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HIV Vaccine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474461/distinct-susceptibility-of-hiv-vaccine-vector-induced-cd4-t-cells-to-hiv-infection
#1
Sarah Auclair, Fengliang Liu, Qingli Niu, Wei Hou, Gavin Churchyard, Cecilia Morgan, Nicole Frahm, Sorachai Nitayaphan, Punnee Pitisuthithum, Supachai Rerks-Ngarm, Jason T Kimata, Lynn Soong, Genoveffa Franchini, Merlin Robb, Jerome Kim, Nelson Michael, Haitao Hu
The concerns raised from adenovirus 5 (Ad5)-based HIV vaccine clinical trials, where excess HIV infections were observed in some vaccine recipients, have highlighted the importance of understanding host responses to vaccine vectors and the HIV susceptibility of vector-specific CD4 T cells in HIV vaccination. Our recent study reported that human Ad5-specific CD4 T cells induced by Ad5 vaccination (RV156A trial) are susceptible to HIV. Here we further investigated the HIV susceptibility of vector-specific CD4 T cells induced by ALVAC, a canarypox viral vector tested in the Thai trial RV144, as compared to Ad5 vector-specific CD4 T cells in the HVTN204 trial...
February 23, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474268/twenty-five-years-of-lamivudine-current-and-future-use-for-the-treatment-of-hiv-1-infection
#2
Romina Quercia, Carlo-Federico Perno, Justin Koteff, Katy Moore, Cynthia McCoig, Marty St Clair, Daniel Kuritzkes
Innovation in medicine is a dynamic, complex, and continuous process that cannot be isolated to a single moment in time. Anniversaries offer opportunities to commemorate crucial discoveries of modern medicine, such as penicillin (1928), polio vaccination (inactivated, 1955; oral, 1961), the surface antigen of the hepatitis B virus (1967), monoclonal antibodies (1975), and the first HIV antiretroviral drugs (zidovudine, 1987). The advent of antiretroviral drugs has had a profound effect on the progress of the epidemiology of HIV infection, transforming a terminal, irreversible disease that caused a global health crisis into a treatable but chronic disease...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467764/-propionibacterium-acnes-enhances-the-immunogenicity-of-hivbr18-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-vaccine
#3
Daniela Teixeira, Mayari Eika Ishimura, Juliana de Souza Apostólico, Jacqueline Miyuki Viel, Victor Cabelho Passarelli, Edecio Cunha-Neto, Daniela Santoro Rosa, Ieda Maria Longo-Maugéri
Immunization of BALB/c mice with HIVBr18, a DNA vaccine containing 18 CD4+ T cell epitopes from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), induced specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses in a broad, polyfunctional and persistent manner. With the aim of increasing the immunogenicity of this vaccine, the effect of Propionibacterium acnes as an adjuvant was evaluated. The adjuvant effects of this bacterium have been extensively demonstrated in both experimental and clinical settings. Herein, administration of two doses of HIVBr18, in the presence of P...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465697/high-baseline-anal-hpv-and-abnormal-anal-cytology-in-a-phase-3-trial-of-the-quadrivalent-hpv-vaccine-in-hiv-infected-individuals-over-26-years-old-actg-5298
#4
Ross D Cranston, Michelle S Cespedes, Pawel Paczuski, Ming Yang, Robert W Coombs, Joan Dragavon, Alfred Saah, Catherine Godfrey, Jennifer Y Webster-Cyriaque, Elizabeth Y Chiao, Barbara Bastow, Timothy Wilkin
BACKGROUND: The quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (qHPV; types 6, 11, 16, 18) is indicated for men and women 9-26 years to prevent HPV associated anogenital high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and cancer. ACTG 5298 was a randomized placebo controlled Phase 3 study in HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM), and women of qHPV to prevent persistent anal HPV infection. Baseline data is presented here. METHODS: HIV-infected MSM, and women ≥ 27 years without previous anogenital or oral cancer were enrolled...
October 13, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465694/hepatitis-b-vaccination-and-infection-prevalence-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-who-travel-internationally
#5
Hong-Ha M Truong, Robin Fatch, Tri D Do, Willi McFarland
Among MSM traveling internationally, self-reported HBV vaccination prevalence was 77% and less prevalent among older men and those with HBV infection. HBV infection prevalence was 25% and was associated with older age and HIV infection. Testing for chronic infection, universal vaccination, and treatment for populations with multiple risks is needed.
October 19, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461329/cancer-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-living-with-hiv
#6
Julia Bohlius, Caroline Foster, Gita Naidu, Mazvita Sengayi, Anna Turkova
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adults living with HIV have an increased risk of malignancy yet there is little data for adolescents and young adults. We reviewed recently published cancer epidemiology, treatment, and outcome data for adolescents and young adults living with HIV (AYALHIV) aged 10 to less than 25 years between 2016 and 2017. RECENT FINDINGS: AYALHIV are at increased risk of developing cancer compared to their uninfected peers. Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma occur most frequently with variation by geographical region...
February 15, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460740/ending-the-hiv-aids-pandemic-1
#7
Robert Walter Eisinger, Anthony S Fauci
The goal of ending the HIV/AIDS pandemic is theoretically achievable and would require addressing this global health catastrophe on individual and global levels by providing optimal prevention strategies and treatment regimens for individual persons living with or at risk for HIV, as well as ending the pandemic as an epidemiologic and global health phenomenon. However, from a practical standpoint, the pathway to ending the HIV/AIDS pandemic will be difficult and will require aggressive implementation of the biomedical research advances that have been made in the areas of treatment and prevention; development of additional tools, such as a moderately effective HIV vaccine; and attention to critical behavioral and social determinants...
March 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458681/broad-neutralization-response-in-a-subset-of-hiv-1-subtype-c-infected-viraemic-non-progressors-from-southern-india
#8
Paneerselvam Nandagopal, Jayanta Bhattacharya, Aylur K Srikrishnan, Rajat Goyal, Chinnambedu Ravichandran Swathirajan, Shilpa Patil, Shanmugam Saravanan, Suprit Deshpande, Ramachandran Vignesh, Sunil Suhas Solomon, Nikhil Singla, Joyeeta Mukherjee, Kailapuri G Murugavel
Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) have been considered to be potent therapeutic tools and potential vaccine candidates to enable protection against various clades of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The generation of bnAbs has been associated with enhanced exposure to antigen, high viral load and low CD4+ T cell counts, among other factors. However, only limited data are available on the generation of bnAbs in viraemic non-progressors that demonstrate moderate to high viraemia. Further, since HIV-1 subtype C viruses account for more than 50 % of global HIV infections, the identification of bnAbs with novel specificities is crucial to enable the development of potent tools to aid in HIV therapy and prevention...
February 5, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457055/tuberculin-skin-test-conversion-and-primary-progressive-tuberculosis-disease-in-the-first-5-years-of-life-a-birth-cohort-study-from-cape-town-south-africa
#9
Leonardo Martinez, David M le Roux, Whitney Barnett, Attie Stadler, Mark P Nicol, Heather J Zar
Background: Tuberculosis is a leading cause of global childhood mortality. However, the epidemiology and burden of tuberculosis in infancy is not well understood. We aimed to investigate tuberculin skin test conversion and tuberculosis in the Drakenstein Child Health study, a South African birth cohort in a community in which tuberculosis incidence is hyperendemic. Methods: In this prospective birth cohort study, we enrolled pregnant women older than 18 years who were between 20 and 28 weeks' gestation and who were attending antenatal care in a peri-urban, impoverished South African setting...
January 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456824/a-brief-review-on-features-of-falciparum-malaria-during-pregnancy
#10
Alexandre Manirakiza, Eugène Serdouma, Richard Norbert Ngbalé, Sandrine Moussa, Samuel Gondjé, Rock Mbetid Degana, Gislain Géraud Banthas Bata, Jean Methode Moyen, Jean Delmont, Gérard Grésenguet, Abdoulaye Sepou
Malaria in pregnancy is a serious public health problem in tropical areas. Frequently, the placenta is infected by accumulation of Plasmodium falciparum- infected erythrocytes in the intervillous space. Falciparum malaria acts during pregnancy by a range of mechanisms, and chronic or repeated infection and co-infections have insidious effects. The susceptibility of pregnant women to malaria is due to both immunological and humoral changes. Until a malaria vaccine becomes available, the deleterious effects of malaria in pregnancy can be avoided by protection against infection and prompt treatment with safe, effective antimalarial agents; however, concurrent infections such as with HIV and helminths during pregnancy are jeopardizing malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa...
December 31, 2017: Journal of Public Health in Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454382/high-risk-human-papillomavirus-prevalence-and-genotype-distribution-among-women-infected-with-hiv-in-manaus-amazonas
#11
Monique Figueiredo Teixeira, Meritxell Sabidó, André Luiz Leturiondo, Cynthia de Oliveira Ferreira, Kátia Luz Torres, Adele Schwartz Benzaken
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women have a high prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV), and are infected with a broader range of HPV types than HIV-negative women. We aimed to determine the prevalence of cervical cytologic abnormalities, high-risk (HR)-HPV prevalence, type distribution according to the severity of cervical lesions and CD4 cell count and identify factors associated with HR-HPV infection among women living with HIV in Manaus, Amazonas. METHODS: We enrolled 325 women living with HIV that attended an infectious diseases referral hospital...
February 17, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452366/prevalence-and-incidence-of-anal-and-cervical-high-risk-human-papillomavirus-hpv-types-covered-by-current-hpv-vaccines-among-hiv-infected-women-in-the-study-to-understand-the-natural-history-of-hiv-aids-in-the-era-of-effective-therapy-the-sun-study
#12
Erna Milunka Kojic, Lois Conley, Tim Bush, Susan Cu-Uvin, Elizabeth R Unger, Keith Henry, John Hammer, Gerome Escota, Teresa M Darragh, Joel M Palefsky, John T Brooks, Pragna Patel
Background: Nonavalent (9v) human papilloma virus vaccine targets high-risk (HR)-HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58, and low-risk 6, 11. We examined prevalence, incidence, and clearance of anal and cervical HR-HPV in HIV-infected women. Methods: From 2004-2006, the SUN Study enrolled 167 women from four US cities. Anal and cervical specimens were collected annually for cytology and identification of 37 HPV types; 14 HR include: 9v 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58; non-9v 35, 39, 51, 56, 59, 66, 68...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449847/potential-epigenetic-regulation-in-the-germinal-center-reaction-of-lymphoid-tissues-in-hiv-siv-infection
#13
REVIEW
Xiaolei Wang, Huanbin Xu
The production of high-affinity and broadly neutralizing antibodies plays a key role in the defense against pathogens. These antibody responses require effective germinal center (GC) reaction within anatomical niches of GCs, where follicular helper T (Tfh) cells provide cognate help to B cells for T cell-dependent antibody responses. Emerging evidences indicate that GC reaction in normal state and perhaps establishment of latent Tfh cell reservoir in HIV/SIV infection are tightly regulated by epigenetic histone modifications, which are responsible for activating or silencing chromatin...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449101/evaluation-of-a-convenient-vaccination-schedule-against-hepatitis-b-in-hiv-patients-with-undetectable-hiv-viral-load
#14
Sofia Kourkounti, Theodoros Retsas, Vassilios Paparizos, Antonios Tsimpidakis, Violetta Kapsimali, Dimitrios Rigopoulos
Vaccination against hepatitis B virus (HBV) is recommended for all HIV-positive individuals but the standard schedule is not satisfactory. High or more doses have also been studied with variable results. We compared a vaccination schedule with a higher dose but fewer shots to the standard scheme (HBVaxPro 40 μg versus Engerix 20 μg at 0, 1, and 6 months). Of the 63 patients vaccinated with HBVaxPro 79%, 65% and 47% seroconverted at month 1, 12 and 24 after vaccination, respectively. A total of 137 patients received Engerix and showed lower response rates (68%, 53% and 38%, respectively)...
February 12, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447196/nasopharyngeal-carriage-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-among-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-children-5-years-of-age-before-introduction-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-mozambique
#15
Jennifer R Verani, Sérgio Massora, Sozinho Acácio, Rita Teresa Dos Santos, Delfino Vubil, Fabiana Pimenta, Iaci Moura, Cynthia G Whitney, Maria Helena Costa, Eusébio Macete, Maria Benigna Matsinhe, Maria da Gloria Carvalho, Betuel Sigaúque
Nasopharyngeal carriage is a precursor for pneumococcal disease and can be useful for evaluating pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) impact. We studied pre-PCV pneumococcal carriage among HIV-infected and -uninfected children in Mozambique. Between October 2012 and March 2013, we enrolled HIV-infected children age <5 years presenting for routine care at seven HIV clinics in 3 sites, including Maputo (urban-south), Nampula (urban-north), and Manhiça (rural-south). We also enrolled a random sample of HIV-uninfected children <5 years old from a demographic surveillance site in Manhiça...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446249/serological-responses-to-revaccination-against-hbv-in-hiv-positive-patients-born-in-the-era-of-nationwide-neonatal-hbv-vaccination
#16
Yi-Chia Huang, Szu-Min Hsieh, Wang-Huei Sheng, Yu-Shan Huang, Kuan-Yin Lin, Guan-Jhou Chen, Shang-Ping Yang, Wen-Chun Liu, Yi-Ching Su, Hsin-Yun Sun, Chien-Ching Hung, Shan-Chwen Chang
BACKGROUND: Serological responses to revaccination against hepatitis B virus (HBV) are unclear in HIV-positive adults who had undergone neonatal HBV vaccination and whose antibodies against HBV had waned in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). METHODS: Between 2000 and 2017, 666 HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) who were born after 1986, when nationwide neonatal HBV vaccination program was implemented in Taiwan, were included for analyses...
February 15, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445643/influenza-vaccination-in-identified-people-living-with-hiv-aids-and-health-care-providers-of-triangular-clinics-in-iran-2015-2016
#17
Mohammad Mehdi Gouya, Katayoun Tayeri, Hossein Akbari, Farshid Rezaei, Peyman Hemmati, Mahmood Soroush
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444185/humoral-and-cell-mediated-immune-responses-after-a-booster-dose-of-hbv-vaccine-in-hiv-infected-children-adolescents-and-young-adults
#18
Vania Giacomet, Michela Masetti, Pilar Nannini, Federica Forlanini, Mario Clerici, Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti, Daria Trabattoni
OBJECTIVE: HBV vaccine induces protective antibodies only in 23-56% of HIV-infected children. The aim of our study is to evaluate the immunologic effects of a booster dose of HBV vaccine in HIV-infected youth. DESIGN: 53 young HIV-infected patients in whom HBV vaccination did not elicit protective Ab titers were enrolled. All patients were on ART with optimal immunological and viral response. METHOD: All patients received a booster dose of HBV vaccine (HBVAXPRO 10 μg i...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443078/chemo-enzymatic-synthesis-of-n-glycans-for-array-development-and-hiv-antibody-profiling
#19
Sachin S Shivatare, Vidya S Shivatare, Chung-Yi Wu, Chi-Huey Wong
We present a highly efficient way for the rapid preparation of a wide range of N-linked oligosaccharides (estimated to exceed 20,000 structures) that are commonly found on human glycoproteins. To achieve the desired structural diversity, the strategy began with the chemo-enzymatic synthesis of three kinds of oligosaccharyl fluoride modules, followed by their stepwise α-selective glycosylations at the 3-O and 6-O positions of the mannose residue of the common core trisaccharide having a crucial β-mannoside linkage...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442996/role-of-framework-mutations-and-antibody-flexibility-in-the-evolution-of-broadly-neutralizing-antibodies
#20
Victor Ovchinnikov, Joy E Louveau, John P Barton, Martin Karplus, Arup K Chakraborty
Eliciting antibodies that are cross reactive with surface proteins of diverse strains of highly mutable pathogens (e.g., HIV, influenza) could be key for developing effective universal vaccines. Mutations in the framework regions of such broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) have been reported to play a role in determining their properties. We used molecular dynamics simulations and models of affinity maturation to study specific bnAbs against HIV. Our results suggest specific classes of evolutionary lineages: if germline B cells that initiate affinity maturation have high affinity for the conserved residues of the targeted epitope, framework mutations increase antibody rigidity as affinity maturation progresses to evolve bnAbs...
February 14, 2018: ELife
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