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Nobuyoshi Iwaki, Saeko Tanaka
False memories endorsed with higher confidence are more likely to be corrected by feedback than those endorsed with lower confidence (hypercorrection effect). Errors made with high confidence and correct responses made with low confidence are both associated with large meta-memory mismatches. Therefore, they both represent a type of unexpected event which automatically captures participant attention, such that correct information provided via feedback is well-encoded. On the other hand, a study that measured participants' perceived practical value for items suggested that voluntary allocation of attention might involve the hypercorrection effect...
May 9, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Jörg Lewald, Michael-Christian Schlüter, Stephan Getzmann
Neural mechanisms of selectively attending to a sound source of interest in a simulated "cocktail-party" situation, composed of multiple competing sources, were investigated using event-related potentials in combination with a spatial oddball design. Subjects either detected rare spatial deviants in a series of standard sounds or passively listened. Targets either appeared in isolation or in the presence of two distractor sound sources at different locations ("cocktail-party" condition)...
April 27, 2018: Hearing Research
Cassandra J Lowe, William R Staines, Felicia Mannochio, Peter A Hall
Regulation of food cravings is thought to be critical for modulating eating behavior, yet we do not fully understand the mechanisms by which cognitive control operates in the eating context. The current study combined rTMS and EEG paradigms to examine the causal role of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) in modulating visceral and behavioral responses to high calorie foods, and the mediational mechanisms underlying this relation. 28 right-handed female participants received both active and sham continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS; a rTMS variant used to decrease cortical activity) targeting the left dlPFC in a counterbalanced order...
May 6, 2018: NeuroImage
Judith Charpentier, Klara Kovarski, Sylvie Roux, Emmanuelle Houy-Durand, Agathe Saby, Frédérique Bonnet-Brilhault, Marianne Latinus, Marie Gomot
Voices transmit social signals through speech and/or prosody. Emotional prosody conveys key information about the emotional state of a speaker and is thus a crucial cue that one has to detect in order to develop efficient social communication. Previous studies in adults reported different brain responses to emotional than to neutral prosodic deviancy. The aim of this study was to characterize such specific emotional deviancy effects in school-age children. The mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a evoked potentials, reflecting automatic change detection and automatic attention orienting, respectively, were obtained for neutral and emotional angry deviants in both school-age children (n = 26) and adults (n = 14)...
May 7, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Anne-Clémence Chailloua, Anne Giersch, Marc Hoonakker, Rémi L Capa, Nadège Doignon-Camus, Bich-Thuy Pham, Anne Bonnefond
If it can be assumed that positive affect modulates cognitive control, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The main aim of this study was to investigate how positive affect influences proactive and reactive modes of control and to explore the temporal dynamic of this influence, in terms of its transient and/or sustained effects. We used the AX-continuous performance task, combined with event-related potentials (ERP) recording. The results showed that positive affect impaired proactive control. More specifically, response preparation was weaker, as highlighted by a decreased contingent negative variation (CNV), prior to the target...
April 24, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Robert Wirth, Robert Steinhauser, Markus Janczyk, Marco Steinhauser, Wilfried Kunde
People aim to produce effects in the environment, and according to ideomotor theory, actions are selected and executed via anticipations of their effects. Further, to ensure that an action has been successful and an effect has been realized, we must be able to monitor the consequences of our actions. However, action-effect links might vary between situations, some might apply for a majority of situations, while others might only apply to special occasions. With a combination of behavioral and electrophysiological markers, we show that monitoring of self-produced action effects interferes with other tasks, and that the length of effect monitoring is determined by both, long-term action-effect links that hold for most situations, and short-term action-effect links that emerge from a current setting...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Xiao-Yan Zhang, Tian-Yu Zhao, Yuan-Yuan Li, Hai-Ying Xiang, Shu-Wei Dong, Zong-Ying Zhang, Ying Wang, Da-Wei Li, Jia-Lin Yu, Cheng-Gui Han
ORF3a, a newly identified non-AUG-initiated ORF encoded by members of genera Polerovirus and Luteovirus , is required for long-distance movement in plants. However, the mechanism of action of P3a in viral systemic movement is still not clear. In this study, sequencing of a brassica yellows virus (BrYV) mutant defective in systemic infection revealed two-nucleotide variation at positions 3406 and 3467 in the genome. Subsequent nucleotide substitution analysis proved that only the non-synonymous substitution (C→U) at position 3406, resulting in P3aP18L , abolished the systemic infection of BrYV...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yan H Yu, Valerie L Shafer, Elyse S Sussman
Speech perception behavioral research suggests that rates of sensory memory decay are dependent on stimulus properties at more than one level (e.g., acoustic level, phonemic level). The neurophysiology of sensory memory decay rate has rarely been examined in the context of speech processing. In a lexical tone study, we showed that long-term memory representation of lexical tone slows the decay rate of sensory memory for these tones. Here, we tested the hypothesis that long-term memory representation of vowels slows the rate of auditory sensory memory decay in a similar way to that of lexical tone...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Paniz Tavakoli, Addo Boafo, Allyson Dale, Rebecca Robillard, Stephanie L Greenham, Kenneth Campbell
Impaired executive functions, modulated by the frontal lobes, have been suggested to be associated with suicidal behavior. The present study examines one of these executive functions, attentional control, maintaining attention to the task-at-hand. A group of inpatient adolescents with acute suicidal behavior and healthy controls were studied using a passively presented auditory optimal paradigm. This "optimal" paradigm consisted of a series of frequently presented homogenous pure tone "standards" and different "deviants," constructed by changing one or more features of the standard...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Timm Rosburg, Michael Weigl, Ronja Thiel, Ralph Mager
Mismatch negativity (MMN) represents an event-related potential (ERP) component which is elicited by deviant sound events in an otherwise regular, repetitive stimulation. The MMN amplitude typically decreases when two identical deviants are presented in direct succession, but it remains stable when the two deviants vary from the standard in different features. Less is known about such repetition effects on another ERP component, the P3a, which usually follows the MMN. In the current study, we investigated how the P3a was affected by identical and non-identical repetitions of sound deviants...
March 22, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Stefano Lasaponara, Marianna D'Onofrio, Mario Pinto, Alessio Dragone, Dario Menicagli, Domenica Bueti, Marzia De Lucia, Francesco Tomaiuolo, Fabrizio Doricchi
Studies with Event Related Potentials (ERPs) have highlighted deficits in the early phases of orienting to left visual targets in right-brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect (N+). However, brain responses associated with preparatory orienting of attention, with target novelty and with the detection of a match/mismatch between expected and actual targets (contextual updating), have not been explored in N+. Here in a study in healthy humans and brain damaged patients of both sexes we demonstrate that frontal activity that reflects supra-modal mechanisms of attentional orienting (ADAN) is entirely spared in N+...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Morgwn Paris, Yatin Mahajan, Jeesun Kim, Tanya Meade
BACKGROUND: Deficits in emotional prosody processing have been observed in bipolar disorder (BD). While recent neural studies have explored impaired processing of facial expressions, little is known about deficits in emotional speech processing, or the specific stages of processing at which they occur. This study examined if pre-attentive detection and attention to emotional speech is impaired in BD, relative to healthy individuals. METHODS: The EEG data was collected from 14 individuals with BD and 14 healthy control (HC) participants while the auditory stimuli was presented via a passive three-stimulus oddball sequence which included emotionally (neutral, happy, sad) spoken syllables and acoustically matched nonvocal tones...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Caitlin M Hudac, Trent D DesChamps, Anne B Arnett, Brianna E Cairney, Ruqian Ma, Sara Jane Webb, Raphael A Bernier
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit difficulties processing and encoding sensory information in daily life. Cognitive response to environmental change in control individuals is naturally dynamic, meaning it habituates or reduces over time as one becomes accustomed to the deviance. The origin of atypical response to deviance in ASD may relate to differences in this dynamic habituation. The current study of 133 children and young adults with and without ASD examined classic electrophysiological responses (MMN and P3a), as well as temporal patterns of habituation (i...
March 15, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Sarah K Mesrobian, Alessandro E P Villa, Michel Bader, Lorenz Götte, Alessandra Lintas
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by deficits in executive functions and decision making during childhood and adolescence. Contradictory results exist whether altered event-related potentials (ERPs) in adults are associated with the tendency of ADHD patients toward risky behavior. Clinically diagnosed ADHD patients ( n = 18) and healthy controls ( n = 18), aged between 18 and 29 (median 22 Yo), were screened with the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales and assessed by the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, and by the 60-item HEXACO Personality Inventory...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Daniela Mannarelli, Caterina Pauletti, Tommaso Accinni, Luca Carlone, Marianna Frascarelli, Guido Maria Lattanzi, Antonio Currà, Francesco Fattapposta
The 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), or DiGeorge syndrome (DG), is one of the most common genetic deletion syndromes. DG also carries a high risk for psychiatric disorders, with learning disabilities frequently being reported. Impairments in specific cognitive domains, such as executive functioning and attention, have also been described. The aim of this study was to investigate attentional functioning in a group of subjects with DG using ERPs, and in particular the P300 and CNV components. We studied ten patients with DG and ten healthy subjects that performed a P300 Novelty task and a CNV motor task...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Derek J Fisher, Debra J Campbell, Shelagh C Abriel, Emma M L Ells, Erica D Rudolph, Philip G Tibbo
The mismatch negativity (MMN) is an EEG-derived event-related potential (ERP) elicited by any violation of a predicted auditory "rule," regardless of whether one is attending to the stimuli and is thought to reflect updating of the stimulus context. Redirection of attention toward a rare, distracting stimulus event, however, can be measured by the subsequent P3a component of the P300. Chronic schizophrenia patients exhibit robust MMN deficits, as well as reductions in P3a amplitude. While, the substantial literature on the MMN in first-episode and early phase schizophrenia in this population reports reduced amplitudes, there also exist several contradictory studies...
March 1, 2018: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
Robert West, Kira Bailey, Stephen Anderson
Feedback processing represents a fundamental component of adaptive decision-making. Extensive research using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) has explored the medial frontal feedback negativity (FN), P3a, and P3b components in the context of feedback processing. Additionally, recent studies examining the neural correlates of feedback processing in a gambling task revealed transient and sustained ERP activity over the lateral frontal and posterior regions of the scalp. Consistent with the neuroimaging literature, source analysis has localized this ERP activity to the lateral and medial frontal cortex, as well as the temporal-occipital and medial occipital cortices...
April 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Kenia S Correa-Jaraba, Mónica Lindín, Fernando Díaz
The event-related potential (ERP) technique has been shown to be useful for evaluating changes in brain electrical activity associated with different cognitive processes, particularly in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Longitudinal studies have shown that a high proportion of people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) go on to develop AD. aMCI is divided into two subtypes according to the presence of memory impairment only (single-domain aMCI: sdaMCI) or impairment of memory and other cognitive domains (multi-domain aMCI: mdaMCI)...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Marius Frenken, Stefan Berti
Working memory enables humans to maintain selected information for cognitive processes and ensures instant access to the memorized contents. Theories suggest that switching the focus of attention between items within working memory realizes the access. This is reflected in object-switching costs in response times when the item for the task processing is to be changed. Another correlate of attentional allocation in working memory is the P3a-component of the human event-related potential. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that switching of attention within working memory is a separable processing step...
April 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Rebecca J Houston, Nicolas J Schlienz
Substance use disorders (SUDs) are one of the most prevalent psychiatric conditions and represent a significant public health concern. Substantial research has identified key processes related to reinforcement and cognition for the development and maintenance of SUDs, and these processes represent viable treatment targets for psychosocial and pharmacological interventions. Research on SUD treatments has suggested that most approaches are comparable in effectiveness. As a result, recent work has focused on delineating the underlying mechanisms of behavior change that drive SUD treatment outcome...
January 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
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