testing whether conceptual disorganization, a specific disorganized symptom, moderated relationships between cognitive processes, and 2) examining the level of conceptual disorganization necessary for links between cognitive processes to break down...
December 2015: Schizophrenia Research
Perminder S Sachdev, Adith Mohan, Lauren Taylor, Dilip V Jeste
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After participating in this activity, learners should be better able to:• Assess the changes in DSM-5 relative to earlier versions.• Evaluate the implications of the DSM-5 for practicing geriatric psychiatrists. ABSTRACT: About every 20 years, the American Psychiatric Association revises its official classification of mental disorders. The fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) was published in 2013, prompting considerable commentary, debate, and criticism...
September 2015: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
Mickael Bonnan, Bruno Barroso, Stéphanie Demasles, Elsa Krim, Raluca Marasescu, Marie Miquel
HIV infects the central nervous system (CNS) during primary infection and persists in resident macrophages. CNS infection initiates a strong local immune response that fails to control the virus but is responsible for by-stander lesions involved in neurocognitive disorders. Although highly active anti-retroviral therapy now offers an almost complete control of CNS viral proliferation, low-grade CNS inflammation persists. This review focuses on HIV-induced intrathecal immunoglobulin (Ig) synthesis. Intrathecal Ig synthesis early occurs in more than three-quarters of patients in response to viral infection of the CNS and persists throughout the course of the disease...
August 15, 2015: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Fabián Vázquez-Santiago, Yashira García, Ivelisse Rivera-Román, Richard J Noel, Valerie Wojna, Loyda M Meléndez, Vanessa Rivera-Amill
OBJECTIVE: Combined antiretroviral treatment (cART) has changed the clinical presentation of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) to that of the milder forms of the disease. Asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI) is now more prevalent and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality risk in HIV-1-infected people. HIV-1 envelope (env) genetic heterogeneity has been detected within the central nervous system (CNS) of individuals with ANI. Changes within env determine co-receptor use, cellular tropism, and neuropathogenesis...
2015: Journal of Virology & Antiviral Research
Paul H Lysaker, Marina Kukla, Julien Dubreucq, Andrew Gumley, Hamish McLeod, Jenifer L Vohs, Kelly D Buck, Kyle S Minor, Lauren Luther, Bethany L Leonhardt, Elizabeth A Belanger, Raffaele Popolo, Giancarlo Dimaggio
The recalcitrance of negative symptoms in the face of pharmacologic treatment has spurred interest in understanding the psychological factors that contribute to their formation and persistence. Accordingly, this study investigated whether deficits in metacognition, or the ability to form integrated ideas about oneself, others, and the world, prospectively predicted levels of negative symptoms independent of deficits in neurocognition, affect recognition and defeatist beliefs. Participants were 53 adults with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder...
October 2015: Schizophrenia Research
Kristina A Uban, Megan M Herting, Paige L Williams, Tanvi Ajmera, Prapti Gautam, Yanling Huo, Kathleen M Malee, Ram Yogev, John G Csernansky, Lei Wang, Sharon L Nichols, Elizabeth R Sowell
OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether HIV disease severity was associated with alterations in structural brain connectivity, and whether those alterations in turn were associated with cognitive deficits in youth with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV). DESIGN: PHIV youth (n = 40) from the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS) (mean age: 16 ± 2 years) were included to evaluate how current and past disease severity measures (recent/nadir CD4%; peak viral load) relate to white matter microstructure within PHIV youth...
June 1, 2015: AIDS
Gro Strømnes Dybedal, Lars Tanum, Kjetil Sundet, Tor Magne Bjølseth
OBJECTIVE: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective biological treatment option for severely depressed elderly patients; however, it can cause cognitive side effects, including anterograde and retrograde amnesia. Elderly patients with "cognitive impairment no dementia" (CIND) are reported as being more vulnerable to the cognitive side effects of ECT compared with patients with "no cognitive impairment" (NCI). The few studies that have reached this conclusion can be criticized for using insensitive outcome measures...
2015: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Julie M Wood, Sanjay Gupta
BACKGROUND: According to the Alzheimer's Disease 2014 Facts and Figures report, an estimated 5 million older Americans are living with Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States and the only 1 among the top 10 that cannot be prevented, cured, or even slowed. Predictably, AD puts an enormous cost burden on the U.S. health care system, with costs expected to soar to $1.2 trillion in 2050. Many individuals with minor cognitive impairment do not seek treatment and/or delay treatment until perceptible deficits indicative of moderate stage of disease are present...
May 2015: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
Jenifer L Vohs, Paul H Lysaker, Emily Liffick, Michael M Francis, Bethany L Leonhardt, Alison James, Kelly D Buck, Jay A Hamm, Kyle S Minor, Nikki Mehdiyoun, Alan Breier
Impaired insight is common in the first episode of psychosis (FEP). Although considerable research has examined the factors that are associated with impaired insight in chronic psychosis, less is known about the factors that underlie and sustain poor insight in FEP. Impaired metacognition, or the ability to form integrated representations of self and others, is a promising potential contributor to poor insight in FEP. To explore this possibility, the authors assessed insight and metacognition in 40 individuals with FEP and then examined the relationship between these areas and social cognition domains, neurocognitive domains, and psychotic symptoms...
May 2015: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Lucette A Cysique, Timothy Hewitt, Juliana Croitoru-Lamoury, Kevin Taddei, Ralph N Martins, Constance S N Chew, Nicholas N W S Davies, Patricia Price, Bruce J Brew
BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers Aβ1-42, t-tau and p-tau have a characteristic pattern in Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Their roles in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains unclear. METHODS: Adults with chronic treated HIV disease were recruited (n = 43, aged 56.7 ± 7.9; 32% aged 60+; median HIV duration 20 years, >95% plasma and CSF HIV RNA <50 cp/mL, on cART for a median 24 months). All underwent standard neuropsychological testing (61% had HAND), APOE genotyping (30...
2015: BMC Neurology
Alyssa Arentoft, Desiree Byrd, Jennifer Monzones, Kelly Coulehan, Armando Fuentes, Ana Rosario, Caitlin Miranda, Susan Morgello, Monica Rivera Mindt
OBJECTIVE: There is limited research examining the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and neuropsychological functioning, particularly in racial/ethnic minority and HIV+ populations. However, there are complex associations between poverty, education, HIV disease, race/ethnicity, and health outcomes in the US. METHOD: We explored these relationships among an ethnically diverse sample of 134 HIV+ adults using a standardized SES measure (i.e., the Hollingshead scale), a comprehensive NP test battery, and a functional evaluation (i...
2015: Clinical Neuropsychologist
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