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Mathilde Wagner, Celia Antunes, Daniel Pietrasz, Christophe Cassinotto, Magaly Zappa, Antonio Sa Cunha, Oliver Lucidarme, Jean-Baptiste Bachet
AIM: To assess anatomic changes on computed tomography (CT) after neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX (5-fluorouracil/leucovorin/irinotecan/oxaliplatin) chemotherapy for secondary resected borderline resectable (BR) and locally advanced (LA) pancreatic adenocarcinoma and their accuracy to predict resectability and pathological response. METHODS: Thirty-six patients with secondary resected BR/LA pancreatic adenocarcinoma after neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX chemotherapy (± chemoradiotherapy) were retrospectively included...
November 28, 2016: European Radiology
J Zhao, X B Yang, J L Wang, S J Wang, R Gong, Z Zheng, L Q Liu
BACKGROUND: Amblyopic deficits in the primary and secondary visual cortex have been demonstrated broadly. However, the cognitive process at late stage originating in higher brain area in amblyopes hasn't been studied yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the late cognitive process at the frontal lobe in anisometropic amblyopes of a distinct degree, using visual event-related potential (ERP) techniques. METHODS: Thirteen severe anisometropic amblyopes, 14 mild-to-moderate anisometropic amblyopes, and 13 control subjects participated in this study...
January 2016: Hippokratia
Erich S Tusch, Brittany R Alperin, Eliza Ryan, Phillip J Holcomb, Abdul H Mohammed, Kirk R Daffner
Computerized cognitive training (CCT) may counter the impact of aging on cognition, but both the efficacy and neurocognitive mechanisms underlying CCT remain controversial. In this study, 35 older individuals were randomly assigned to Cogmed adaptive working memory (WM) CCT or an active control CCT, featuring five weeks of five ∼40 min sessions per week. Before and after the 5-week intervention, event-related potentials were measured while subjects completed a visual n-back task with three levels of demand (0-back, 1-back, 2-back)...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
R Davis Moore, Julien Lepine, Dave Ellemberg
Accumulating research demonstrates that repetitive sub-concussive impacts can alter the structure, function and connectivity of the brain. However, the functional significance of these alterations as well as the independent contribution of concussive and sub-concussive impacts to neurophysiological and neuropsychological health are unclear. Accordingly, we compared the neurophysiological and neuropsychological function of contact athletes with (concussion group) and without (sub-concussion group) a history of concussion, to non-contact athletes...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
J Rydkjær, J R Møllegaard Jepsen, A K Pagsberg, B Fagerlund, B Y Glenthøj, B Oranje
BACKGROUND: Deficient mismatch negativity (MMN) has been proposed as a candidate biomarker in schizophrenia and may therefore be potentially useful in early identification and intervention in early onset psychosis. In this study we explored whether deficits in the automatic orienting and reorienting responses, measured as MMN and P3a amplitude, are present in young adolescents with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and whether findings are specific to psychosis compared to young adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
October 25, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Dandan Zhang, Yunzhe Liu, Lili Wang, Hui Ai, Yuejia Luo
Appropriately attending to threatening environmental stimuli is evolutionarily adaptive and crucial for survival. This study revealed that nonconscious attentional modulation of disgust has different behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) patterns, as compared to fear and anger. To facilitate its evolutionary purpose of avoidance, disgust first diverts rather than attracts attention. Accordingly, the N1 was smaller in a validly than in an invalidly disgust-cued condition. Furthermore, the frontal P3a for disgust, anger, and fear was found to be larger in the valid than in the invalid condition, which was interpreted as an involuntary switching of attention toward threat-related events to mobilize cognitive resources for action or defense...
October 19, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Antonio Arjona Valladares, Jaime Gómez González, Carlos M Gómez
The present study tries to analyze the neural basis of the so-called "Inter-trial Validity-Invalidity Effects" by means of Event-Related Potentials. The N1, P2, P3a and P3b components were examined. The aim is to show the sequential effects on Event-Related Potentials by analyzing the effect of previous trial condition (n-1) in the processing of current trial target (n). Event-Related Potentials results indicate that the N1 and P2 components show higher negativity in valid trials preceded by invalid trials with respect to valid trials preceded by valid trials, elicited by the so-called "Processing Negativity"...
October 3, 2016: Neuroscience Research
Stephan Getzmann, Edmund Wascher
Older adults are usually more easily distracted by task-irrelevant stimuli than younger ones. In addition, there is evidence that it takes them more time to overcome a distracting event. Here, the distracting effect of irregular switches in speaker location was studied in 22 younger and 22 older adults in a speech perception task. The participants responded to target words that were presented either from a frequent location (standard trials) or a rare location (deviant trials). Behavioral performance measures, event-related brain potentials (ERPs), and EEG synchronization (intertrial coherence [ITC]) were analyzed...
October 6, 2016: Psychology and Aging
Elisa Schröder, Hendrik Kajosch, Paul Verbanck, Charles Kornreich, Salvatore Campanella
Event-related potentials (ERPs) bimodal oddball task has disclosed increased sensitivity to show P300 modulations to subclinical symptoms. Even if the utility of such a procedure has still to be confirmed at a clinical level, gathering normative values of this new oddball variant may be of the greatest interest. We specifically addressed the challenge of defining the best location for the recording of P3a and P3b components and selecting the best reference to use by investigating the effect of an offline re-reference procedure on recorded bimodal P3a and P3b...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Igor Demchenko, Reuven Katz, Hillel Pratt, Miriam Zacksenhouse
Discrepancies between actual and appropriate motor commands, dubbed low-level errors, have been shown to elicit a P300 like component. P300 has been studied extensively in cognitive tasks using, in particular, the three-stimulus oddball paradigm. This paradigm revealed two sub-components, known as P3a and P3b, whose relative contributions depend on saliency and task-relevance, respectively. However, the existence and roles of these sub-components in response to low-level errors are poorly understood. Here we investigated responses to low level errors generated by disturbances - including target and cursor jumps, versus responses to distractors, i...
September 28, 2016: Brain Research
Florian Lange, Caroline Seer, Sebastian Loens, Florian Wegner, Christoph Schrader, Dirk Dressler, Reinhard Dengler, Bruno Kopp
Cognitive inflexibility is a hallmark of executive dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD). This deficit consistently manifests itself in a PD-related increase in the number of perseverative errors committed on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). However, the neural processes underlying perseverative WCST performance in PD are still largely unknown. The present study is the first to investigate the event-related potential (ERP) correlates of cognitive inflexibility on the WCST in PD patients. Thirty-two PD patients and 35 matched control participants completed a computerized version of the WCST while the electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded...
September 28, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Britta Biedermann, Peter de Lissa, Yatin Mahajan, Vince Polito, Nicolas Badcock, Michael H Connors, Lena Quinto, Linda Larsen, Genevieve McArthur
The findings of a study by Cahn and Polich (2009) suggests that there is an effect of a meditative state on three event-related potential (ERP) brain markers of "low-level" auditory attention (i.e., acoustic representations in sensory memory) in expert meditators: the N1, the P2, and the P3a. The current study built on these findings by examining trait and state effects of meditation on the passive auditory mismatch negativity (MMN), N1, and P2 ERPs. We found that the MMN was significantly larger in meditators than non-meditators regardless of whether they were meditating or not (a trait effect), and that N1 amplitude was significantly attenuated during meditation in non-meditators but not expert meditators (an interaction between trait and state)...
September 28, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Varghese Peter, Marina Kalashnikova, Aimee Santos, Denis Burnham
Infant directed speech (IDS), the speech register adults use when talking to infants, has been shown to have positive effects on attracting infants' attention, language learning, and emotional communication. Here event related potentials (ERPs) are used to investigate the neural coding of IDS and ADS (adult directed speech) as well as their discrimination by both infants and adults. Two instances of the vowel /i/, one extracted from ADS and one from IDS, were presented to 9-month-old infants and adults in two oddball conditions: ADS standard/IDS deviant and IDS standard/ADS deviant...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Nicole R Karcher, Bruce D Bartholow, Elizabeth A Martin, John G Kerns
Both positive psychotic symptoms and anhedonia are associated with striatal functioning, but few studies have linked risk for psychotic disorders to a neural measure evoked during a striatal dopamine-related reward and punishment-based learning task, such as a reversal learning task (RLT; Cools et al, 2009). The feedback-related negativity (FRN) is a neural response that in part reflects striatal dopamine functioning. We recorded EEG during the RLT in three groups: (a) people with psychotic experiences (PE; n=20) at increased risk for psychotic disorders; (b) people with extremely elevated social anhedonia (SocAnh; n=22); and (c) controls (n=20)...
October 12, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Sari Ylinen, Milla Huuskonen, Katri Mikkola, Emma Saure, Tara Sinkkonen, Petri Paavilainen
The brain is constantly generating predictions of future sensory input to enable efficient adaptation. In the auditory domain, this applies also to the processing of speech. Here we aimed to determine whether the brain predicts the following segments of speech input on the basis of language-specific phonological rules that concern non-adjacent phonemes. Auditory event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded in a mismatch negativity (MMN) paradigm, where the Finnish vowel harmony, determined by the first syllables of pseudowords, either constrained or did not constrain the phonological composition of pseudoword endings...
August 30, 2016: Brain and Language
Estate M Sokhadze, Manuel F Casanova, Allan Tasman, Sally Brockett
Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder of childhood characterized by deficits in social interaction, language, and stereotyped behaviors along with a restricted range of interests. It is further marked by an inability to perceive and respond to social and emotional signals in a typical manner. This might due to the functional disconnectivity of networks important for specific aspects of social cognition and behavioral control resulting in deficits of sensory information integration. According to several recent theories sensory processing and integration abnormalities may play an important role in impairments of perception, cognition, and behavior in individuals with autism...
August 29, 2016: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
Aparna Rao, Dania Rishiq, Luodi Yu, Yang Zhang, Harvey Abrams
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of hearing aid use and the effectiveness of ReadMyQuips (RMQ), an auditory training program, on speech perception performance and auditory selective attention using electrophysiological measures. RMQ is an audiovisual training program designed to improve speech perception in everyday noisy listening environments. DESIGN: Participants were adults with mild to moderate hearing loss who were first-time hearing aid users...
August 22, 2016: Ear and Hearing
Patrick D Gajewski, Jessica Drizinsky, Joachim Zülch, Michael Falkenstein
Decision making in economic context is an everyday activity but its neuronal correlates are poorly understood. The present study aimed at investigating the electrophysiological brain activity during simulated purchase decisions of technical products for a lower or higher price relative to a mean price estimated in a pilot study. Expectedly, participants mostly decided to buy a product when it was cheap and not to buy when it was expensive. However, in some trials they made counter-conformity decisions to buy a product for a higher than the average price or not to buy it despite an attractive price...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Yun Bu, Yao Ma, Yun-Xia Luan
The genus Paracerella Imadaté, 1980 is recorded from China for the first time, with the description of a new species, Paracerella sinensis sp. n. Paracerella sinensis is characterized by four pairs of A-setae on tergite I, the presence of setae Pc and P3a on tergite VII, eight A-setae on tergite VIII, the presence of seta Pc on both sternites VI and VII, and 4/2 setae on sternite VIII, which are different from all other members of the genus. The key to the four species of the genus is updated. In addition, DNA barcodes of four populations are sequenced and their genetic differences are analyzed...
2016: ZooKeys
Brandi C Fink, Vaughn R Steele, Michael J Maurer, Samantha J Fede, Vince D Calhoun, Kent A Kiehl
INTRODUCTION: National estimates suggest that up to 80% of prison inmates meet diagnostic criteria for a substance use disorder. Because more substance abuse treatment while incarcerated is associated with better post-release outcomes, including a reduced risk of accidental overdose death, the stakes are high in developing novel predictors of substance abuse treatment completion in inmate populations. METHODS: Using electroencephalography (EEG), this study investigated stimulus-locked ERP components elicited by distractor stimuli in three tasks (VO-Distinct, VO-Repeated, Go/NoGo) as a predictor of treatment discontinuation in a sample of male and female prison inmates...
August 2016: Brain and Behavior
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