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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147678/a-haplotype-associated-with-enhanced-mineralocorticoid-receptor-expression-facilitates-the-stress-induced-shift-from-cognitive-to-habit-learning
#1
Lisa Wirz, Martin Reuter, Jan Wacker, Andrea Felten, Lars Schwabe
Stress induces a shift from hippocampus-dependent "cognitive" toward dorsal striatum-dependent "habit" memory. However, not all individuals are susceptible to this shift under stress. Based on pharmacological studies indicating a critical role of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in the stress-induced bias toward dorsal striatal learning, we hypothesized that MR gene variants contribute to these individual differences. In two experiments, healthy participants were genotyped, exposed to a stressor or control manipulation and performed a learning task that can be solved using hippocampal or dorsal striatal systems, while electroencephalography (EEG; Experiment I) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI; Experiment II) measurements were taken...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144422/atypical-processing-of-novel-distracters-in-a-visual-oddball-task-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#2
Estate M Sokhadze, Eva V Lamina, Emily L Casanova, Desmond P Kelly, Ioan Opris, Irma Khachidze, Manuel F Casanova
Several studies have shown that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show abnormalities in P3b to targets in standard oddball tasks. The present study employed a three-stimulus visual oddball task with novel distracters that analyzed event-related potentials (ERP) to both target and non-target items at frontal and parietal sites. The task tested the hypothesis that children with autism are abnormally orienting attention to distracters probably due to impaired habituation to novelty. We predicted a lower selectivity in early ERPs to target, frequent non-target, and rare distracters...
November 16, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115181/it-s-not-me-it-s-you-differential-neural-processing-of-social-and-non-social-nogo-cues-in-joint-action
#3
Jutta Peterburs, Roman Liepelt, Rolf Voegler, Sebastian Ocklenburg, Thomas Straube
This EEG study used a joint flanker task to investigate differences in processing of social and non-social nogo cues, i.e., between cues indicating that a co-actor should respond and cues signaling that neither actor nor co-actor should respond, using event-related potentials (ERPs) and trial-to-trial response time (RT) effects. It was hypothesized that a social co-actor's response should be reflected in stronger modulation (slower RTs on subsequent trials; augmented neural responses) for social compared to non-social nogo...
November 8, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114210/human-novelty-response-to-emotional-animal-vocalizations-effects-of-phylogeny-and-familiarity
#4
Marina Scheumann, Anna S Hasting, Elke Zimmermann, Sonja A Kotz
Darwin (1872) postulated that emotional expressions contain universals that are retained across species. We recently showed that human rating responses were strongly affected by a listener's familiarity with vocalization types, whereas evidence for universal cross-taxa emotion recognition was limited. To disentangle the impact of evolutionarily retained mechanisms (phylogeny) and experience-driven cognitive processes (familiarity), we compared the temporal unfolding of event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to agonistic and affiliative vocalizations expressed by humans and three animal species...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112677/the-effect-of-the-high-approach-versus-low-approach-motivational-positive-affect-on-the-processing-stage-of-cognitive-control-an-event-related-potential-study
#5
Yunyun Li, Qin Zhang, Fang Liu, Lixia Cui
The present study used the event-related potentials to investigate the effect of task-irrelevant, high-approach versus low-approach motivational positive affect on proactive and reactive control, and their neural mechanisms. A cue stimulus and a probe stimulus were presented successively in each trial. Participants were required to maintain the information of the cue and respond to the probe. The results showed that high-approach positive affect reduced the amplitudes of P3b after the cue of low frequency and enlarged the amplitudes of contingent negative variation before all the probes...
November 6, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109036/the-role-of-the-p3-and-cnv-components-in-voluntary-and-automatic-temporal-orienting-a-high-spatial-resolution-erp-study
#6
Giovanni Mento
A main distinction has been proposed between voluntary and automatic mechanisms underlying temporal orienting (TO) of selective attention. Voluntary TO implies the endogenous directing of attention induced by symbolic cues. Conversely, automatic TO is exogenously instantiated by the physical properties of stimuli. A well-known example of automatic TO is sequential effects (SEs), which refer to the adjustments in participants' behavioral performance as a function of the trial-by-trial sequential distribution of the foreperiod between two stimuli...
November 9, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102707/neurophysiological-differentiation-between-preattentive-and-attentive-processing-of-emotional-expressions-on-french-vowels
#7
Mathilde Carminati, Nicole Fiori-Duharcourt, Frédéric Isel
The present electrophysiological study investigated the processing of emotional prosody by minimizing as much as possible the effect of emotional information conveyed by the lexical-semantic context. Emotionally colored French vowels (i.e., happiness, sadness, fear, and neutral) were presented in a mismatch negativity (MMN) oddball paradigm. Both the MMN, i.e., an event-related potential (ERP) component thought to reflect preattentive change detection, and the P3a, i.e., an ERP marker of involuntary orientation of attention toward deviant stimuli, were significantly modulated by the emotional deviants compared to the neutral ones...
November 2, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100795/highly-relevant-stimuli-may-passively-elicit-processes-associated-with-consciousness-during-the-sleep-onset-period
#8
Paniz Tavakoli, Sonia Varma, Kenneth Campbell
Sleep onset marks the transition from waking to sleep, during which conscious awareness of the external environmental is gradually lost. The present study examines the extent of processing of acoustic change during sleep onset. An auditory optimal paradigm was used to record event-related potentials to six deviant stimuli during wakefulness, stage N1, and stage N2 sleep. During waking and early-stage N1, two of the deviants, environmental sounds and white noise, elicited a P3a reflecting processes that may lead to conscious awareness of acoustic change...
October 31, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057924/automatic-auditory-and-somatosensory-brain-responses-in-relation-to-cognitive-abilities-and-physical-fitness-in-older-adults
#9
Juho M Strömmer, Nele Põldver, Tomi Waselius, Ville Kirjavainen, Saara Järveläinen, Sanni Björksten, Ina M Tarkka, Piia Astikainen
In normal ageing, structural and functional changes in the brain lead to an altered processing of sensory stimuli and to changes in cognitive functions. The link between changes in sensory processing and cognition is not well understood, but physical fitness is suggested to be beneficial for both. We recorded event-related potentials to somatosensory and auditory stimuli in a passive change detection paradigm from 81 older and 38 young women and investigated their associations with cognitive performance. In older adults also associations to physical fitness were studied...
October 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972891/executive-control-erp-and-pro-inflammatory-activity-in-emotionally-exhausted-middle-aged-employees-comparison-between-subclinical-burnout-and-mild-to-moderate-depression
#10
Patrick D Gajewski, Sylvia Boden, Gabriele Freude, Guy G Potter, Maren Claus, Peter Bröde, Carsten Watzl, Stephan Getzmann, Michael Falkenstein
Burnout is a syndrome occurring mainly in individuals with long-term stressful work. The main complaints are emotional exhaustion and reduced performance. Burnout also largely overlaps with depression. Both are characterized by increased incidence of infections due to dysregulation of the immune system, overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cognitive deficits, particularly related to executive functions. To distinguish between burnout and depression already at the pre-clinical stage, the present double-blinded study compared immunological and cognitive parameters in seventy-six employees from emotionally demanding occupations who were post-hoc subdivided into two groups scoring low (EE-) and high (EE+) in emotional exhaustion and low (DE-) and high (DE+) in depression...
December 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942367/laughter-catches-attention
#11
Ana P Pinheiro, Carla Barros, Marcelo Dias, Sonja A Kotz
In social interactions, emotionally salient and sudden changes in vocal expressions attract attention. However, only a few studies examined how emotion and attention interact in voice processing. We investigated neutral, happy (laughs) and angry (growls) vocalizations in a modified oddball task. Participants silently counted the targets in each block and rated the valence and arousal of the vocalizations. A combined event-related potential and time-frequency analysis focused on the P3 and pre-stimulus alpha power to capture attention effects in response to unexpected events...
December 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833760/distinct-patterns-of-discrimination-and-orienting-for-temporal-processing-of-speech-and-nonspeech-in-chinese-children-with-autism-an-event-related-potential-study
#12
Dan Huang, Luodi Yu, Xiaoyue Wang, Yuebo Fan, Suiping Wang, Yang Zhang
Although many studies have reported domain-general impaired duration perception for speech and nonspeech sounds in children with autism, it remained unclear whether this phenomenon is universally applicable regardless of language background. In some languages such as Finnish and Japanese, vowel duration serves a phonemic role that can signify semantic distinction, and in others (e.g., Mandarin Chinese), vowel duration does not carry this phonemic function. The present event-related potential study investigated neural sensitivity to duration contrasts in speech and nonspeech contexts in Mandarin-speaking children with autism and a control group of age-matched typically developing (TD) children...
August 22, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751739/distinct-brain-responses-to-different-inhibitions-evidence-from-a-modified-flanker-task
#13
Liufang Xie, Maofan Ren, Bihua Cao, Fuhong Li
Whether inhibition is a unitary or multifaceted construct is still an open question. To clarify the electrophysiological distinction among the different types of inhibition, we used a modified flanker paradigm, in which interference inhibition, rule inhibition, and response inhibition were compared to non-inhibition condition. The results indicated that, compared to the non-inhibition condition (1) the interference inhibition condition induced larger negativities during N2 epoch at the frontal region, (2) the rule inhibition condition elicited a larger N1 at the posterior region, followed by a larger P3a at the frontal region, reflecting the function of proactive cognitive control in the new stimulus-reaction (S-R) association, and (3) the response inhibition condition evoked a larger P3b at the posterior region, reflecting the process of suppressing the old response and reprogramming the new action...
July 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724323/evidence-that-disrupted-orienting-to-evaluative-social-feedback-undermines-error-correction-in-rejection-sensitive-women
#14
Jennifer A Mangels, Olta Hoxha, Sean P Lane, Shoshana N Jarvis, Geraldine Downey
For individuals high in Rejection Sensitivity (RS), a learned orientation to anxiously expect rejection from valued others, negative feedback from social sources may disrupt engagement with learning opportunities, impeding recovery from mistakes. One context in which this disruption may be particularly pronounced is among women high in RS following evaluation by a male in authority. To investigate this prediction, 40 college students (50% female) answered general knowledge questions followed by immediate performance feedback and the correct answer while we recorded event-related potentials...
August 1, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715711/sustained-attention-ability-in-schizophrenia-investigation-of-conflict-monitoring-mechanisms
#15
Marc Hoonakker, Nadège Doignon-Camus, José Eduardo Marques-Carneiro, Anne Bonnefond
OBJECTIVE: The main goal of the current study was to assess, with a time-on-task approach, sustained attention ability in schizophrenia, and to investigate conflict monitoring underlying this ability. METHODS: Behavioral and event-related potentials data (N2 and P3a amplitudes) were recorded in a long-lasting sustained attention Go/NoGo task (sustained attention to response task, SART), over a period of 30min, in 29 patients with schizophrenia and 29 pair-matched healthy subjects...
September 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682830/temporal-attention-is-involved-in-the-enhancement-of-attentional-capture-with-task-difficulty-an-event-related-brain-potential-study
#16
Fumie Sugimoto, Motohiro Kimura, Yuji Takeda, Jun'ichi Katayama
In a three-stimulus oddball task, the amplitude of P3a elicited by deviant stimuli increases with an increase in the difficulty of discriminating between standard and target stimuli (i.e. task-difficulty effect on P3a), indicating that attentional capture by deviant stimuli is enhanced with an increase in task difficulty. This enhancement of attentional capture may be explained in terms of the modulation of modality-nonspecific temporal attention; that is, the participant's attention directed to the predicted timing of stimulus presentation is stronger when the task difficulty increases, which results in enhanced attentional capture...
August 16, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675491/electrocortical-components-of-anticipation-and-consumption-in-a-monetary-incentive-delay-task
#17
Douglas J Angus, Andrew J Latham, Eddie Harmon-Jones, Matthias Deliano, Bernard Balleine, David Braddon-Mitchell
In order to improve our understanding of the components that reflect functionally important processes during reward anticipation and consumption, we used principle components analyses (PCA) to separate and quantify averaged ERP data obtained from each stage of a modified monetary incentive delay (MID) task. Although a small number of recent ERP studies have reported that reward and loss cues potentiate ERPs during anticipation, action preparation, and consummatory stages of reward processing, these findings are inconsistent due to temporal and spatial overlap between the relevant electrophysiological components...
November 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639417/auditory-processing-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-mismatch-negativity-deficits
#18
Chantal Vlaskamp, Bob Oranje, Gitte Falcher Madsen, Jens Richardt Møllegaard Jepsen, Sarah Durston, Cathriona Cantio, Birte Glenthøj, Niels Bilenberg
Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often show changes in (automatic) auditory processing. Electrophysiology provides a method to study auditory processing, by investigating event-related potentials such as mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a-amplitude. However, findings on MMN in autism are highly inconsistent, partly due to small sample sizes in the studies and differences in MMN paradigms. Therefore, in the current study, MMN and P3a amplitude were assessed in a relatively large sample of children with ASD, using a more extensive MMN paradigm and compared with that of typically developing children (TDC)...
June 22, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620292/dynamic-responses-in-brain-networks-to-social-feedback-a-dual-eeg-acquisition-study-in-adolescent-couples
#19
Ching-Chang Kuo, Thao Ha, Ashley M Ebbert, Don M Tucker, Thomas J Dishion
Adolescence is a sensitive period for the development of romantic relationships. During this period the maturation of frontolimbic networks is particularly important for the capacity to regulate emotional experiences. In previous research, both functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and dense array electroencephalography (dEEG) measures have suggested that responses in limbic regions are enhanced in adolescents experiencing social rejection. In the present research, we examined social acceptance and rejection from romantic partners as they engaged in a Chatroom Interact Task...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582903/magnetic-stimulation-at-acupoints-relieves-mental-fatigue-an-event-related-potential-p300-study
#20
Shuo Yang, Yanyun Qiao, Lei Wang, Pengru Hao
BACKGROUND: Mental fatigue caused by continuous cognitive tasks represents one of the most worrying modern health problems. Event Related Potential (ERP) P300 is thought to be associated with cognitive function. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at characterizing the neural activity correlated with the attentional processes and exploring a novelty method which combine the magnetic stimulation and acupoint to relieve mental fatigue caused by continuous cognitive tasks...
July 20, 2017: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
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