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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410866/backward-masking-interrupts-spatial-attention-slows-downstream-processing-and-limits-conscious-perception
#1
Talia Losier, Christine Lefebvre, Mattia Doro, Roberto Dell'Acqua, Pierre Jolicœur
The attentional blink (AB) is a difficulty in correctly processing a target when it follows one or more other targets after a short delay. When no backward mask is presented after the last critical target, there is no or little behavioral AB deficit. The mask plays an important role in limiting conscious access to target information. In this electrophysiological study, we tested the impact of masking on the deployment and engagement of attention by measuring the N2pc and P3 components in an RSVP paradigm. We found that the presence of a mask in an AB paradigm reduced the amplitude of the N2pc, P3a, and P3b components...
April 11, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389366/musical-rhythm-and-pitch-a-differential-effect-on-auditory-dynamics-as-revealed-by-the-n1-mmn-p3a-complex
#2
E Sebastian Lelo-de-Larrea-Mancera, Yaneth Rodríguez-Agudelo, Rodolfo Solís-Vivanco
Music represents a complex form of human cognition. To what extent our auditory system is attuned to music is yet to be clearly understood. Our principal aim was to determine whether the neurophysiological operations underlying pre-attentive auditory change detection (N1 enhancement (N1e)/Mismatch Negativity (MMN)) and the subsequent involuntary attentional reallocation (P3a) towards infrequent sound omissions, are influenced by differences in musical content. Specifically, we intended to explore any interaction effects that rhythmic and pitch dimensions of musical organization may have over these processes...
April 4, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389250/significance-and-novelty-effects-in-single-trial-erp-components-and-autonomic-responses
#3
Brett MacDonald, Robert J Barry
The phasic orienting reflex (OR) was investigated in two counterbalanced blocks of an auditory dishabituation paradigm differing in stimulus Significance (operationalised as tone counting). Twelve tones were presented at very long, randomly-varying interstimulus intervals (ISIs). Novelty and Significance were varied within subjects. Stimulus-response patterns were assessed to find ERP matches for autonomic measures. The phasic OR index was represented by the skin conductance response (SCR). SCR decremented over 10 standard trials, showed recovery on trial 11 (change trial), enhancement to re-presentation of the standard tone (trial 12: dishabituation), and a main effect of Significance over the first 10 trials - demonstrating the formal criteria for an OR index...
April 4, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377160/increased-visual-task-difficulty-enhances-attentional-capture-by-both-visual-and-auditory-distractor-stimuli
#4
Fumie Sugimoto, Jun'ichi Katayama
Previous studies using a three-stimulus oddball task have shown the amplitude of P3a elicited by distractor stimuli increases when perceptual discrimination between standard and target stimuli becomes difficult. This means that the attentional capture by the distractor stimuli is enhanced along with an increase in task difficulty. So far, the increase of P3a has been reported when standard, target, and distractor stimuli were presented within one sensory modality (i.e., visual or auditory). In the present study, we further investigated whether or not the increase of P3a can also be observed when the distractor stimuli are presented in a different modality from the standard and target stimuli...
April 1, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330077/diversity-and-antagonistic-potential-of-marine-microbes-collected-from-south-west-coast-of-india
#5
S Sinimol, A R Sarika, A Jayakumaran Nair
The diversity of some of the culturable microorganisms associated with marine flora and fauna collected off Vizhinjam and Mulloor coast of South India was evaluated and their bioactive production potential determined. From a total of 24 bacteria, 4 actinomycetes and 8 fungi isolated from diverse marine sources, five bacterial species-BLM3, BSP2, BCS1, BCS4 and BMA6 showed inhibitory activity against at least one of the tested pathogens viz., Klebsiella pneumonia KU1, Pseudomonas aeruginosa VL3, Salmonella enterica typhimurium MTCC 98, Escherichia coli MTCC 40, Micrococcus luteus MTCC 105, Staphylococcus simulans MTCC 3610, Proteus vulgaris MTCC 426, Vibrio fluvialis, Vibrio sp...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322986/differentiating-motivational-from-affective-influence-of-performance-contingent-reward-on-cognitive-control-the-wanting-component-enhances-both-proactive-and-reactive-control
#6
Anne-Clémence Chaillou, Anne Giersch, Marc Hoonakker, Rémi L Capa, Anne Bonnefond
Positive affect strongly modulates goal-directed behaviors and cognitive control mechanisms. It often results from the presence of a pleasant stimulus in the environment, whether that stimulus appears unpredictably or as a consequence of a particular behavior. The influence of positive affect linked to a random pleasant stimulus differs from the influence of positive affect resulting from performance-contingent pleasant stimuli. However, the mechanisms by which the performance contingency of pleasant stimuli modulates the influence of positive affect on cognitive control mechanisms have not been elucidated...
March 18, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289380/variation-in-event-related-potentials-by-state-transitions
#7
Hiroshi Higashi, Tetsuto Minami, Shigeki Nakauchi
The probability of an event's occurrence affects event-related potentials (ERPs) on electroencephalograms. The relation between probability and potentials has been discussed by using a quantity called surprise that represents the self-information that humans receive from the event. Previous studies have estimated surprise based on the probability distribution in a stationary state. Our hypothesis is that state transitions also play an important role in the estimation of surprise. In this study, we compare the effects of surprise on the ERPs based on two models that generate an event sequence: a model of a stationary state and a model with state transitions...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278202/sequential-search-asymmetry-behavioral-and-psychophysiological-evidence-from-a-dual-oddball-task
#8
Elizabeth G Blundon, Samuel P Rumak, Lawrence M Ward
We conducted five experiments in order to explore the generalizability of a new type of search asymmetry, which we have termed sequential search asymmetry, across sensory modalities, and to better understand its origin. In all five experiments rare oddballs occurred randomly within longer sequences of more frequent standards. Oddballs and standards all consisted of rapidly-presented runs of five pure tones (Experiments 1 and 5) or five colored annuli (Experiments 2 through 4) somewhat analogous to simultaneously-presented feature-present and feature-absent stimuli in typical visual search tasks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187217/electrophysiological-cognitive-and-clinical-profiles-of-at-risk-mental-state-the-longitudinal-minds-in-transition-mint-study
#9
Rebbekah J Atkinson, W Ross Fulham, Patricia T Michie, Philip B Ward, Juanita Todd, Helen Stain, Robyn Langdon, Renate Thienel, Georgie Paulik, Gavin Cooper, Ulrich Schall
The onset of schizophrenia is typically preceded by a prodromal period lasting several years during which sub-threshold symptoms may be identified retrospectively. Clinical interviews are currently used to identify individuals who have an ultra-high risk (UHR) of developing a psychotic illness with a view to provision of interventions that prevent, delay or reduce severity of future mental health issues. The utility of bio-markers as an adjunct in the identification of UHR individuals is not yet established...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187205/an-event-related-potential-study-of-ihibitory-and-attentional-control-in-williams-syndrome-adults
#10
Joanna M H Greer, Colin Hamilton, Mhairi E G McMullon, Deborah M Riby, Leigh M Riby
The primary aim of the current study was to employ event-related potentials (ERPs) methodology to disentangle the mechanisms related to inhibitory control in older adults with Williams syndrome (WS). Eleven older adults with WS (mean age 42), 16 typically developing adults (mean age 42) and 13 typically developing children (mean age 12) participated in the study. ERPs were recorded during a three-stimulus visual oddball task, during which participants were required to make a response to a rare target stimulus embedded in a train of frequent non-target stimuli...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160746/selective-attentional-impairment-in-chronic-tinnitus-evidence-from-an-event-related-potentials-study
#11
Daniela Mannarelli, Caterina Pauletti, Patrizia Mancini, Alessandra Fioretti, Antonio Greco, Marco De Vincentiis, Francesco Fattapposta
OBJECTIVE: Tinnitus is an auditory phantom sensation experienced in the absence of a sound source. Cognitive dysfunctions, especially in working memory and attention, are frequently reported to be associated with tinnitus. The aim of this study was to investigate attentional functioning in a group of subjects with chronic tinnitus using ERPs, and in particular the P300 components. METHODS: We studied 20 patients with chronic tinnitus and 20 healthy subjects that performed a P300 Novelty task...
March 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108415/how-does-mindfulness-modulate-self-regulation-in-pre-adolescent-children-an-integrative-neurocognitive-review
#12
REVIEW
Rebekah Jane Kaunhoven, Dusana Dorjee
Pre-adolescence is a key developmental period in which complex intrinsic volitional methods of self-regulation are acquired as a result of rapid maturation within the brain networks underlying the self-regulatory processes of attention control and emotion regulation. Fostering adaptive self-regulation skills during this stage of development has strong implications for physical health, emotional and socio-economic outcomes during adulthood. There is a growing interest in mindfulness-based programmes for pre-adolescents with initial findings suggesting self-regulation improvements, however, neurodevelopmental studies on mindfulness with pre-adolescents are scarce...
January 17, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072465/splicing-regulation-and-dysregulation-of-cholinergic-genes-expressed-at-the-neuromuscular-junction
#13
REVIEW
Kinji Ohno, Mohammad Alinoor Rahman, Mohammad Nazim, Farhana Nasrin, Yingni Lin, Jun-Ichi Takeda, Akio Masuda
We humans have evolved by acquiring diversity of alternative RNA metabolisms including alternative means of splicing and transcribing non-coding genes, and not by acquiring new coding genes. Tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific alternative RNA splicing is achieved by tightly regulated spatiotemporal regulation of expressions and activations of RNA-binding proteins that recognize their cognate splicing cis-elements on nascent RNA transcripts. Genes expressed at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) are also alternatively spliced...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043881/simultaneously-evoked-auditory-potentials-seap-a-new-method-for-concurrent-measurement-of-cortical-and-subcortical-auditory-evoked-activity
#14
Christopher Slugocki, Daniel Bosnyak, Laurel J Trainor
Recent electrophysiological work has evinced a capacity for plasticity in subcortical auditory nuclei in human listeners. Similar plastic effects have been measured in cortically-generated auditory potentials but it is unclear how the two interact. Here we present Simultaneously-Evoked Auditory Potentials (SEAP), a method designed to concurrently elicit electrophysiological brain potentials from inferior colliculus, thalamus, and primary and secondary auditory cortices. Twenty-six normal-hearing adult subjects (mean 19...
December 31, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940303/neural-representation-of-a-melodic-motif-effects-of-polyphonic-contexts
#15
Madeline Huberth, Takako Fujioka
In music, a melodic motif is often played repeatedly in different pitch ranges and at different times. Event-related potential (ERP) studies have shown that the mismatch negativity (MMN) reflects memory trace processing that encodes two separate melodic lines ("voices") with different motifs. Here we investigated whether a single motif presented in two voices is encoded as a single entity or two separate entities, and whether motifs overlapping in time impede or enhance encoding strength. Electroencephalogram (EEG) from 11 musically-trained participants was recorded while they passively listened to sequences of 5-note motifs where the 5th note either descended (standard) or ascended (deviant) relative to the previous note (20% deviant rate)...
February 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926742/modeling-deficits-from-early-auditory-information-processing-to-psychosocial-functioning-in-schizophrenia
#16
Michael L Thomas, Michael F Green, Gerhard Hellemann, Catherine A Sugar, Melissa Tarasenko, Monica E Calkins, Tiffany A Greenwood, Raquel E Gur, Ruben C Gur, Laura C Lazzeroni, Keith H Nuechterlein, Allen D Radant, Larry J Seidman, Alexandra L Shiluk, Larry J Siever, Jeremy M Silverman, Joyce Sprock, William S Stone, Neal R Swerdlow, Debby W Tsuang, Ming T Tsuang, Bruce I Turetsky, David L Braff, Gregory A Light
Importance: Neurophysiologic measures of early auditory information processing (EAP) are used as endophenotypes in genomic studies and biomarkers in clinical intervention studies. Research in schizophrenia has established correlations among measures of EAP, cognition, clinical symptoms, and functional outcome. Clarifying these associations by determining the pathways through which deficits in EAP affect functioning would suggest when and where to therapeutically intervene. Objectives: To characterize the pathways from EAP to outcome and to estimate the extent to which enhancement of basic information processing might improve cognition and psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia...
January 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896469/ct-evaluation-after-neoadjuvant-folfirinox-chemotherapy-for-borderline-and-locally-advanced-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma
#17
Mathilde Wagner, Celia Antunes, Daniel Pietrasz, Christophe Cassinotto, Magaly Zappa, Antonio Sa Cunha, Oliver Lucidarme, Jean-Baptiste Bachet
AIM: To assess anatomic changes on computed tomography (CT) after neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX (5-fluorouracil/leucovorin/irinotecan/oxaliplatin) chemotherapy for secondary resected borderline resectable (BR) and locally advanced (LA) pancreatic adenocarcinoma and their accuracy to predict resectability and pathological response. METHODS: Thirty-six patients with secondary resected BR/LA pancreatic adenocarcinoma after neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX chemotherapy (± chemoradiotherapy) were retrospectively included...
November 28, 2016: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895445/amblyopic-related-frontal-changes-in-an-orientation-discrimination-task-a-research-of-p3a-event-related-potentials-in-anisometropic-amblyopia
#18
J Zhao, X B Yang, J L Wang, S J Wang, R Gong, Z Zheng, L Q Liu
BACKGROUND: Amblyopic deficits in the primary and secondary visual cortex have been demonstrated broadly. However, the cognitive process at late stage originating in higher brain area in amblyopes hasn't been studied yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the late cognitive process at the frontal lobe in anisometropic amblyopes of a distinct degree, using visual event-related potential (ERP) techniques. METHODS: Thirteen severe anisometropic amblyopes, 14 mild-to-moderate anisometropic amblyopes, and 13 control subjects participated in this study...
January 2016: Hippokratia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877122/changes-in-neural-activity-underlying-working-memory-after-computerized-cognitive-training-in-older-adults
#19
Erich S Tusch, Brittany R Alperin, Eliza Ryan, Phillip J Holcomb, Abdul H Mohammed, Kirk R Daffner
Computerized cognitive training (CCT) may counter the impact of aging on cognition, but both the efficacy and neurocognitive mechanisms underlying CCT remain controversial. In this study, 35 older individuals were randomly assigned to Cogmed adaptive working memory (WM) CCT or an active control CCT, featuring five weeks of five ∼40 min sessions per week. Before and after the 5-week intervention, event-related potentials were measured while subjects completed a visual n-back task with three levels of demand (0-back, 1-back, 2-back)...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867100/the-independent-influence-of-concussive-and-sub-concussive-impacts-on-soccer-players-neurophysiological-and-neuropsychological-function
#20
R Davis Moore, Julien Lepine, Dave Ellemberg
Accumulating research demonstrates that repetitive sub-concussive impacts can alter the structure, function and connectivity of the brain. However, the functional significance of these alterations as well as the independent contribution of concussive and sub-concussive impacts to neurophysiological and neuropsychological health are unclear. Accordingly, we compared the neurophysiological and neuropsychological function of contact athletes with (concussion group) and without (sub-concussion group) a history of concussion, to non-contact athletes...
February 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
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