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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101920/quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-hiv-1-tat-induced-dysregulation-in-sh-sy5y-neuroblastoma-cells
#1
Tariq Ganief, Putuma Gqamana, Shaun Garnett, Jackie Hoare, Dan J Stein, John Joska, Nelson Soares, Jonathan M Blackburn
Despite affecting up to 70% of HIV-positivepatients and being the leading cause of dementia in patients under 40 years, the molecular mechanisms involved in the onset of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are not well understood. To address this, we performed SILAC-based quantitative proteomic analysis on HIV-Tat treated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Isolated protein was fractionated by SDS-PAGE and analysed by nLC-MS/MS on an Orbitrap Velos. Using MaxQuant, we identified and quantified 3077 unique protein groups, of which 407 were differentially regulated...
January 19, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095946/electroconvulsive-therapy-ect-for-treating-agitation-in-dementia-major-neurocognitive-disorder-a-promising-option
#2
Oliver M Glass, Brent P Forester, Adriana P Hermida
BACKGROUND: Agitation in patients with dementia increases caretaker burden, increases healthcare costs, and worsens the patient's quality of life. Antipsychotic medications, commonly used for the treatment of agitation in patients with dementia have a box warning from the FDA for elevated mortality risk. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has made significant advances over the past several years, and is efficacious in treating a wide range of psychiatric conditions. We provide a systematic review of published literature regarding the efficacy of ECT for the treatment of agitation in patients with dementia (major neurocognitive disorder)...
January 18, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078633/benzodiazepine-use-and-risk-of-developing-alzheimer-s-disease-a-case-control-study-based-on-swiss-claims-data
#3
Fabienne A Biétry, Alena M Pfeil, Oliver Reich, Matthias Schwenkglenks, Christoph R Meier
BACKGROUND: A possible association between benzodiazepine use and Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been hypothesized in previous studies. OBJECTIVES: Using claims data from the Helsana Group, a large Swiss health insurance provider, we examined the association between previous benzodiazepine use and the risk of AD. METHODS: We conducted a matched case-control study and identified 1438 incident AD cases between 2013 and 2014 based on recorded first-time use of drugs used to treat AD [i...
January 11, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076946/validation-of-the-sinhala-version-of-the-repeatable-battery-for-assessment-of-neuropsychological-status-rbans
#4
Chathurie Suraweera, D Anandakumar, D Dahanayake, M Subendran, U T Perera, Raveen Hanwella, Varuni de Silva
Introduction: Only the Mini mental state examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment scale have been validated in a Sri Lankan population for the assessment of cognitive functions. Both tests are deficient in the number of domains assessed. Therefore validation of Repeatable Battery for Assessment of Neuropsychological Status is important as it assesses most of the cognitive domains. Objectives: To culturally adapt RBANS and investigate the validity and reliability of culturally adapted RBANS (RBANS-S)...
30, 2016: Ceylon Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074940/alpha7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-is-required-for-amyloid-pathology-in-brain-endothelial-cells-induced-by-glycoprotein-120-methamphetamine-and-nicotine
#5
Liqun Liu, Jingyi Yu, Li Li, Bao Zhang, Lingjuan Liu, Chun-Hua Wu, Ambrose Jong, Ding-An Mao, Sheng-He Huang
One of the most challenging issues in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) caused by HIV-1 virotoxins and drug abuse is the lack of understanding the underlying mechanisms that are commonly associated with disorders of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which mainly consists of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC). Here, we hypothesized that Glycoprotein 120 (gp120), methamphetamine (METH) and nicotine (NT) can enhance amyloid-beta (Aβ) accumulation in BMEC through Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR)...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073491/gray-matter-neuritic-microstructure-deficits-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#6
Arash Nazeri, Benoit H Mulsant, Tarek K Rajji, Melissa L Levesque, Jon Pipitone, Laura Stefanik, Saba Shahab, Tina Roostaei, Anne L Wheeler, Sofia Chavez, Aristotle N Voineskos
BACKGROUND: Postmortem studies have demonstrated considerable dendritic pathologies among persons with schizophrenia and to some extent among those with bipolar I disorder. Modeling gray matter (GM) microstructural properties is now possible with a recently proposed diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging modeling technique: neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging. This technique may bridge the gap between neuroimaging and histopathological findings. METHODS: We performed an extended series of multishell diffusion-weighted imaging and other structural imaging series using 3T magnetic resonance imaging...
December 8, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040657/neuropsychological-profiles-of-major-depressive-disorder-and-bipolar-disorder-during-euthymia-a-systematic-literature-review-of-comparative-studies
#7
REVIEW
Alejandro G Szmulewicz, Marina P Valerio, José M Smith, Cecilia Samamé, Diego J Martino, Sergio A Strejilevich
Bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder have been shown to be associated with neurocognitive abnormalities during periods of clinical remission. However, at present, there is no consensus on whether these disorders have distinctive cognitive profiles. The aim of this study was to provide an updated systematic review of studies comparing neuropsychological functioning between bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder during remission. Main findings included the following: 1) no differences regarding performances in measures of attention and processing speed, executive functions and theory of mind were found between both patient groups and 2) regarding verbal memory, preliminary evidence points towards a more defective performance in patients with bipolar disorder than those with major depressive disorder...
December 24, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039551/single-session-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-induces-enduring-enhancement-of-visual-processing-speed-in-patients-with-major-depression
#8
Nadine Gögler, Lina Willacker, Johanna Funk, Wolfgang Strube, Simon Langgartner, Natan Napiórkowski, Alkomiet Hasan, Kathrin Finke
Attentional deficits are considered key cognitive symptoms in major depressive disorder (MDD) arising from abnormal activation patterns within dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) alertness networks. Altering these activity patterns with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) might thus ameliorate alertness-dependent cognitive deficits in MDD patients. In a double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled study, we investigated the effect of a single session of anodal tDCS (2 mA) applied to the left dlPFC on different parameters of visual attention based on Bundesen's theory of visual attention (Psychol Rev 97(4):523-547, 1990) in a group of 20 patients with MDD and a control group of 20 healthy participants...
December 30, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013123/a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-crossover-trial-evaluating-the-effect-of-intranasal-insulin-on-cognition-and-mood-in-individuals-with-treatment-resistant-major-depressive-disorder
#9
Danielle S Cha, Michael W Best, Christopher R Bowie, Laura Ashley Gallaugher, Hanna O Woldeyohannes, Joanna K Soczynska, Gary Lewis, Glenda MacQueen, Barbara J Sahakian, Sidney H Kennedy, Jane P Lui, Rodrigo B Mansur, Roger S McIntyre
BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction in major depressive disorder (MDD) is identified as a primary therapeutic target; no current treatment is approved for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction in MDD. We examined whether intranasal insulin offered a beneficial effect across measures of cognitive function in adults with MDD. METHODS: Thirty-five adults (18-65 years of age: 47.09±9.89) meeting criteria for a major depressive episode as per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-IV-Treatment Revised were included in this randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design study...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007635/pharmaid-study-protocol-randomized-controlled-trial-to-assess-the-impact-of-integrated-pharmaceutical-care-at-a-psychosocial-intervention-on-caregiver-s-burden-in-alzheimer-s-disease-or-related-diseases
#10
T Novais, C Moutet, F Delphin-Combe, V Dauphinot, C Colin, P Krolak-Salmon, C Mouchoux
INTRODUCTION: Alzheimer's Disease and Related Diseases (ADRD) are associated with a caregiver burden that increases with the progression of the disease. Psychosocial interventions reported a moderate improvement on caregivers' burden. Patients with ADRD and their older caregivers are also exposed to a higher risk of developing drug-related problems. The main objective of the PHARMAID study is to measure the impact of personalized pharmaceutical collaborative care integrated to a multidisciplinary psychosocial program on the burden of caregivers...
December 19, 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941508/effectiveness-of-caregiver-provided-cognitive-interventions-on-cognition-social-functioning-and-quality-of-life-among-older-adults-with-major-neurocognitive-disorder-a-systematic-review-protocol
#11
Rosa Silva, Daniela Cardoso, Sérgio Abrunheiro, Maria Almeida, João Apóstolo
The objective of this systematic review is to synthesize the best available evidence on the effectiveness of individual cognitive interventions (CIs) provided by caregivers on cognition, social functioning and quality of life among older adults (≥65 years) with major neurocognitive disorder (NCD).The review questions are as follows:What is the best available evidence on the effectiveness of individual CIs provided by caregivers on cognitive domains such as memory, problem-solving and verbal fluency among older adults (≥65 years) with major NCD?What is the best available evidence regarding the effectiveness of individual CIs provided by caregivers on the social functioning and quality of life among older adults (≥65 years) with major NCD?...
November 2016: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936353/evaluation-of-a-therapeutic-education-program-for-french-family-caregivers-of-elderly-people-suffering-from-major-neurocognitive-disorders-preliminary-study
#12
Emmanuel Monfort, Antonio Mayol, Clotilde Lissot, Pascal Couturier
The pertinence of a therapeutic program of education has been studied with regard to carers of patients suffering from major neurocognitive disorders. The program, adapted to the needs expressed by the carers, consisted of three workshops with a view to supplying general information about the pathologies, specific information on behavioral disorders, and specific aids to identify and manage their emotional reactions. The results of this preliminary study show a moderate significant benefit to the level of anxiety in the participants, taking into account the specific expectations of the carers and bringing to light further needs...
December 9, 2016: Gerontology & Geriatrics Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898590/reactivation-of-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-reservoirs-in-the-brain-of-virally-suppressed-macaques
#13
Lucio Gama, Celina M Abreu, Erin N Shirk, Sarah L Price, Ming Li, Greg M Laird, Kelly A Metcalf Pate, Stephen W Wietgrefe, Shelby L O'Connor, Luiz Pianowski, Ashley T Haase, Carine Van Lint, Robert F Siliciano, Janice E Clements
OBJECTIVE: Resting CD4 T cells have been recognized as the major cell reservoir of latent HIV-1 during antiretroviral therapy (ART). Using an simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/macaque model for AIDS and HIV-related neurocognitive disorders we assessed the contribution of the brain to viral latency and reactivation. DESIGN: Pigtailed macaques were dual inoculated with SIVDeltaB670 and SIV17E-Fr and treated with an efficacious central nervous system-penetrant ART...
January 2, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877044/increased-mir-132-level-is-associated-with-visual-memory-dysfunction-in-patients-with-depression
#14
Ye Liu, Xiao Yang, Liansheng Zhao, Jian Zhang, Tao Li, Xiaohong Ma
BACKGROUND: Impaired visual memory seems to be a core feature of depression, while increased microRNA-132 (miR-132) levels have been widely reported in depression patients. The authors aimed to explore the relationship between miR-132 changes and visual memory deficits in unmedicated patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 62 medication-free MDD patients and 73 matched healthy controls (HCs) were tested for miR-132 expression level in peripheral blood using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872673/the-relationship-between-neurocognitive-functioning-and-occupational-functioning-in-bipolar-disorder-a-literature-review
#15
REVIEW
Walace Duarte, Rodrigo Becerra, Kate Cruise
Neurocognitive impairment in Bipolar Disorder (BD) has been widely reported, even during remission. Neurocognitive impairment has been identified as a contributing factor towards unfavourable psychosocial functioning within this population. The objective of this review was to investigate the association between neurocognitive impairment and occupational functioning in BD. A literature review of English-language journal articles from January 1990 to November 2013 was undertaken utilising the PsychINFO, Scopus and Web of Knowledge databases...
November 2016: Europe's journal of psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872267/endophenotypes-epigenetics-polygenicity-and-more-irv-gottesman-s-dynamic-legacy
#16
David L Braff, Carol A Tamminga
First, we describe the hallmark contributions of Irv Gottesman's pioneering scholarship for schizophrenia research including concepts of polygenicity, gene × environment interactions, epigenetics and the endophenotype concept. Gottesman and colleagues' twin studies showed that genes, not social factors, mediate schizophrenia risk. He then showed that schizophrenia is highly polygenic. Next, he introduced the concept of epigenetics into schizophrenia research. Gottesman then introduced the quantitative endophenotype concept...
January 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868177/-early-use-of-memantine-in-the-treatment-of-lewy-body-dementia
#17
H Vanhaute, P Persoons
Early use of memantine in the treatment of Lewy body dementia (LBD) is a common type of major neurocognitive disorder (NCD), which is difficult to treat. The use of memantine can be an early treatment strategy. This is illustrated by a case of an 80-year-old patient whose cognition, motor skills and perception disorders reacted favourably to treatment with memantine. The beneficial effect, however, was soon lost after the treatment was discontinued, but reappeared after the medication was reintroduced.
2016: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867834/neurobiology-of-risk-for-bipolar-disorder
#18
REVIEW
Ayşegül Özerdem, Deniz Ceylan, Güneş Can
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic mental illness which follows a relapsing and remitting course and requires lifetime treatment. The lack of biological markers for BD is a major difficulty in clinical practice. Exploring multiple endophenotypes to fit in multivariate genetic models for BD is an important element in the process of finding tools to facilitate early diagnosis, early intervention, prevention of new episodes, and follow-up of treatment response in BD. Reviewing of studies on neuroimaging, neurocognition, and biochemical parameters in populations with high genetic risk for the illness can yield an integrative perspective on the neurobiology of risk for BD...
2016: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861433/understanding-phenotypes-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-applications-in-anesthesia-surgery-and-perioperative-medicine
#19
Yamini Subramani, Mandeep Singh, Jean Wong, Clete A Kushida, Atul Malhotra, Frances Chung
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent sleep-disordered breathing with potential long-term major neurocognitive and cardiovascular sequelae. The pathophysiology of OSA varies between individuals and is composed of different underlying mechanisms. Several components including the upper airway anatomy, effectiveness of the upper airway dilator muscles such as the genioglossus, arousal threshold of the individual, and inherent stability of the respiratory control system determine the pathogenesis of OSA...
January 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848034/vagus-nerve-stimulation-in-psychiatry-a-systematic-review-of-the-available-evidence
#20
REVIEW
Camelia-Lucia Cimpianu, Wolfgang Strube, Peter Falkai, Ulrich Palm, Alkomiet Hasan
Invasive and non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a promising add-on treatment for treatment-refractory depression, but is also increasingly evaluated for its application in other psychiatric disorders, such as dementia, schizophrenia, somatoform disorder, and others. We performed a systematic review aiming to give a detailed overview of the available evidence of the efficacy of VNS for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Data derived from animal models, experimental trials without health-related outcomes, case reports, single-session studies, and reviews were excluded...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
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