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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351795/malaria-knowledge-and-bed-net-use-in-three-transmission-settings-in-southern-africa
#1
Mufaro Kanyangarara, Harry Hamapumbu, Edmore Mamini, James Lupiya, Jennifer C Stevenson, Sungano Mharakurwa, Mike Chaponda, Philip E Thuma, Lovemore Gwanzura, Shungu Munyati, Modest Mulenga, Douglas E Norris, William J Moss
BACKGROUND: Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) reduce malaria morbidity and mortality in endemic areas. Despite increasing availability, the use of ITNs remains limited in some settings. Poor malaria knowledge is a barrier to the widespread use of ITNs. The goal of this study was to assess the levels of malaria knowledge and evaluate factors associated with bed net use among individuals residing in three regions of southern Africa with different levels of malaria transmission and control...
January 19, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343459/differing-structural-properties-of-foods-affect-the-development-of-mandibular-control-and-muscle-coordination-in-infants-and-young-children
#2
Meg Simione, Chrystel Loret, Benjamin Le Révérend, Brian Richburg, Mirna Del Valle, Marc Adler, Mireille Moser, Jordan R Green
The development of chewing is an essential motor skill that is continually refined throughout early childhood. From a motor control perspective, the advancement of textures is dependent upon the fit between a child's oral anatomic and motor system and food properties. The purpose of this exploratory study is to identify age-related changes in chewing motor coordination and control and to determine if these changes are associated with the differing structural properties of solid foods, as well as to explore the role of explanatory variables such as the emergence of teeth and bite force...
January 14, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339223/leishmania-infections-in-austrian-soldiers-returning-from-military-missions-abroad-a-cross-sectional-study
#3
Adelheid G Obwaller, Martina Köhsler, Wolfgang Poeppl, Harald Herkner, Gerhard Mooseder, Horst Aspöck, Julia Walochnik
OBJECTIVES: The incidence of leishmaniasis is known to increase in conflict areas. The aim of this study was to determine the exposure to Leishmania species in Austrian soldiers returning from missions abroad also assessing possible risk factors. METHODS: A retrospective explorative cross-sectional serological study was conducted in 225 healthy Austrian soldiers returning from UN or EU peace-keeping missions in Syria, the Lebanon and Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH), respectively...
January 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332110/association-of-psychological-stress-with-skin-symptoms-among-medical-students
#4
Ghada A Bin Saif, Hala M Alotaibi, Abdullateef A Alzolibani, Noor A Almodihesh, Hamad F Albraidi, Najed M Alotaibi, Gil Yosipovitch
To evaluate the association between psychological stress and skin symptoms among medical students.  Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out between January and June 2015. Electronic survey consists of Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ) and Self-Reported Skin Complaints Questionnaire were distributed to all 1435 undergraduate students at College of Medicine, King Saud University (KSU), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Results: Final analysis was performed on data from 529 (36.9%) students. Students were divided into three groups: least stressed students, n=135, PSQ index less than 0...
January 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330952/jaw-muscle-fiber-architecture-and-leverage-in-the-hard-object-feeding-sooty-mangabey-are-not-structured-to-facilitate-relatively-large-bite-forces-compared-to-other-papionins
#5
Andrea B Taylor, Claire E Terhune, Maxx Toler, Megan Holmes, Callum F Ross, Christopher J Vinyard
Numerous studies have sought to link craniofacial morphology with behavioral ecology in primates. Extant hard-object feeders have been of particular interest because of their potential to inform our understanding about the diets of early fossil hominins. Sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) are hard-object feeders that frequently generate what have been described as audibly powerful bites at wide jaw gapes to process materially stiff and hard seeds. We address the hypothesis that sooty mangabeys have features of the masticatory apparatus that facilitate this feeding behavior by comparing fiber architecture and leverage of the masseter and temporalis muscles between sooty mangabeys and three papionin primates that do not specialize on hard objects...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330950/comparative-anatomy-of-bat-jaw-musculature-via-diffusible-iodine-based-contrast-enhanced-computed-tomography
#6
Sharlene E Santana
Noctilionoid bats exhibit an extraordinary array of cranial specializations that match diverse diets, including variation in jaw musculature physiological cross-sectional areas (PCSA), lever arms, and relative contribution to bite force. Although previous research in this group has linked variation in skull shape and muscle mechanics to biting performance, there are still important gaps about the anatomical underpinnings of noctilionoid dietary adaptations, including the degree of compartmentalization of the jaw musculature, and whether and how muscle attachment sites have evolved across noctilionoid species that specialize on derived diets...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324725/west-nile-virus-and-other-nationally-notifiable-arboviral-diseases-united-states-2016
#7
Alexis Burakoff, Jennifer Lehman, Marc Fischer, J Erin Staples, Nicole P Lindsey
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes and ticks. West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the continental United States (1,2). Other arboviruses, including La Crosse, Powassan, Jamestown Canyon, St. Louis encephalitis, and eastern equine encephalitis viruses, cause sporadic cases of disease and occasional outbreaks. This report summarizes surveillance data reported to CDC for 2016 for nationally notifiable arboviruses...
January 12, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315872/theoretical-investigations-on-the-mechanistic-aspects-of-o2-activation-by-a-biomimetic-di-nitrosyl-iron-complex
#8
Ambar Banerjee, Souloke Sen, Ankan Paul
Though Dinitrosyl-Iron complexes (DNICs) are largely believed to act as NO carriers, topical experiments on model DNICs have suggested that they can also act as Nitrating agents in presence of dioxygen. Oxygen activation by DNICs have been implicated as a possible route for protein tyrosine nitration (PTN), which leads to neurodegenerative disorders. Herein using static and dynamic theoretical techniques we unravel a previously unknown dual state mechanistic paradigm for dioxygen activation of a biomimetic nitrating DNIC complex leading to phenolic nitration...
January 7, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314214/oral-and-craniofacial-manifestations-in-a-hunter-syndrome-patient-with-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-a-case-report
#9
Rafaela de Oliveira Torres, Andréa Vaz Braga Pintor, Fábio Ribeiro Guedes, Liana Bastos Freitas-Fernandes, Anneliese Lopes Barth, Dafne Dain Gandelman Horovitz, Ivete Pomarico Ribeiro de Souza
We described herein the oral and craniofacial features of a 7-year-old boy, diagnosed in utero with mucopolysaccharidosis II (MPS II), who was treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) at 70 days of age. The main oral clinical findings were the following: macroglossia, posterior cross-bite, crowding, pointed cuspid teeth, delayed tooth eruption, retained primary teeth, and enamel hypoplasia. The image examination showed: retention eruption, posterior primary teeth with short roots, absence of some permanent teeth, and stretching of the stylohyoid processes bilaterally...
January 4, 2018: Special Care in Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285473/mother-s-work-status-on-children-s-bruxism-in-a-subset-of-saudi-population
#10
Rana Alouda, Maram Alshehri, Shoog Alnaghmoosh, Maryam Shafique, May Wathiq Al-Khudhairy
Aims and Objectives: The aims and objectives of this study were to determine if an association exists between mothers work status and her children's incidence of bruxism and habits related to bruxism. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted through data collection of a questionnaire answered by 561 mothers' about their working status and their child's habits and behaviors. The survey consisted of 5 parts with a total of 34 questions: mother's information, child's behavior, child's sleeping pattern, mother's knowledge about bruxism, and child's medical history...
November 2017: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285332/correlations-between-dental-malocclusions-ocular-motility-and-convergence-disorders-a-cross-sectional-study-in-growing-subjects
#11
P Bollero, M R Ricchiuti, G Laganà, G DI Fusco, R Lione, P Cozza
Objective: The purpose of the study was to analyze the association between dento-skeletal malocclusions, ocular motility, and convergence disorders in growing subjects. Materials and methods: 84 subjects (49 males, 35 females) with a mean age of 7.3±1.7 years were enrolled in a screening procedure for celiac disease at the Department of Gastroenterology of the University of Rome "Tor Vergata". Each child underwent an orthodontic, orthoptic, and ophtalmological examination...
July 2017: Oral & Implantology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284535/bacterial-diversity-of-wild-caught-lutzomyia-longipalpis-a-vector-of-zoonotic-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-brazil-under-distinct-physiological-conditions-by-metagenomics-analysis
#12
Ana Clara Araújo Machado Pires, Luís Eduardo Martinez Villegas, Thaís Bonifácio Campolina, Alessandra Silva Orfanó, Paulo Filemon Paolucci Pimenta, Nágila Francinete Costa Secundino
BACKGROUND: The leishmaniases are a group of diseases caused by protozoans of the genus Leishmania, which are transmitted by the bite of phlebotomine sand flies. In the New World, Lutzomyia longipalpis is the most important vector of visceral leishmaniasis and is a proven vector for Leishmania infantum chagasi in Brazil. During development within the vector, Leishmania can interact with a variety of microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria. The presence of bacteria in the midgut of sand flies can influence the development and survival of the parasite...
December 29, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284476/why-some-sites-are-responding-better-to-anti-malarial-interventions-a-case-study-from-western-kenya
#13
Anthony Kapesa, Eliningaya J Kweka, Harrysone Atieli, Erasmus Kamugisha, Guofa Zhou, Andrew K Githeko, Guiyun Yan
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, malaria interventions over the last decades have been successful in reducing both mortality and morbidity. In western Kenya however some areas experience contrasting outcomes of the ongoing interventions while the causes for this observation remains not yet clearly known. METHODS: The WHO insecticide (deltamethrin) susceptibility test of the common malaria vectors was studied. Multiple surveys on household use and hospital prescriptions of antimalarial drugs from 2003 to 2015 were done...
December 29, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280426/assessing-knowledge-preventive-attitudes-and-practices-related-to-kala-azar-a-study-of-rural-madhepura-bihar-india
#14
Dipti Govil, Harihar Sahoo, Sarang P Pedgaonkar, Kailash Chandra Das, Hem Lhungdim
To assess the knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices related to kala-azar in Madhepura district of Bihar, a community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in November 2014. A total of 353 households were interviewed from 24 villages of four blocks of Madhepura district. Data were collected using structured interview schedule. For knowledge, attitude, and preventive practice indexes, scores were assigned to individual questions based on the accuracy of responses. Univariate and binary logistic regressions were applied for the analysis...
December 26, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278272/oral-manifestations-and-dentofacial-anomalies-in-%C3%AE-thalassemia-major-children-in-dubai-uae
#15
Sheikha Al-Raeesi, Mawlood Kowash, Amar Hassan, Manal Al-Halabi
AIMS: The purpose of this study was to identify special oral and dentofacial manifestations of β-thalassemia major (ΒTM) in Emarati children in Dubai (UAE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 38 (ΒTM) and 76 healthy Emirati children were recruited. An oral examination was conducted to determine dmft/DMFT indices, Simplified Oral Hygiene Index, occlusal anomalies, dentofacial, and soft-tissue abnormalities. RESULTS: ΒTM children had significantly higher DMFT compared to the healthy controls (p-value, 0...
December 26, 2017: Special Care in Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278267/factors-associated-with-anterior-open-bite-in-children-with-developmental-disabilities
#16
Lia Silva de Castilho, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães Abreu, Luiz Gustavo de Almeida Pires E Souza, Leiliane Teresinha de Almeida Romualdo, Maria Elisa Souza E Silva, Vera Lúcia Silva Resende
AIM: To investigate factors associated with anterior open bite in individuals aged from 2 to 33 years with developmental disabilities. DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study. A total of 271 dental records were examined. The anterior open bite analyzed was determined based on clinic exam. These variables were also analyzed: gender, age, education level of mother, International Code of Diseases (ICD), mouth breathing, use of anticonvulsant drugs, hyperkinesis, pacifier use, thumb sucking, seizure, and involuntary movements...
December 26, 2017: Special Care in Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244892/alterations-in-the-masticatory-system-in-patients-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#17
Nina Riera-Punet, Jordi Martinez-Gomis, Andrés Paipa, Monica Povedano, Maria Peraire
AIMS: To determine the effect of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) on aspects of masticatory function and to assess the relationship between ALS and the prevalence of traumatic mucosal lesions caused by oral self-injury. METHODS: A total of 153 ALS patients and 23 control subjects participated in this cross-sectional study. Clinical characteristics including site of onset, medication, type of feeding, and use of noninvasive mechanical ventilation were recorded...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243225/review-current-priorities-in-the-zika-response
#18
REVIEW
Danillo Lucas Alves Esposito, Jonathan Ballico de Moraes, Benedito Antonio Lopes da Fonseca
Zika virus (ZIKV), a single-stranded RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family, is an arbovirus (viruses transmitted by arthropods) transmitted to humans and non-human primates through the bites of infected female Aedes sp. mosquitoes. Although first isolated in 1947, only recently it emerged as a global threat, present in several countries resulting in a pandemic scenario. ZIKV infections may result in severe outcomes, such as neurological impairment, and with the intrinsic ability of inducing microcephaly in fetuses of infected pregnant women, the virus has become a major public health problem...
December 15, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224979/perceptions-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-for-the-prevention-and-control-of-lymphatic-filariasis-in-conakry-republic-of-guinea
#19
Bernard L Kouassi, Aboulaye Barry, Kathrin Heitz-Tokpa, Stefanie J Krauth, Andre Goépogui, Mamadou S Baldé, Oumar Barry, Marie L Niamey, Moses J Bockarie, Benjamin G Koudou, Jürg Utzinger
Little is known about the perceptions, attitudes and practices of lymphatic filariasis in Conakry, Republic of Guinea. Yet, such knowledge is important for an optimal design and implementation of setting-specific prevention and control measures. We conducted a cross-sectional study using a mixed methods approach. Qualitative data related to people's general experience with lymphatic filariasis, their perception of the causes of the disease, the onset of elephantiasis, care-seeking behaviour and the socioeconomic impact of lymphatic filariasis were collected by in-depth interviews with 85 respondents...
December 7, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223635/three-dimensional-superimposition-for-patients-with-facial-palsy-an-innovative-method-for-assessing-the-success-of-facial-reanimation-procedures
#20
C Sforza, E Ulaj, D M Gibelli, F Allevi, V Pucciarelli, F Tarabbia, D Ciprandi, G Dell'Aversana Orabona, C Dolci, F Biglioli
Facial palsy is a severe condition that may be ameliorated by facial reanimation, but there is no consensus about how to judge its success. In this study we aimed to test a new method for assessing facial movements based on 3-dimensional analysis of the facial surfaces. Eleven patients aged between 42 and 77 years who had recently been affected by facial palsy (onset between 6 and 18 months) were treated by an operation based on triple innervation: the masseteric to temporofacial nerve branch, 30% of the hypoglossal fibres to the cervicofacial nerve branch, and the contralateral facial nerve through two cross-face sural nerve grafts...
January 2018: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
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