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Major neurocognitive disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523217/relation-between-patterns-of-intrinsic-network-connectivity-cognitive-functioning-and-symptom-presentation-in-trauma-exposed-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#1
Melissa Parlar, Maria Densmore, Geoffrey B Hall, Paul A Frewen, Ruth A Lanius, Margaret C McKinnon
OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated resting fMRI connectivity within the default mode (DMN), salience (SN), and central executive (CEN) networks in relation to neurocognitive performance and symptom severity in trauma-exposed patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). METHOD: Group independent component analysis was conducted among patients with MDD (n = 21), examining DMN, SN, and CEN connectivity in relation to neurocognitive performance and symptom severity...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522977/neuropsychiatric-symptoms-in-patients-with-the-main-etiological-types-of-mild-neurocognitive-disorders-a-hospital-based-case-control-study
#2
Oleg A Levada, Nataliya V Cherednichenko, Alexandra S Troyan
BACKGROUND: The diagnostic construct of mild neurocognitive disorders (MNCDs) is substantially congruent with previously proposed criteria for mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MNCD/MCI is associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS). Previous studies have examined the prevalence of NPS in amnestic and non-amnestic MCI subtypes; however, no studies exist for etiological types of MNCD. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of NPS in patients with MNCD due to Alzheimer's disease (MNCD-AD) and subcortical vascular MNCD (ScVMNCD) and to determine whether NPS would expand these MNCD phenotypes...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503143/impairments-of-motor-function-while-multitasking-in-hiv
#3
Sharif I Kronemer, Jordan A Mandel, Ned C Sacktor, Cherie L Marvel
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) became a treatable illness with the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (CART). As a result, patients with regular access to CART are expected to live decades with HIV. Long-term HIV infection presents unique challenges, including neurocognitive impairments defined by three major stages of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The current investigation aimed to study cognitive and motor impairments in HIV using a novel multitasking paradigm. Unlike current standard measures of cognitive and motor performance in HIV, multitasking increases real-world validity by mimicking the dual motor and cognitive demands that are part of daily professional and personal settings (e...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500488/-analysis-of-intrusion-errors-in-free-recall
#4
H F A Diesfeldt
Extra-list intrusion errors during five trials of the eight-word list-learning task of the Amsterdam Dementia Screening Test (ADST) were investigated in 823 consecutive psychogeriatric patients (87.1% suffering from major neurocognitive disorder). Almost half of the participants (45.9%) produced one or more intrusion errors on the verbal recall test. Correct responses were lower when subjects made intrusion errors, but learning slopes did not differ between subjects who committed intrusion errors and those who did not so...
May 12, 2017: Tijdschrift Voor Gerontologie en Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493900/genomic-biomarkers-of-prenatal-intrauterine-inflammation-in-umbilical-cord-tissue-predict-later-life-neurological-outcomes
#5
Sloane K Tilley, Robert M Joseph, Karl C K Kuban, Olaf U Dammann, T Michael O'Shea, Rebecca C Fry
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is a major risk factor for neurodevelopmental delays and disorders. This study aimed to identify genomic biomarkers of intrauterine inflammation in umbilical cord tissue in preterm neonates that predict cognitive impairment at 10 years of age. STUDY DESIGN: Genome-wide messenger RNA (mRNA) levels from umbilical cord tissue were obtained from 43 neonates born before 28 weeks of gestation. Genes that were differentially expressed across four indicators of intrauterine inflammation were identified and their functions examined...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487203/mmps-timps-imbalances-in-the-peripheral-blood-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-are-associated-with-the-pathogenesis-of-hiv-1-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-a-pilot-study
#6
Yanyan Xing, Nicole Shepherd, Jie Lan, Wei Li, Sushmita Rane, Samir K Gupta, Shanxiang Zhang, Jun Dong, Qigui Yu
HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) continue to be a major concern in the infected population, despite the widespread use of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Growing evidence suggests that an imbalance between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and endogenous tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) contributes to the pathogenesis of HAND. In our present study, we examined protein levels and enzymatic activities of MMPs and TIMPs in both plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from HIV-1 patients with or without HAND and HIV-1-negative controls...
May 6, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484418/blast-exposure-white-matter-integrity-and-cognitive-function-in-iraq-and-afghanistan-combat-veterans
#7
Iliyan Ivanov, Corey Fernandez, Effie M Mitsis, Dara L Dickstein, Edmund Wong, Cheuk Y Tang, Jessie Simantov, Charlene Bang, Erin Moshier, Mary Sano, Gregory A Elder, Erin A Hazlett
The long-term effects of blast exposure are a major health concern for combat veterans returning from the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. We used an optimized diffusion tensor imaging tractography algorithm to assess white matter (WM) fractional anisotropy (FA) in blast-exposed Iraq and Afghanistan veterans (n = 40) scanned on average 3.7 years after deployment/trauma exposure. Veterans diagnosed with a blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) were compared to combat veterans with blast exposure but no TBI diagnosis...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480240/a-high-prevalence-rate-of-a-positive-screen-for-cognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-attending-an-irish-clinic
#8
Patricia H McNamara, Robert Coen, Janice Redmond, Colin P Doherty, Colm Bergin
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorders occurs in 20%-50% of HIV-positive patients. We undertook this study to assess the prevalence of a positive screen for cognitive impairment in the clinic population at our institution and to demonstrate the feasibility of implementing a screening program in routine clinical encounters. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study, and patients were recruited prospectively between December 2010 and February 2013...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476012/comparison-of-neurocognitive-function-in-major-depressive-disorder-bipolar-disorder-and-schizophrenia-in-later-life-a-cross-sectional-study-of-euthymic-or-remitted-non-demented-patients-using-the-japanese-version-of-the-brief-assessment-of-cognition-in-schizophrenia
#9
Sayaka Terachi, Takeshi Yamada, Shenghong Pu, Katsutoshi Yokoyama, Hiroshi Matsumura, Koichi Kaneko
Major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD), and schizophrenia (SZ) are associated with cognitive dysfunction both in adulthood and in later life. In this study, we directly compared neurocognitive function between these three conditions in later life, employing stringent definitions of euthymia and symptomatic remission. Cognitive function in 60 elderly outpatients with MDD, BD, or SZ (20 patients per group) was assessed using the Japanese version of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia...
April 28, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429625/trichotillomania-and-its-clinical-relationship-to-depression-and-anxiety
#10
Jon E Grant, Sarah A Redden, Gustavo C Medeiros, Brian L Odlaug, Erin E Curley, Hermano Tavares, Nancy J Keuthen
OBJECTIVE: Trichotillomania (TTM) is associated with high rates of co-occurring depression and anxiety disorders. What the co-occurrence of TTM, depression or anxiety disorders means clinically and cognitively, however, has garnered little research attention. METHODS: About 530 adults with TTM were examined on a variety of clinical measures including symptom severity, psychosocial measures of functioning, psychiatric comorbidity and neurocognitive testing assessing motor inhibition and cognitive flexibility...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429562/predictors-of-the-health-related-quality-of-life-of-chinese-people-with-major-neurocognitive-disorders-and-their-caregivers-the-roles-of-self-esteem-and-caregiver-s-burden
#11
Daniel Kim-Wan Young, Petrus Yat-Nam Ng, Timothy Kwok
AIM: The present research study aimed to identify and compare the clinical and non-clinical factors that predict the self-reported and proxy-reported health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of people with major neurocognitive disorder (PwND) who are living at home in a Chinese society. METHODS: A total of 57 Chinese PwND-family caregiver dyads that were using the services of local senior centers were recruited through a cross-sectional survey with convenience sampling...
April 20, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415018/internal-consistency-and-concurrent-validity-of-the-montreal-cognitive-assessment-in-individuals-with-major-depressive-disorder
#12
Manit Srisurapanont, Kanokkwan Eurviriyanukul, Sirijit Suttajit, Pairada Varnado
This study aimed to determine the internal consistency and concurrent validity of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), as well as its subtests, in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Participants were patients with DSM-IV MDD aged between 21 and 65 years. Neurocognitive function was assessed by using the MoCA and 12 neurocognitive tests. The composite z-score of 12 neurocognitive tests, which indicated the global cognitive performance, was calculated. Participants were 57 outpatients with MDD...
April 6, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409354/retrosplenial-cortical-thinning-as-a-possible-major-contributor-for-cognitive-impairment-in-hiv-patients
#13
Na-Young Shin, Jinwoo Hong, Jun Yong Choi, Seung-Koo Lee, Soo Mee Lim, Uicheul Yoon
OBJECTIVES: To identify brain cortical regions relevant to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) in HIV patients. METHODS: HIV patients with HAND (n = 10), those with intact cognition (HIV-IC; n = 12), and age-matched, seronegative controls (n = 11) were recruited. All participants were male and underwent 3-dimensional T1-weighted imaging. Both vertex-wise and region of interest (ROI) analyses were performed to analyse cortical thickness. RESULTS: Compared to controls, both HIV-IC and HAND showed decreased cortical thickness mainly in the bilateral primary sensorimotor areas, extending to the prefrontal and parietal cortices...
April 13, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407553/high-frequency-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-treatment-for-major-depression-dissociated-effects-on-psychopathology-and-neurocognition
#14
Santiago Tovar-Perdomo, Alexander McGirr, Frederique Van den Eynde, Nicole Rodrigues Dos Santos, Marcelo T Berlim
OBJECTIVES: This open-label pilot study explored the effects of a course of accelerated high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (HF-rTMS) on two neurocognitive domains (decision-making and impulse control) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: Participants with MDD and a treatment resistant major depressive episode (n=24) underwent twice-daily HF-rTMS targeted at the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (lDLPFC) over two weeks...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402866/a-randomized-trial-of-aerobic-exercise-on-cognitive-control-in-major-depression
#15
Ryan L Olson, Christopher J Brush, Peter J Ehmann, Brandon L Alderman
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an 8-week moderate-intensity aerobic exercise training intervention on cognitive control in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: Participants with a current diagnosis of MDD (n=30; 21.1±2.0years) were stratified by depressive symptoms and randomized to an 8-week intervention of aerobic exercise (AE) or placebo exercise (PE). AE consisted of three sessions/week of moderate-intensity exercise training while PE consisted of three sessions/week of light-intensity stretching...
June 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397568/the-neuropsychological-function-of-older-first-time-child-exploitation-material-offenders-a-pilot-study
#16
Marcelo Rodriguez, Andrew Ellis
Despite the growing incidence of child exploitation offences, there is little knowledge of the neuropsychological function of older child exploitation material offenders (CEMOs). Given that studies have reported that sex offenders demonstrate deficits attributed to frontal and temporal lobe function, the aim of this pilot study was to investigate the frontotemporal function of older first-time child exploitation material offenders (FTCEMOs). The neuropsychological performance of 11 older FTCEMOs was compared with 34 older historical sex offenders (HSOs) and 32 older nonsex offender (NSO) controls...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396906/the-lausanne-geneva-cohort-study-of-offspring-of-parents-with-mood-disorders-methodology-findings-current-sample-characteristics-and-perspectives
#17
Caroline L Vandeleur, Marie-Pierre F Strippoli, Enrique Castelao, Mehdi Gholam-Rezaee, François Ferrero, Pierre Marquet, Jean-Michel Aubry, Martin Preisig
PURPOSE: Studies focusing on the offspring of affected parents utilize the well-established familial aggregation of mood disorders as a powerful tool for the identification of risk factors, early clinical manifestations, and prodromes of mood disorders in these offspring. The major goals of the Lausanne-Geneva mood cohort study are to: (1) assess the familial aggregation of bipolar and unipolar mood disorders; (2) prospectively identify risk factors for mood disorders as well as their early signs and prodromes; (3) identify their endophenotypes including cognitive features, alterations in brain structure, HPA-axis dysregulation, and abnormalities of the circadian rhythm of activity...
April 10, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392757/aspp2-plays-a-dual-role-in-gp120-induced-autophagy-and-apoptosis-of-neuroblastoma-cells
#18
Zhiying Liu, Luxin Qiao, Yulin Zhang, Yunjing Zang, Ying Shi, Kai Liu, Xin Zhang, Xiaofan Lu, Lin Yuan, Bin Su, Tong Zhang, Hao Wu, Dexi Chen
HIV invasion of the central nervous system (CNS) in the majority of patients infected with HIV-1, leads to dysfunction and injury within the CNS, showing a variety of neurological symptoms which was broadly termed HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). But the molecular mechanisms are not completely understood. It has been suggested that apoptosis and autophagic dysfunction in neurons may play an important role in the development of HAND. Previous studies have indicated that p53 may be involved in the onset of neurological disorder in AIDS...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383502/the-role-of-hiv-infection-in-neurologic-injury
#19
REVIEW
Rossana Scutari, Claudia Alteri, Carlo Federico Perno, Valentina Svicher, Stefano Aquaro
The central nervous system (CNS) is a very challenging HIV-1 sanctuary, in which HIV-1 replication is established early on during acute infection and can persist despite potent antiretroviral treatments. HIV-1 infected macrophages play a pivotal role acting as vehicles for HIV-1 to spread into the brain, and can be the major contributor of an early compartmentalization. HIV-1 infection in CNS may lead to a broad spectrum of neurological syndromes, such as dementia, mild neurocognitive disorders, and asymptomatic impairment...
April 6, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365748/an-intervention-to-decrease-the-occurrence-of-invalid-data-on-neuropsychological-evaluation
#20
Michael David Horner, Travis H Turner, Kathryn K VanKirk, John H Denning
Objective: This study tested whether patients who were given a handout based on deterrence theory, immediately prior to evaluation, would provide invalid data less frequently than patients who were simply given an informational handout. Method: All outpatients seen for clinical evaluation in a VA Neuropsychology Clinic were randomly given one of the two handouts immediately prior to evaluation. The "Intervention" handout emphasized the importance of trying one's hardest, explicitly listed consequences of valid and invalid responding and asked patients to sign and initial it...
March 1, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
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