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Major neurocognitive disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898590/reactivation-of-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-reservoirs-in-the-brain-of-virally-suppressed-macaques
#1
Lucio Gama, Celina M Abreu, Erin N Shirk, Sarah L Price, Ming Li, Greg M Laird, Kelly A Metcalf Pate, Stephen W Wietgrefe, Shelby L O'Connor, Luiz Pianowski, Ashley T Haase, Carine Van Lint, Robert F Siliciano, Janice E Clements
OBJECTIVE: Resting CD4 T cells have been recognized as the major cell reservoir of latent HIV-1 during antiretroviral therapy (ART). Using an simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/macaque model for AIDS and HIV-related neurocognitive disorders we assessed the contribution of the brain to viral latency and reactivation. DESIGN: Pigtailed macaques were dual inoculated with SIVDeltaB670 and SIV17E-Fr and treated with an efficacious central nervous system-penetrant ART...
January 2, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877044/increased-mir-132-level-is-associated-with-visual-memory-dysfunction-in-patients-with-depression
#2
Ye Liu, Xiao Yang, Liansheng Zhao, Jian Zhang, Tao Li, Xiaohong Ma
BACKGROUND: Impaired visual memory seems to be a core feature of depression, while increased microRNA-132 (miR-132) levels have been widely reported in depression patients. The authors aimed to explore the relationship between miR-132 changes and visual memory deficits in unmedicated patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 62 medication-free MDD patients and 73 matched healthy controls (HCs) were tested for miR-132 expression level in peripheral blood using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872673/the-relationship-between-neurocognitive-functioning-and-occupational-functioning-in-bipolar-disorder-a-literature-review
#3
REVIEW
Walace Duarte, Rodrigo Becerra, Kate Cruise
Neurocognitive impairment in Bipolar Disorder (BD) has been widely reported, even during remission. Neurocognitive impairment has been identified as a contributing factor towards unfavourable psychosocial functioning within this population. The objective of this review was to investigate the association between neurocognitive impairment and occupational functioning in BD. A literature review of English-language journal articles from January 1990 to November 2013 was undertaken utilising the PsychINFO, Scopus and Web of Knowledge databases...
November 2016: Europe's journal of psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872267/endophenotypes-epigenetics-polygenicity-and-more-irv-gottesman-s-dynamic-legacy
#4
David L Braff, Carol A Tamminga
First, we describe the hallmark contributions of Irv Gottesman's pioneering scholarship for schizophrenia research including concepts of polygenicity, gene × environment interactions, epigenetics and the endophenotype concept. Gottesman and colleagues' twin studies showed that genes, not social factors, mediate schizophrenia risk. He then showed that schizophrenia is highly polygenic. Next, he introduced the concept of epigenetics into schizophrenia research. Gottesman then introduced the quantitative endophenotype concept...
November 21, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868177/-early-use-of-memantine-in-the-treatment-of-lewy-body-dementia
#5
H Vanhaute, P Persoons
Early use of memantine in the treatment of Lewy body dementia (LBD) is a common type of major neurocognitive disorder (NCD), which is difficult to treat. The use of memantine can be an early treatment strategy. This is illustrated by a case of an 80-year-old patient whose cognition, motor skills and perception disorders reacted favourably to treatment with memantine. The beneficial effect, however, was soon lost after the treatment was discontinued, but reappeared after the medication was reintroduced.
2016: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867834/neurobiology-of-risk-for-bipolar-disorder
#6
REVIEW
Ayşegül Özerdem, Deniz Ceylan, Güneş Can
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic mental illness which follows a relapsing and remitting course and requires lifetime treatment. The lack of biological markers for BD is a major difficulty in clinical practice. Exploring multiple endophenotypes to fit in multivariate genetic models for BD is an important element in the process of finding tools to facilitate early diagnosis, early intervention, prevention of new episodes, and follow-up of treatment response in BD. Reviewing of studies on neuroimaging, neurocognition, and biochemical parameters in populations with high genetic risk for the illness can yield an integrative perspective on the neurobiology of risk for BD...
2016: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861433/understanding-phenotypes-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-applications-in-anesthesia-surgery-and-perioperative-medicine
#7
Yamini Subramani, Mandeep Singh, Jean Wong, Clete A Kushida, Atul Malhotra, Frances Chung
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent sleep-disordered breathing with potential long-term major neurocognitive and cardiovascular sequelae. The pathophysiology of OSA varies between individuals and is composed of different underlying mechanisms. Several components including the upper airway anatomy, effectiveness of the upper airway dilator muscles such as the genioglossus, arousal threshold of the individual, and inherent stability of the respiratory control system determine the pathogenesis of OSA...
November 17, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848034/vagus-nerve-stimulation-in-psychiatry-a-systematic-review-of-the-available-evidence
#8
REVIEW
Camelia-Lucia Cimpianu, Wolfgang Strube, Peter Falkai, Ulrich Palm, Alkomiet Hasan
Invasive and non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a promising add-on treatment for treatment-refractory depression, but is also increasingly evaluated for its application in other psychiatric disorders, such as dementia, schizophrenia, somatoform disorder, and others. We performed a systematic review aiming to give a detailed overview of the available evidence of the efficacy of VNS for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Data derived from animal models, experimental trials without health-related outcomes, case reports, single-session studies, and reviews were excluded...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832551/anaesthetic-implications-of-the-changing-management-of-patients-with-mucopolysaccharidosis
#9
H A Hack, Rwm Walker, P Gardiner
The mucopolysaccharidoses are a group of inherited metabolic disorders that are renowned for presenting clinical problems, particularly related to cardiac, airway, and skeletal abnormalities, in children during anaesthesia. The changing clinical management of the mucopolysaccharidoses can be described in three phases. An initial phase of accumulation and dissemination of knowledge about the management of this rare disease with a growing recognition that untreated Hurler syndrome and more severe forms of other phenotypes such as Hunter syndrome and Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome were associated with severe complications under anaesthesia...
November 2016: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825722/current-status-of-hiv-aids-in-the-art-era
#10
REVIEW
Kazuhisa Yoshimura
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) spread to humans from chimpanzees (HIV-1 groups M and N), gorillas (HIV-1 groups P and O), and sooty mangabeys (HIV-2). HIV is spread mainly through blood or body fluids. Subjects can become infected with HIV by sexual contact, needle sharing, blood transfusions, or maternal transmissions as a blood-borne virus or via breast-milk. The incubation period of HIV-1 from infection to the development of AIDS ranges from 8 to 11 years. In the past 3 decades, HIV has caused a great burden to global wealth and health...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825695/major-neurocognitive-disorder-follow%C3%A4-ng-isolated-hippocampal-ischem%C3%A4-c-lesions
#11
Emre Kumral, Oral Zirek
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Major cognitive disorder (MND) following vascular events is known as second causes of dementia after Alzheimer's disease (AD). Acute onset MND due to isolated hippocampal infarction has not been recognized as a specific subtype of vascular dementia, and there is no validated criteria for the identification of such cases, either clinically or radiologically. RESULTS: Among 7200 patients with first-ever ischemic stroke, 22 patients (0.3%) showed acute isolated ischemic lesions in the hippocampus...
November 3, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825555/neuroticism-traits-selectively-impact-long-term-illness-course-and-cognitive-decline-in-late-life-depression
#12
Kevin J Manning, Grace Chan, David C Steffens
OBJECTIVES: Neuroticism is a broad construct that conveys a predisposition to experience psychological distress and negative mood states. Vulnerability to stress (VS) is one neuroticism trait that has been linked to worse mood and cognitive outcomes in older adults. We hypothesized that elevated VS would be associated with worse illness course and cognitive decline in older adults with late-life major depression (LLD). DESIGN: Participants were enrolled in the Neurocognitive Outcomes of Depression in the Elderly (NCODE), a longitudinal investigation of the predictors of poor illness course and cognitive decline in LLD...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821271/screening-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-hand-among-hiv-positive-patients-attending-antiretroviral-therapy-in-south-wollo-ethiopia
#13
Million Tsegaw, Gashaw Andargie, Getnet Alem, Minale Tareke
BACKGROUND: The vast majority of people living with HIV/AIDS reside in low and middle income countries, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa, including Ethiopia. Despite the huge number of service users in the local area, cognitive disorder among HIV patients has not been extensively studied and there is a dearth of knowledge on the subject. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder among people living with HIV/AIDS in antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinics...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815816/a-decreasing-cd4-cd8-ratio-over-time-and-lower-csf-penetrating-antiretroviral-regimens-are-associated-with-a-higher-risk-of-neurocognitive-deterioration-independently-of-viral-replication
#14
Matteo Vassallo, R Fabre, J Durant, C Lebrun-Frenay, H Joly, M Ticchioni, F DeSalvador, A Harvey-Langton, B Dunais, M Laffon, J Cottalorda, P Dellamonica, C Pradier
Persistent immune activation is one of the suspected causes of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in cART era. The CD4/CD8 ratio has been recently showed as a marker of immune activation and HAND. Our aim was to analyze if a decrease in the CD4/CD8 ratio over time could have an impact on neurocognitive deterioration. Randomly selected HIV-infected patients were followed for neuropsychological (NP) testing during a period of almost 2 years. Tests were adjusted for age, gender, and education. Patients were divided into 5 groups: normal tests (NT), neuropsychological deficit (ND, one impaired cognitive domain), asymptomatic neurocognitive disorders (ANI), mild neurocognitive disorders (MND), and HIV-associated dementia (HAD)...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810614/are-major-depression-and-bipolar-disorder-neuropsychologically-distinct-a-meta-analysis-of-comparative-studies
#15
C Samamé, A G Szmulewicz, M P Valerio, D J Martino, S A Strejilevich
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychological deficits are present in both major depression and bipolar disorder. So far, however, reports directly comparing these mood disorders with regard to cognitive outcomes have been scant and yielded inconsistent results. This work aims to combine the findings of comparative studies of cognition in major depression and bipolar disorder in order to explore whether these neuropsychiatric conditions present with distinct cognitive features. METHODS: The main online databases were extensively searched to retrieve reports assessing neurocognitive functioning in two groups of mood disorder patients, one with major depressive disorder and another with bipolar disorder, both in the same phase of illness...
October 28, 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781141/characterizing-neurocognitive-impairment-in-young-people-with-major-depression-state-trait-or-scar
#16
REVIEW
Kelly Allott, Caroline A Fisher, Gunther Paul Amminger, Joanne Goodall, Sarah Hetrick
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects a quarter of adolescents and young adults and is associated with the greatest global burden of disease in this population. There is a growing literature, mostly in adults, showing that significant neurocognitive impairments are common in MDD. It remains unclear whether these impairments are pre-existing trait markers of MDD, state-related impairments that fluctuate with depressive symptoms, or 'scar' impairments that worsen with illness progression...
October 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768745/anterograde-amnesia-during-electroconvulsive-therapy-a-prospective-pilot-study-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#17
Elvira Boere, Astrid M Kamperman, Arianne E van 't Hoog, Walter W van den Broek, Tom K Birkenhäger
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is considered an effective treatment for major depression with melancholic features. However, neurocognitive side-effects such as anterograde amnesia still regularly occur. The present study aims to evaluate the severity and course of anterograde amnesia in severely depressed patients undergoing ECT. In a prospective naturalistic study, anterograde memory function was assessed among inpatients who underwent ECT (n = 11). Subjects met DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737697/loss-of-cerebellar-neurons-in-the-progression-of-lentiviral-disease-effects-of-cns-permeant-antiretroviral-therapy
#18
Christian Wächter, Lee E Eiden, Nedye Naumann, Candan Depboylu, Eberhard Weihe
BACKGROUND: The majority of investigations on HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) neglect the cerebellum in spite of emerging evidence for its role in higher cognitive functions and dysfunctions in common neurodegenerative diseases. METHODS: We systematically investigated the molecular and cellular responses of the cerebellum as contributors to lentiviral infection-induced neurodegeneration, in the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaque model for HIV infection and HAND...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712119/identification-of-problems-in-the-functioning-of-individuals-with-schizophrenia-from-the-expert-perspective-an-internet-based-survey
#19
Maite Barrios, Georgina Guilera, Melissa Selb, Juana Gómez-Benito
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to identify aspects of functioning and related environmental factors that are relevant to schizophrenia from the perspective of health professionals experienced in treating individuals with this disorder using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). METHOD: An international pool of experts from diverse health care disciplines was surveyed to identify problems in functioning experienced by individuals with schizophrenia and the environmental factors that impact their functioning...
October 7, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662554/reactivation-of-siv-reservoirs-in-the-brain-of-virally-suppressed-macaques
#20
Lucio Gama, Celina M Abreu, Erin N Shirk, Sarah L Price, Ming Li, Greg M Laird, Kelly A Metcalf Pate, Stephen W Wietgrefe, Shelby L O'connor, Luiz Pianowski, Ashley T Haase, Carine Van Lint, Robert F Siliciano, Janice E Clements, Dummy Authors
OBJECTIVE: Resting CD4+ T cells have been recognized as the major cell reservoir of latent HIV-1 during antiretroviral therapy (ART). Using an SIV/macaque model for AIDS and HIV-related neurocognitive disorders we assessed the contribution of the brain to viral latency and reactivation. DESIGN: Pigtailed macaques were dual inoculated with SIVDeltaB670 and SIV17E-Fr and treated with an efficacious CNS-penetrant ART. After 500 days of viral suppression animals were treated with two cycles of latency reversing agents (LRAs) and increases in viral transcripts were examined...
September 20, 2016: AIDS
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