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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305875/neural-discrimination-of-speech-sound-changes-in-a-variable-context-occurs-irrespective-of-attention-and-explicit-awareness
#1
P Virtala, E Partanen, M Tervaniemi, T Kujala
To process complex stimuli like language, our auditory system must tolerate large acoustic variance, like speaker variability, and still be sensitive enough to discriminate between phonemes and to detect complex sound relationships in, e.g., prosodic cues. Our study determined discrimination of speech sounds in input mimicking natural speech variability, and detection of deviations in regular pitch relationships (rule violations) between speech sounds. We investigated the automaticity and the influence of attention and explicit awareness on these changes by recording the neurophysiological mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a as well as task performance from 21 adults...
January 3, 2018: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226961/detection-of-deception-event-related-potential-markers-of-attention-and-cognitive-control-during-intentional-false-responses
#2
Henning Gibbons, Robert Schnuerch, Christina Wittinghofer, Anne-Simone Armbrecht, Jutta Stahl
Successful deception requires the coordination of multiple mental processes, such as attention, conflict monitoring, and the regulation of emotion. We employed a simple classification task, assessing ERPs to further investigate the attentional and cognitive control components of (instructed) deception. In Experiment 1, 20 participants repeatedly categorized visually presented names of five animals and five plants. Prior to the experiment, however, each participant covertly selected one animal and one plant for deliberate misclassification...
December 11, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223101/cognitive-impairment-measured-by-event-related-potentials-during-early-and-late-postoperative-period-following-intravenous-or-inhalation-anaesthesia
#3
Irena Holečková, Jakub Kletečka, David Štěpánek, Slavomír Žídek, David Bludovský, Jiří Pouska, Pavel Mautner, Vladimír Přibáň
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated modification in cognitive function following inhalation (IA) and total intravenous (TIVA) anaesthesia measured using auditory ERPs (Event Related Potentials). METHODS: Auditory ERPs examination with N1, P3a and P3b component registration was carried out one day before surgery (D-1) and on the first (D+1), sixth (D+6) and 42nd (D+42) days after surgery. Results were compared between two anaesthetic groups. RESULTS: On D+1, N1 latency was increased in the IA group...
January 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198040/mismatch-negativity-and-p3a-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-behavioral-correlates-and-clinical-implications
#4
Yi-Ling Chien, Ming Hsien Hsieh, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
In a sample of 37 adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 35 typically-developing controls (TDC), we investigated sensory symptoms by clinical measures, and Mismatch Negativity and P3a component at Fz with the frequency and duration oddball paradigms of event-related potentials. Results showed that compared to TDC, ASD participants reported more sensory symptoms, and presented a shorter P3a peak latency in the duration paradigm, which was correlated with more social awareness deficits...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182941/magnetoencephalography-reveals-an-increased-non-target-p3a-but-not-target-p3b-that-is-associated-with-high-non-clinical-psychosocial-deficits
#5
Talitha C Ford, Will Woods, David P Crewther
Auditory processing deficits are frequently identified in autism and schizophrenia, and the two disorders have been shown to share psychosocial difficulties. This study used magnetoencephalography to investigate auditory processing differences for those with a high degree of a non-clinical autistic and schizotypal trait phenotype, Social Disorganisation (SD). Participants were 18 low (9 female) and 19 high (9 female) SD scorers (18-40 years) who completed a three-stimulus auditory oddball paradigm of speech sounds (standard: 100ms 'o', deviant: 150ms 'o', novel: 150ms 'e')...
November 21, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163131/task-irrelevant-novel-sounds-have-antithetical-effects-on-visual-target-processing-in-young-and-old-adults
#6
Erich S Tusch, Nicole C Feng, Phillip J Holcomb, Kirk R Daffner
In young adults, primary visual task processing can be either enhanced or disrupted by novel auditory stimuli preceding target events, depending on task demands. Little is known about this phenomenon in older individuals, who, in general, are more susceptible to distraction. In the current study, age-related differences in the electrophysiological effects of task-irrelevant auditory stimuli on visual target processing were examined. Under both low and high primary task loads, the categorization/updating process in response to visual targets preceded by auditory novels, as indexed by the target P3 component, was enhanced in young, but diminished in old adults...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147678/a-haplotype-associated-with-enhanced-mineralocorticoid-receptor-expression-facilitates-the-stress-induced-shift-from-cognitive-to-habit-learning
#7
Lisa Wirz, Martin Reuter, Jan Wacker, Andrea Felten, Lars Schwabe
Stress induces a shift from hippocampus-dependent "cognitive" toward dorsal striatum-dependent "habit" memory. However, not all individuals are susceptible to this shift under stress. Based on pharmacological studies indicating a critical role of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in the stress-induced bias toward dorsal striatal learning, we hypothesized that MR gene variants contribute to these individual differences. In two experiments, healthy participants were genotyped, exposed to a stressor or control manipulation and performed a learning task that can be solved using hippocampal or dorsal striatal systems, while electroencephalography (EEG; Experiment I) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI; Experiment II) measurements were taken...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144422/atypical-processing-of-novel-distracters-in-a-visual-oddball-task-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
Estate M Sokhadze, Eva V Lamina, Emily L Casanova, Desmond P Kelly, Ioan Opris, Irma Khachidze, Manuel F Casanova
Several studies have shown that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show abnormalities in P3b to targets in standard oddball tasks. The present study employed a three-stimulus visual oddball task with novel distracters that analyzed event-related potentials (ERP) to both target and non-target items at frontal and parietal sites. The task tested the hypothesis that children with autism are abnormally orienting attention to distracters probably due to impaired habituation to novelty. We predicted a lower selectivity in early ERPs to target, frequent non-target, and rare distracters...
November 16, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115181/it-s-not-me-it-s-you-differential-neural-processing-of-social-and-non-social-nogo-cues-in-joint-action
#9
Jutta Peterburs, Roman Liepelt, Rolf Voegler, Sebastian Ocklenburg, Thomas Straube
This EEG study used a joint flanker task to investigate differences in processing of social and non-social nogo cues, i.e., between cues indicating that a co-actor should respond and cues signaling that neither actor nor co-actor should respond, using event-related potentials (ERPs) and trial-to-trial response time (RT) effects. It was hypothesized that a social co-actor's response should be reflected in stronger modulation (slower RTs on subsequent trials; augmented neural responses) for social compared to non-social nogo...
November 8, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114210/human-novelty-response-to-emotional-animal-vocalizations-effects-of-phylogeny-and-familiarity
#10
Marina Scheumann, Anna S Hasting, Elke Zimmermann, Sonja A Kotz
Darwin (1872) postulated that emotional expressions contain universals that are retained across species. We recently showed that human rating responses were strongly affected by a listener's familiarity with vocalization types, whereas evidence for universal cross-taxa emotion recognition was limited. To disentangle the impact of evolutionarily retained mechanisms (phylogeny) and experience-driven cognitive processes (familiarity), we compared the temporal unfolding of event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to agonistic and affiliative vocalizations expressed by humans and three animal species...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112677/the-effect-of-the-high-approach-versus-low-approach-motivational-positive-affect-on-the-processing-stage-of-cognitive-control-an-event-related-potential-study
#11
Yunyun Li, Qin Zhang, Fang Liu, Lixia Cui
The present study used the event-related potentials to investigate the effect of task-irrelevant, high-approach versus low-approach motivational positive affect on proactive and reactive control, and their neural mechanisms. A cue stimulus and a probe stimulus were presented successively in each trial. Participants were required to maintain the information of the cue and respond to the probe. The results showed that high-approach positive affect reduced the amplitudes of P3b after the cue of low frequency and enlarged the amplitudes of contingent negative variation before all the probes...
November 6, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109036/the-role-of-the-p3-and-cnv-components-in-voluntary-and-automatic-temporal-orienting-a-high-spatial-resolution-erp-study
#12
Giovanni Mento
A main distinction has been proposed between voluntary and automatic mechanisms underlying temporal orienting (TO) of selective attention. Voluntary TO implies the endogenous directing of attention induced by symbolic cues. Conversely, automatic TO is exogenously instantiated by the physical properties of stimuli. A well-known example of automatic TO is sequential effects (SEs), which refer to the adjustments in participants' behavioral performance as a function of the trial-by-trial sequential distribution of the foreperiod between two stimuli...
November 9, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102707/neurophysiological-differentiation-between-preattentive-and-attentive-processing-of-emotional-expressions-on-french-vowels
#13
Mathilde Carminati, Nicole Fiori-Duharcourt, Frédéric Isel
The present electrophysiological study investigated the processing of emotional prosody by minimizing as much as possible the effect of emotional information conveyed by the lexical-semantic context. Emotionally colored French vowels (i.e., happiness, sadness, fear, and neutral) were presented in a mismatch negativity (MMN) oddball paradigm. Both the MMN, i.e., an event-related potential (ERP) component thought to reflect preattentive change detection, and the P3a, i.e., an ERP marker of involuntary orientation of attention toward deviant stimuli, were significantly modulated by the emotional deviants compared to the neutral ones...
November 2, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100795/highly-relevant-stimuli-may-passively-elicit-processes-associated-with-consciousness-during-the-sleep-onset-period
#14
Paniz Tavakoli, Sonia Varma, Kenneth Campbell
Sleep onset marks the transition from waking to sleep, during which conscious awareness of the external environmental is gradually lost. The present study examines the extent of processing of acoustic change during sleep onset. An auditory optimal paradigm was used to record event-related potentials to six deviant stimuli during wakefulness, stage N1, and stage N2 sleep. During waking and early-stage N1, two of the deviants, environmental sounds and white noise, elicited a P3a reflecting processes that may lead to conscious awareness of acoustic change...
October 31, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057924/automatic-auditory-and-somatosensory-brain-responses-in-relation-to-cognitive-abilities-and-physical-fitness-in-older-adults
#15
Juho M Strömmer, Nele Põldver, Tomi Waselius, Ville Kirjavainen, Saara Järveläinen, Sanni Björksten, Ina M Tarkka, Piia Astikainen
In normal ageing, structural and functional changes in the brain lead to an altered processing of sensory stimuli and to changes in cognitive functions. The link between changes in sensory processing and cognition is not well understood, but physical fitness is suggested to be beneficial for both. We recorded event-related potentials to somatosensory and auditory stimuli in a passive change detection paradigm from 81 older and 38 young women and investigated their associations with cognitive performance. In older adults also associations to physical fitness were studied...
October 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972891/executive-control-erp-and-pro-inflammatory-activity-in-emotionally-exhausted-middle-aged-employees-comparison-between-subclinical-burnout-and-mild-to-moderate-depression
#16
Patrick D Gajewski, Sylvia Boden, Gabriele Freude, Guy G Potter, Maren Claus, Peter Bröde, Carsten Watzl, Stephan Getzmann, Michael Falkenstein
Burnout is a syndrome occurring mainly in individuals with long-term stressful work. The main complaints are emotional exhaustion and reduced performance. Burnout also largely overlaps with depression. Both are characterized by increased incidence of infections due to dysregulation of the immune system, overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cognitive deficits, particularly related to executive functions. To distinguish between burnout and depression already at the pre-clinical stage, the present double-blinded study compared immunological and cognitive parameters in seventy-six employees from emotionally demanding occupations who were post-hoc subdivided into two groups scoring low (EE-) and high (EE+) in emotional exhaustion and low (DE-) and high (DE+) in depression...
December 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942367/laughter-catches-attention
#17
Ana P Pinheiro, Carla Barros, Marcelo Dias, Sonja A Kotz
In social interactions, emotionally salient and sudden changes in vocal expressions attract attention. However, only a few studies examined how emotion and attention interact in voice processing. We investigated neutral, happy (laughs) and angry (growls) vocalizations in a modified oddball task. Participants silently counted the targets in each block and rated the valence and arousal of the vocalizations. A combined event-related potential and time-frequency analysis focused on the P3 and pre-stimulus alpha power to capture attention effects in response to unexpected events...
December 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833760/distinct-patterns-of-discrimination-and-orienting-for-temporal-processing-of-speech-and-nonspeech-in-chinese-children-with-autism-an-event-related-potential-study
#18
Dan Huang, Luodi Yu, Xiaoyue Wang, Yuebo Fan, Suiping Wang, Yang Zhang
Although many studies have reported domain-general impaired duration perception for speech and nonspeech sounds in children with autism, it remained unclear whether this phenomenon is universally applicable regardless of language background. In some languages such as Finnish and Japanese, vowel duration serves a phonemic role that can signify semantic distinction, and in others (e.g., Mandarin Chinese), vowel duration does not carry this phonemic function. The present event-related potential study investigated neural sensitivity to duration contrasts in speech and nonspeech contexts in Mandarin-speaking children with autism and a control group of age-matched typically developing (TD) children...
August 22, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751739/distinct-brain-responses-to-different-inhibitions-evidence-from-a-modified-flanker-task
#19
Liufang Xie, Maofan Ren, Bihua Cao, Fuhong Li
Whether inhibition is a unitary or multifaceted construct is still an open question. To clarify the electrophysiological distinction among the different types of inhibition, we used a modified flanker paradigm, in which interference inhibition, rule inhibition, and response inhibition were compared to non-inhibition condition. The results indicated that, compared to the non-inhibition condition (1) the interference inhibition condition induced larger negativities during N2 epoch at the frontal region, (2) the rule inhibition condition elicited a larger N1 at the posterior region, followed by a larger P3a at the frontal region, reflecting the function of proactive cognitive control in the new stimulus-reaction (S-R) association, and (3) the response inhibition condition evoked a larger P3b at the posterior region, reflecting the process of suppressing the old response and reprogramming the new action...
July 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724323/evidence-that-disrupted-orienting-to-evaluative-social-feedback-undermines-error-correction-in-rejection-sensitive-women
#20
Jennifer A Mangels, Olta Hoxha, Sean P Lane, Shoshana N Jarvis, Geraldine Downey
For individuals high in Rejection Sensitivity (RS), a learned orientation to anxiously expect rejection from valued others, negative feedback from social sources may disrupt engagement with learning opportunities, impeding recovery from mistakes. One context in which this disruption may be particularly pronounced is among women high in RS following evaluation by a male in authority. To investigate this prediction, 40 college students (50% female) answered general knowledge questions followed by immediate performance feedback and the correct answer while we recorded event-related potentials...
August 1, 2017: Social Neuroscience
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