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Tad Dallas, Andrew W Park, John M Drake
Host-parasite associations are complex interactions dependent on aspects of hosts (e.g. traits, phylogeny or coevolutionary history), parasites (e.g. traits and parasite interactions) and geography (e.g. latitude). Predicting the permissive host set or the subset of the host community that a parasite can infect is a central goal of parasite ecology. Here we develop models that accurately predict the permissive host set of 562 helminth parasites in five different parasite taxonomic groups. We developed predictive models using host traits, host taxonomy, geographic covariates, and parasite community composition, finding that models trained on parasite community variables were more accurate than any other covariate group, even though parasite community covariates only captured a quarter of the variance in parasite community composition...
October 20, 2016: Parasitology
D Francomano, A Ilacqua, A Cortese, G Tartaglia, A Lenzi, M Inghilleri, A Aversa
PURPOSE: Men affected by multiple sclerosis often experience neurogenic overactive bladder (OAB), lower urinary tract symptoms and erectile dysfunction (ED). The aim of the study was to investigate modifications of urinary and sexual functions after administration of daily tadalafil (TAD) 5 mg. METHODS: Twenty men were enrolled in a single-blind, 4-week prospective study while 10 men without treatment served as controls. Primary outcomes were changes from baseline of International Prostate Symptom (IPSS), OAB questionnaire (OAB-q-short form) and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) scores...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Linda Koch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: Nature Reviews. Genetics
Zehra Ordulu, Tammy Kammin, Harrison Brand, Vamsee Pillalamarri, Claire E Redin, Ryan L Collins, Ian Blumenthal, Carrie Hanscom, Shahrin Pereira, India Bradley, Barbara F Crandall, Pamela Gerrol, Mark A Hayden, Naveed Hussain, Bibi Kanengisser-Pines, Sibel Kantarci, Brynn Levy, Michael J Macera, Fabiola Quintero-Rivera, Erica Spiegel, Blair Stevens, Janet E Ulm, Dorothy Warburton, Louise E Wilkins-Haug, Naomi Yachelevich, James F Gusella, Michael E Talkowski, Cynthia C Morton
In this exciting era of "next-gen cytogenetics," integrating genomic sequencing into the prenatal diagnostic setting is possible within an actionable time frame and can provide precise delineation of balanced chromosomal rearrangements at the nucleotide level. Given the increased risk of congenital abnormalities in newborns with de novo balanced chromosomal rearrangements, comprehensive interpretation of breakpoints could substantially improve prediction of phenotypic outcomes and support perinatal medical care...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
Anastasia Mylona, Francois-Xavier Theillet, Charles Foster, Tammy M Cheng, Francesc Miralles, Paul A Bates, Philipp Selenko, Richard Treisman
Multisite phosphorylation regulates many transcription factors, including the serum response factor partner Elk-1. Phosphorylation of the transcriptional activation domain (TAD) of Elk-1 by the protein kinase ERK at multiple sites potentiates recruitment of the Mediator transcriptional coactivator complex and transcriptional activation, but the roles of individual phosphorylation events had remained unclear. Using time-resolved nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we found that ERK2 phosphorylation proceeds at markedly different rates at eight TAD sites in vitro, which we classified as fast, intermediate, and slow...
October 14, 2016: Science
Yang Zhou, Lingyang Xu, Derek M Bickhart, El Hamidi Abdel Hay, Steven G Schroeder, Erin E Connor, Leeson J Alexander, Tad S Sonstegard, Curtis P Van Tassell, Hong Chen, George E Liu
BACKGROUND: As a major epigenetic component, DNA methylation plays important functions in individual development and various diseases. DNA methylation has been well studied in human and model organisms, but only limited data exist in economically important animals like cattle. RESULTS: Using reduced representation bisulphite sequencing (RRBS), we obtained single-base-resolution maps of bovine DNA methylation from ten somatic tissues. In total, we evaluated 1,868,049 cytosines in CG-enriched regions...
October 6, 2016: BMC Genomics
Nestor Gomez, Tatiana Erazo, Jose M Lizcano
ERK5, the last MAP kinase family member discovered, is activated by the upstream kinase MEK5 in response to growth factors and stress stimulation. MEK5-ERK5 pathway has been associated to different cellular processes, playing a crucial role in cell proliferation in normal and cancer cells by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of its kinase activity. Thus, nuclear ERK5 activates transcription factors by either direct phosphorylation or acting as co-activator thanks to a unique transcriptional activation TAD domain located at its C-terminal tail...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Ewa Surmiak, Aleksandra Twarda-Clapa, Krzysztof M Zak, Bogdan Musielak, Marcin D Tomala, Katarzyna Kubica, Przemysław Grudnik, Mariusz Madej, Mateusz Jabłoński, Jan Potempa, Justyna Kalinowska-Tłuścik, Grzegorz Dubin, Alexander Dömling, Tad A Holak
The p53 pathway is inactivated in almost all types of cancer by mutations in the p53 encoding gene or overexpression of the p53 negative regulators, Mdm2 and/or Mdmx. Restoration of the p53 function by inhibition of the p53-Mdm2/Mdmx interaction opens up a prospect for a non-genotoxic anticancer therapy. Here we present the syntheses, activities and crystal structures on two novel classes of Mdm2-p53 inhibitors that are based on the 3-pyrrolin-2-one and 2-furanone scaffolds. The structures of the complexes formed by these inhibitors and Mdm2 reveal the dimeric protein molecular organization that has not been observed in the small-molecule/Mdm2 complexes described until now...
October 6, 2016: ACS Chemical Biology
Martin Franke, Daniel M Ibrahim, Guillaume Andrey, Wibke Schwarzer, Verena Heinrich, Robert Schöpflin, Katerina Kraft, Rieke Kempfer, Ivana Jerković, Wing-Lee Chan, Malte Spielmann, Bernd Timmermann, Lars Wittler, Ingo Kurth, Paola Cambiaso, Orsetta Zuffardi, Gunnar Houge, Lindsay Lambie, Francesco Brancati, Ana Pombo, Martin Vingron, Francois Spitz, Stefan Mundlos
Chromosome conformation capture methods have identified subchromosomal structures of higher-order chromatin interactions called topologically associated domains (TADs) that are separated from each other by boundary regions. By subdividing the genome into discrete regulatory units, TADs restrict the contacts that enhancers establish with their target genes. However, the mechanisms that underlie partitioning of the genome into TADs remain poorly understood. Here we show by chromosome conformation capture (capture Hi-C and 4C-seq methods) that genomic duplications in patient cells and genetically modified mice can result in the formation of new chromatin domains (neo-TADs) and that this process determines their molecular pathology...
October 5, 2016: Nature
S Kumar, G N Chadha
To evaluate a new technique of Dynamic hip screw (DHS) fixation without using traction table. From july 2006 to july 2012, 328 patients undergoing DHS fixation using manual traction technique were evaluated in terms of Tip apex distance (TAD), -quality of fracture reduction, operation time, preoperative preparation time. In 97% cases good to moderate reduction could be achieved. The mean TAD was 19.2 millimeters, mean operation time 37 minutes and screw cutout rate was only 0.91%. This technique is easy, reproducible, cheap do not sacrifice reduction alignment, screw position and is extremely beneficial in polytrauma patients where multiple surgeries are to be done...
August 2016: Acta Orthopaedica Belgica
Ill-Min Chung, Sarada Ketharnathan, Seung-Hyun Kim, Muthu Thiruvengadam, Mari Kavitha Rani, Govindasamy Rajakumar
Proximity ligation assays such as circularized chromosome conformation capture and high-throughput chromosome capture assays have shed light on the structural organization of the interphase genome. Functional topologically associating domains (TADs) that constitute the building blocks of genomic organization are disrupted and reconstructed during the cell cycle. Epigenetic memory, as well as the sequence of chromosomes, regulate TAD reconstitution. Sub-TAD domains that are invariant across cell types have been identified, and contacts between these domains, rather than looping, are speculated to drive chromatin folding...
2016: Genes
Wulan Deng, Gerd A Blobel
Chromosome conformation capture (3C) technology and its derivatives are currently the primary methodologies measuring contacts among genomic elements. In fact, the lion share of what is currently known about chromosome folding is based on 3C-related approaches. For example, distal enhancers are commonly in physically proximity with their target genes, forming chromatin loops. Additional layers of chromatin organization have been described using 3C-based techniques, including topological domains (TADs) and sub-TADs...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
F Xing, Y N Lin, Q Sun, L Qin, Y J Jia, D L Zhang, K Ru
Objective: To characterize the molecular profile in patients with Ph negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) by exploring 49 gene mutations. Methods: Targeted gene sequencing were performed to analyze 49 MPN-associated genes in 51 patients with Ph negative MPN, of which CARL (exon 9), NPM1 (exon 12) and CEBPA (TAD, BZIP domains) were investigated by using Sanger sequencing simultaneously, while FLT3-ITD was assessed by PCR method. Results: Mutations were detected in 73.5% (36/49) of genes, and the mutational rates of JAK2-V617F, CALR (exon 9) and MPL were 60...
September 8, 2016: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
Yang Wang, Zhi-Min Zhao, Guan-Xin Zhang, Fan Yang, Yan Yan, Su-Xuan Liu, Song-Hua Li, Guo-Kun Wang, Zhi-Yun Xu
The aortic medial degeneration is the key histopathologic feature of Thoracic aortic dissection (TAD). The aim of this study was to identify the change of autophagic activity in the aortic wall during TAD development, and to explore the roles of autophagy on regulating functional properties of smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Firstly, compared with control group (n = 11), the increased expression of autophagic markers Beclin1 and LC3 was detected in the aortic wall from TAD group (n = 23) by immunochemistry and western blot...
October 14, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Jonas Ibn-Salem, Enrique M Muro, Miguel A Andrade-Navarro
Paralog genes arise from gene duplication events during evolution, which often lead to similar proteins that cooperate in common pathways and in protein complexes. Consequently, paralogs show correlation in gene expression whereby the mechanisms of co-regulation remain unclear. In eukaryotes, genes are regulated in part by distal enhancer elements through looping interactions with gene promoters. These looping interactions can be measured by genome-wide chromatin conformation capture (Hi-C) experiments, which revealed self-interacting regions called topologically associating domains (TADs)...
September 14, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Kaisa Ylänen, Anneli Eerola, Kim Vettenranta, Tuija Poutanen
UNLABELLED: Longitudinal motion significantly contributes to the contraction of the ventricles. We studied the left (LV) and right ventricular (RV) longitudinal functions in 75 anthracycline-exposed, long-term childhood cancer survivors and 75 healthy controls with conventional echocardiography, tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) of the mitral and tricuspid annular motion, and real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT-3DE). Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging was performed on 61 of the survivors...
October 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
Syrone Liu, Dane C Lee, Tad Tanoura
The medial tentorial artery arises from the meningohypophyseal trunk, a branch of the cavernous internal carotid artery, and it is poorly visualized on angiography in the absence of pathologically increased blood flow. We present the case of a 38-year-old man with intraventricular hemorrhage from a tentorial dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) singularly supplied by a robust medial tentorial artery. Tentorial DAVFs comprise a rare but high-risk subset of DAVFs. The diagnosis was suggested by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings and confirmed with digital subtraction angiography...
September 2016: Radiology case reports
Rimei Nishimura, Hironari Sano, Takako Shirasawa, Toru Matsudaira, Yumi Miyashita, Hirotaka Ochiai, Akatsuki Kokaze, Naoko Tajima, Kazunori Utsunomiya
BACKGROUND: Little information is available regarding changes in adiponectin fractions. The objective of this study was to examine changes in the composition of differing adiponectin fractions using a population-based, prospective pediatric cohort. METHODS: A total of 358 fourth graders (9-10 years old) from Ina town in Saitama, Japan, were followed up for 3 years. BMI and total adiponectin (TAD), high-molecular weight adiponectin (HAD), medium-molecular weight adiponectin, and low-molecular weight adiponectin levels were measured in these subjects at baseline and at the end of the follow-up...
September 1, 2016: Childhood Obesity
Liis Uusküla-Reimand, Huayun Hou, Payman Samavarchi-Tehrani, Matteo Vietri Rudan, Minggao Liang, Alejandra Medina-Rivera, Hisham Mohammed, Dominic Schmidt, Petra Schwalie, Edwin J Young, Jüri Reimand, Suzana Hadjur, Anne-Claude Gingras, Michael D Wilson
BACKGROUND: Type II DNA topoisomerases (TOP2) regulate DNA topology by generating transient double stranded breaks during replication and transcription. Topoisomerase II beta (TOP2B) facilitates rapid gene expression and functions at the later stages of development and differentiation. To gain new insight into the genome biology of TOP2B, we used proteomics (BioID), chromatin immunoprecipitation, and high-throughput chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) to identify novel proximal TOP2B protein interactions and characterize the genomic landscape of TOP2B binding at base pair resolution...
2016: Genome Biology
Yasuhiro Itsuki, Eisaku Imamura, Junji Sugawara, Ravindra Nanda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Orthodontics: JCO
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