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Plague calcification

Harumi Okuyama, Peter H Langsjoen, Tomohito Hamazaki, Yoichi Ogushi, Rokuro Hama, Tetsuyuki Kobayashi, Hajime Uchino
In contrast to the current belief that cholesterol reduction with statins decreases atherosclerosis, we present a perspective that statins may be causative in coronary artery calcification and can function as mitochondrial toxins that impair muscle function in the heart and blood vessels through the depletion of coenzyme Q10 and 'heme A', and thereby ATP generation. Statins inhibit the synthesis of vitamin K2, the cofactor for matrix Gla-protein activation, which in turn protects arteries from calcification...
March 2015: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Katherine Wesseling-Perry
Although traditional diagnosis and treatment of renal osteodystrophy focused on changes in bone turnover, current data demonstrate that abnormalities in skeletal mineralization are also prevalent in pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) and likely contribute to skeletal morbidities that continue to plague this population. It is now clear that alterations in osteocyte biology, manifested by changes in osteocytic protein expression, occur in early CKD before abnormalities in traditional measures of mineral metabolism are apparent and may contribute to defective skeletal mineralization...
April 2015: Current Osteoporosis Reports
L R Toklueva, T V Balakhonova, E Iu Strazden', M A Shariia2, M M Luk'ianov, N V Radiukhina, V S Shishkina, E M Tararak, S A Boĭtsov
Today there exists a wide variety of laboratory and instrumental methods aimed at diagnosing an unstable carotid aortosclerotic plaque. Assessment of the laboratory indices is not sufficiently effective since it does not allow of revealing the fact of the formation of an unstable plague at early stages and to determine its localization. The instrumental methods employed (ultrasonographic study, magnetic resonance imaging, multiplanar computed tomography, positron emission tomography) were focussed on detecting pathomorphological markers of instability - thickness of the fibrous coating, structural plaques, the presence of erosions, ulcerations, haemorrhages, calcifications, lipid nucleus, activity of the cellular processes inside the plaque...
2013: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
Bunpot Sitthinamsuwan, Inthira Khampalikit, Sarun Nunta-aree, Prajak Srirabheebhat, Teerapol Witthiwej, Akkapong Nitising
BACKGROUND: Meningioma is a common neoplasm primarily arising in the central nervous system. Its consistency is considered to be one of the critical prognostic factors for determining surgical resectability. The present study endeavored to investigate predictive factors associated with the tumor consistency. METHODS: Two hundred and forty-three consecutive participants who underwent resective surgery of meningioma were examined. The authors designed an objective grading system for meningioma consistency and utilized it for assessing consistency among all cases...
August 2012: Acta Neurochirurgica
T S Gulevskaia, V A Morgunov, P L Anufriev
A morphological study of 200 atherosclerotic carotid sinus (CS) plaques obtained at carotid endarterectomy revealed the structural components and processes characteristic for severe atherosclerosis (foci of atheromatosis and edema, necrosis of collagen and elastic fiber, newly formed vessels and hemorrhages of various duration, lipophages and lymphocytes, portions of fibrosis and calcification, covering thinning and ulceration, thrombi, and the contents of plagues (atheromatous masses, cholesterol crystals, lipophages, calcificates) on their surface)...
July 2007: Arkhiv Patologii
P Gusbeth-Tatomir, A Covic
Arterial stiffness (arteriosclerosis) is a diffuse process affecting the media of large arteries, strongly linked to the process of ageing, but influenced by several other major factors like hypertension and vascular calcifications. Arteriosclerosis has been recognized in recent years as a novel non-traditional cardiovascular risk factor both for renal and non-renal general population. Two of arterial stiffness parameters, pulse wave velocity and the augmentation index--determined by applanation tonometry, are strongly correlated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, as well as with the general mortality...
January 2005: Revista Medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti Din Iaş̧i
B Rupa, G V Rao, R Nageshwar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2005: Medical Journal of Malaysia
Markus Ketteler, Marie-Luise Gross, Eberhard Ritz
Extraosseus calcification has plagued management of renal failure since the beginning of hemodialysis, but the issue has largely been neglected because the impact on survival was thought to be limited. The recent recognition that hyperphosphatemia is a strong predictor of all-cause mortality, and particularly of cardiac mortality, has transformed the situation. Relatively stringent, though difficult to implement, guidelines have been proposed for the management of hyperphosphatemia. Important recent insights document that, for different reasons, both high and low turnover of bone disease increase the risk of vascular calcifications...
April 2005: Kidney International. Supplement
C Rubin, G Xu, S Judex
It is generally believed that mechanical signals must be large in order to be anabolic to bone tissue. Recent evidence indicates, however, that extremely low-magnitude (<10 microstrain) mechanical signals readily stimulate bone formation if induced at a high frequency. We examined the ability of extremely low-magnitude, high-frequency mechanical signals to restore anabolic bone cell activity inhibited by disuse. Adult female rats were randomly assigned to six groups: baseline control, age-matched control, mechanically stimulated for 10 min/day, disuse (hind limb suspension), disuse interrupted by 10 min/day of weight bearing, and disuse interrupted by 10 min/day of mechanical stimulation...
October 2001: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
C C Canver, R D Gregory, S D Cooler, M C Voytovich
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the long-standing inflammation leading to calcification within heart valves. Osteopontin, a phosphorylated glycoprotein, is present within atheromatous calcific plagues in response to vascular endothelial injury. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether osteopontin exists in calcific mitral valve leaflets in human beings, and to determine a link between chronic inflammation leading to mitral stenosis and the osteopontin status of mitral valvular tissue...
April 2000: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
M D Lonzer, R Imrie, D Rogers, D Worley, A Licata, M Secic
Osteoporosis is a disease that plagues older individuals, particularly women. At the usual age of diagnosis, limited therapy is available. By further delineating the factors that influence bone mineral acquisition before peak bone density is achieved, individuals at risk may be identified at an earlier age when therapies may be more effective. This was a study of 16 family units, 16 mothers, eight fathers, and their 28 children between the ages of 5 and 20 years. The evaluation consisted of a focused history, Tanner staging of adolescents, anthropometric data (height, weight), and spinal bone mineral density (BMD) by DEXA (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry)...
April 1996: Clinical Pediatrics
R Virmani, A Farb, A P Burke
High restenosis rates continue to plague the overall efficacy of percutaneous transluminal coronary balloon angioplasty (PTCA). It is not surprising that predictions of long-term success or failure of PTCA based on coronary angiography are of limited value because these images provide only a circumscribed view of the arterial lumen and offer little insight into underlying plaque morphologic characteristics. Coronary atherosclerotic lesions are quite diverse with respect to plaque characteristics (eccentricity, concentricity, and extent of fibrosis, necrosis, and calcification) and cardiac ischemic syndromes (stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death)...
January 1994: American Heart Journal
J Ge, R Erbel, T Gerber, G Görge, L Koch, M Haude, J Meyer
Intravascular ultrasound imaging (IVUS) was performed to elucidate the discrepancy between clinical history and angiographic findings and to measure the diameter and area of the lumen of the normal left coronary artery in 55 patients who presented with chest pain but had normal coronary angiograms. The left coronary artery (LCA) was scanned with a 4.8F, 20 MHz mechanically rotated ultrasound catheter at 413 sites. Atherosclerotic lesions were identified at 72 (17%) sites in 25 patients. The mean (SD) (range) plaque area was 5...
June 1994: British Heart Journal
H Moro, J Hayashi, Y Yamazaki, S Eguchi
A 58-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital suffering from repeated chest pain. Selective coronary angiography (CAG) showed severely stenotic lesion in the left main coronary artery. There was no additional lesion in the left anterior descending and circumflex arteries. Aortography showed severe calcification in the aortic valve. The aortic was incised and divided completely at the aortic root 1 cm distal to the aortic valve. The incision was then extended toward the opening of the left coronary artery...
July 1989: [Zasshi] [Journal]
F B Parker, M A Marvasti, E L Bove
Neurologic complications continue to plague aortocoronary bypass operations. All patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass procedures over a four-year period at the Upstate Medical Center were reviewed. Eight of 893 patients sustained a cerebrovascular accident following operation (0.9%). In 5 patients, the etiology was felt to be calcific and atherosclerotic debris from the ascending aorta. Air embolism occurred in one patient, and the etiology was unknown in 2 patients. Various methods to deal with the diffusely atherosclerotic aorta are discussed...
August 1985: Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon
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