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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933725/cellular-engineering-for-therapeutic-protein-production-product-quality-host-modification-and-process-improvement
#1
REVIEW
Evan Wells, Anne Skaja Robinson
Recombinant proteins offer many therapeutic advantages unavailable in traditional small molecule drugs, but the need for cellular versus chemical synthesis complicates production. Avenues for producing therapeutic biologics are continuously expanding, and developments in biochemistry, cell biology, and bioengineering fuel new discoveries that promise safer, more efficient, and cheaper drugs for consumers. Numerous approaches to express recombinant proteins exist, but Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and mammalian systems (e...
December 9, 2016: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933593/inflammation-induced-cd69-kupffer-cell-feedback-inhibits-t-cell-proliferation-via-membrane-bound-tgf-%C3%AE-1
#2
Xiang Zhang, Zhengping Jiang, Yan Gu, Yanfang Liu, Xuetao Cao, Yanmei Han
Kupffer cells, tissue-resident macrophage lineage cell, are enriched in vertebrate liver. The mouse F4/80(+) Kupffer cells have been subclassified into two subpopulations according to their phenotype and function: CD68(+) subpopulation with potent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and phagocytic capacities, and CD11b(+) subpopulation with a potent capacity to produce T helper 1 cytokines. In addition, CD11b(+) Kupffer cells/macrophages may be migrated from the bone marrow or spleen, especially in inflammatory conditions of the liver...
December 6, 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933531/using-baseline-transcriptional-connectomes-in-rat-to-identify-genetic-pathways-associated-with-predisposition-to-complex-traits
#3
Laura Saba, Paula Hoffman, Boris Tabakoff
Although rat is a critical model organism in preclinical medications development, its use in systems genetics studies remains sparse. The PhenoGen database and website contain detailed information on the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the rat brain, liver, heart, and brown adipose transcriptome. This database has been generated using the HXB/BXH recombinant inbred panel and is being expanded to a hybrid rat diversity panel that includes many common inbred strains as well. By using such a panel, the PhenoGen project has created a renewable and cumulative resource for the rat genomics community...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933452/responses-of-tropical-legumes-from-the-brazilian-atlantic-rainforest-to-simulated-acid-rain
#4
Guilherme C Andrade, Luzimar C Silva
We investigated the morphological and anatomical effects of simulated acid rain on leaves of two species native to the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest: Paubrasilia echinata and Libidibia ferrea var. leiostachya. Saplings were subjected to acid rain in a simulation chamber during 10 days for 15 min daily, using H2SO4 solution pH 3.0 and, in the control, deionized water. At the end of the experiment, fragments from young and expanding leaves were anatomically analyzed. Although L. ferrea var. leiostachya leaves are more hydrophobic, rain droplets remained in contact with them for a longer time, as in the hydrophilic P...
December 8, 2016: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933416/positron-emission-tomography-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-towards-targeting-of-molecular-pathological-hallmarks
#5
Stefanie M A Willekens, Donatienne Van Weehaeghe, Philip Van Damme, Koen Van Laere
During the past decades, extensive efforts have been made to expand the knowledge of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, clinical translation of this research, in terms of earlier diagnosis and improved therapy, remains challenging. Since more than 30% of motor neurons are lost when symptoms become clinically apparent, techniques allowing non-invasive, in vivo detection of motor neuron degeneration are needed in the early, pre-symptomatic disease stage. Furthermore, it has become apparent that non-motor signs play an important role in the disease and there is an overlap with cognitive disorders, such as frontotemporal dementia (FTD)...
December 8, 2016: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933407/simvascular-an-open-source-pipeline-for-cardiovascular-simulation
#6
REVIEW
Adam Updegrove, Nathan M Wilson, Jameson Merkow, Hongzhi Lan, Alison L Marsden, Shawn C Shadden
Patient-specific cardiovascular simulation has become a paradigm in cardiovascular research and is emerging as a powerful tool in basic, translational and clinical research. In this paper we discuss the recent development of a fully open-source SimVascular software package, which provides a complete pipeline from medical image data segmentation to patient-specific blood flow simulation and analysis. This package serves as a research tool for cardiovascular modeling and simulation, and has contributed to numerous advances in personalized medicine, surgical planning and medical device design...
December 8, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933235/thailand-s-universal-coverage-scheme-and-its-impact-on-health-seeking-behavior
#7
Seung Chun Paek, Natthani Meemon, Thomas T H Wan
BACKGROUND: Thailand's Universal Coverage Scheme (UCS) has improved healthcare access and utilization since its initial introduction in 2002. However, a substantial proportion of beneficiaries has utilized care outside the UCS boundaries. Because low utilization may be an indication of a policy gap between people's health needs and the services available to them, we investigated the patterns of health-seeking behavior and their social/contextual determinants among UCS beneficiaries in the year 2013...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933100/genome-and-methylome-of-the-oleaginous-diatom-cyclotella-cryptica-reveal-genetic-flexibility-toward-a-high-lipid-phenotype
#8
Jesse C Traller, Shawn J Cokus, David A Lopez, Olga Gaidarenko, Sarah R Smith, John P McCrow, Sean D Gallaher, Sheila Podell, Michael Thompson, Orna Cook, Marco Morselli, Artur Jaroszewicz, Eric E Allen, Andrew E Allen, Sabeeha S Merchant, Matteo Pellegrini, Mark Hildebrand
BACKGROUND: Improvement in the performance of eukaryotic microalgae for biofuel and bioproduct production is largely dependent on characterization of metabolic mechanisms within the cell. The marine diatom Cyclotella cryptica, which was originally identified in the Aquatic Species Program, is a promising strain of microalgae for large-scale production of biofuel and bioproducts, such as omega-3 fatty acids. RESULTS: We sequenced the nuclear genome and methylome of this oleaginous diatom to identify the genetic traits that enable substantial accumulation of triacylglycerol...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933090/the-worldwide-spread-of-the-tiger-mosquito-as-revealed-by-mitogenome-haplogroup-diversity
#9
Vincenza Battaglia, Paolo Gabrieli, Stefania Brandini, Marco R Capodiferro, Pio A Javier, Xiao-Guang Chen, Alessandro Achilli, Ornella Semino, Ludvik M Gomulski, Anna R Malacrida, Giuliano Gasperi, Antonio Torroni, Anna Olivieri
In the last 40 years, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, indigenous to East Asia, has colonized every continent except Antarctica. Its spread is a major public health concern, given that this species is a competent vector for numerous arboviruses, including those causing dengue, chikungunya, West Nile, and the recently emerged Zika fever. To acquire more information on the ancestral source(s) of adventive populations and the overall diffusion process from its native range, we analyzed the mitogenome variation of 27 individuals from representative populations of Asia, the Americas, and Europe...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933080/identification-of-a-dolabellane-type-diterpene-synthase-and-other-root-expressed-diterpene-synthases-in-arabidopsis
#10
Qiang Wang, Meirong Jia, Jung-Hyun Huh, Andrew Muchlinski, Reuben J Peters, Dorothea Tholl
Arabidopsis thaliana maintains a complex metabolism for the production of secondary or specialized metabolites. Such metabolites include volatile and semivolatile terpenes, which have been associated with direct and indirect defensive activities in flowers and leaves. In comparison, the structural diversity and function of terpenes in Arabidopsis roots has remained largely unexplored despite a substantial number of root-expressed genes in the Arabidopsis terpene synthase (TPS) gene family. We show that five root-expressed TPSs of an expanded subfamily-a type clade in the Arabidopsis TPS family function as class I diterpene synthases that predominantly convert geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) to different semi-volatile diterpene products, which are in part detectable at low levels in the ecotypes Columbia (Col) and Cape Verde Island (Cvi)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933061/ncr1-expression-identifies-canine-natural-killer-cell-subsets-with-phenotypic-similarity-to-human-natural-killer-cells
#11
Jennifer A Foltz, Srinivas S Somanchi, Yanwen Yang, Arianexys Aquino-Lopez, Erin E Bishop, Dean A Lee
Canines spontaneously develop many cancers similar to humans - including osteosarcoma, leukemia, and lymphoma - offering the opportunity to study immune therapies in a genetically heterogeneous and immunocompetent environment. However, a lack of antibodies recognizing canine NK cell markers has resulted in suboptimal characterization and unknown purity of NK cell products, hindering the development of canine models of NK cell adoptive immunotherapy. To this end, we generated a novel antibody to canine NCR1 (NKp46), the putative species-wide marker of NK cells, enabling purification of NK cells for further characterization...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932991/cannabidiol-modulates-the-immunophenotype-and-inhibits-the-activation-of-the-inflammasome-in-human-gingival-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#12
Rosaliana Libro, Domenico Scionti, Francesca Diomede, Marco Marchisio, Gianpaolo Grassi, Federica Pollastro, Adriano Piattelli, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon, Oriana Trubiani
Human Gingival Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hGMSCs) are multipotential cells that can expand and differentiate in culture under specific and standardized conditions. In the present study, we have investigated whether in vitro pre-treatment of hGMSCs with Cannabidiol (CBD) can influence their expression profile, improving the therapeutic potential of this cell culture. Following CBD treatment (5 μM) for 24 h, gene expression analysis through Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) has revealed several genes differentially expressed between CBD-treated hGMSCs (CBD-hGMSCs) and control cells (CTR-hGMSCs) that were linked to inflammation and apoptosis...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932931/new-distribution-records-of-the-savanna-specialist-fungus-farming-ant-cyatta-sosa-calvo-et-al-hymenoptera-formicidae-myrmicinae
#13
Aline Machado Oliveira, Rodrigo Machado Feitosa, Heraldo Luis Vasconcelos, Jonas Maravalhas
BACKGROUND: The fungus-farming ant genus Cyatta (Formicidae: Myrmicinae) is represented by a single species, C. abscondita Sosa-Calvo et al., known from a few localities in Brazil (in the states of Ceará, Minas Gerais, São Paulo and the Distrito Federal), and a single locality in the Misiones province, Argentina. Cyatta is known to occur predominantly in savanna habitats and occasionally in the transition zones between the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado. NEW INFORMATION: The new records reported here significantly expand the previously known distribution of Cyatta abscondita and provide further support for the intimate relation between this species and the savannas of South America...
2016: Biodiversity Data Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932927/the-avian-collection-of-the-zoological-museum-of-the-university-of-athens-zmua
#14
Gabriella Papastefanou, Anastasios Legakis, Igor Shogolev
BACKGROUND: The Zoological Museum of the University of Athens (ZMUA) was established in 1858. It is the oldest natural history museum of Greece. The museum began its operation with the acquisition of a core collection and has been expanding ever since. One of the most substantial parts of the museum's collection consists of the avian exhibits, originating from around the world. NEW INFORMATION: Today, the avian collection consists of 2,948 specimens, preserved mostly through taxidermy, along with a significant number of eggs...
2016: Biodiversity Data Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932883/functional-cortical-changes-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-at-amplitude-configuration-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#15
Heng Liu, Hua Chen, Bo Wu, Tijiang Zhang, Jinhui Wang, Kexin Huang, Ganjun Song, Jian Zhan
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the amplitude of spontaneous brain activity fluctuations in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) using the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) method. METHODS: ALFF and SPM8 were utilized to assess alterations in regional spontaneous brain activities in patients with RRMS in comparison with healthy controls (HCs). The beta values of altered brain regions between patients with RRMS and HCs were extracted, and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was generated to calculate the sensitivities and specificities of these different brain areas for distinguishing patients with RRMS from HCs...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932786/state-medicaid-expansion-tobacco-cessation-coverage-and-number-of-adult-smokers-enrolled-in-expansion-coverage-united-states-2016
#16
Anne DiGiulio, Meredith Haddix, Zach Jump, Stephen Babb, Anna Schecter, Kisha-Ann S Williams, Kat Asman, Brian S Armour
In 2015, 27.8% of adult Medicaid enrollees were current cigarette smokers, compared with 11.1% of adults with private health insurance, placing Medicaid enrollees at increased risk for smoking-related disease and death (1). In addition, smoking-related diseases are a major contributor to Medicaid costs, accounting for about 15% (>$39 billion) of annual Medicaid spending during 2006-2010 (2). Individual, group, and telephone counseling and seven Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medications are effective treatments for helping tobacco users quit (3)...
December 9, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932588/mental-health-among-jail-and-prison-inmates
#17
Youngmin Yi, Kristin Turney, Christopher Wildeman
Previous studies provide insight into the mental health of jail and prison inmates, but this research does not compare the two groups of inmates. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this article examines how the association between incarceration and self-reported mental health varies by facility type, net of an array of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Both jail and prison inmates report high rates of depression, life dissatisfaction, heavy drinking, and illicit drug use...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932576/mammalian-synthetic-biology-for-studying-the-cell
#18
REVIEW
Melina Mathur, Joy S Xiang, Christina D Smolke
Synthetic biology is advancing the design of genetic devices that enable the study of cellular and molecular biology in mammalian cells. These genetic devices use diverse regulatory mechanisms to both examine cellular processes and achieve precise and dynamic control of cellular phenotype. Synthetic biology tools provide novel functionality to complement the examination of natural cell systems, including engineered molecules with specific activities and model systems that mimic complex regulatory processes...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932547/practice-to-evidence-using-evaluability-assessment-to-generate-practice-based-evidence-in-rural-south-georgia
#19
Sally Honeycutt, April Hermstad, Michelle L Carvalho, Kimberly R Jacob Arriola, Denise Ballard, Cam Escoffery, Michelle C Kegler
Evidence from formal evaluation of real-world practice can address gaps in the public health knowledge base and provide information about feasible, relevant strategies for varied settings. Interest in evaluability assessment (EA) as an approach for generating practice-based evidence has grown. EA has been central to several structured assessment processes that identify and select promising programs and evaluate those most likely to produce useful findings. The Emory Prevention Research Center used EA as part of an initiative to generate practice-based evidence for cancer prevention in southwest Georgia...
December 7, 2016: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932337/development-of-a-critical-appraisal-tool-to-assess-the-quality-of-cross-sectional-studies-axis
#20
Martin J Downes, Marnie L Brennan, Hywel C Williams, Rachel S Dean
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to develop a critical appraisal (CA) tool that addressed study design and reporting quality as well as the risk of bias in cross-sectional studies (CSSs). In addition, the aim was to produce a help document to guide the non-expert user through the tool. DESIGN: An initial scoping review of the published literature and key epidemiological texts was undertaken prior to the formation of a Delphi panel to establish key components for a CA tool for CSSs...
December 8, 2016: BMJ Open
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