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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719840/environmental-and-human-health-challenges-of-industrial-livestock-and-poultry-farming-in-china-and-their-mitigation
#1
REVIEW
Yuanan Hu, Hefa Cheng, Shu Tao
Driven by the growing demand for food products of animal origin, industrial livestock and poultry production has become increasingly popular and is on the track of becoming an important source of environmental pollution in China. Although concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have higher production efficiency and profitability with less resource consumption compared to the traditional family-based and "free range" farming, they bring significant environmental pollution concerns and pose public health risks...
July 15, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719798/chimeric-antigen-receptor-t-cells-for-b-cell-malignancies
#2
REVIEW
Eben I Lichtman, Gianpietro Dotti
The adoptive transfer of T-lymphocytes modified to express chimeric antigen receptors (CAR-Ts) has produced impressive clinical responses among patients with B-cell malignancies. This has led to a rapid expansion in the number of clinical trials over the past several years. Although CD19-specific CAR-Ts are the most extensively evaluated, CAR-Ts specific for other B-cell-associated targets have also shown promise. However, despite this success, toxicities associated with CAR-T administration remain a significant concern...
June 29, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719751/determining-the-mechanism-and-efficiency-of-industrial-dye-adsorption-through-facile-structural-control-of-organo-montmorillonite-adsorbents
#3
Peng Huang, Algy Kazlauciunas, Robert Menzel, Long Lin
The structural evolution of cost-effective organo-clays (montmorillonite modified with different loadings of CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide)) is investigated and linked to the adsorption uptake and mechanism of an important industrial dye (hydrolyzed Remazol Black B). Key organo-clay characteristics, such as the intergallery spacing and the average number of well-stacked layers per clay stack are determined by low-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), while differential thermo-gravimetric analysis (DTGA) is used to differentiate between surface-bound and intercalated CTAB...
July 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719654/vibrio-vulnificus-induces-mtor-activation-and-inflammatory-responses-in-macrophages
#4
Dan-Li Xie, Meng-Meng Zheng, Yi Zheng, Hui Gao, Jie Zhang, Ting Zhang, Jian-Chun Guo, X Frank Yang, Xiao-Ping Zhong, Yong-Liang Lou
Vibrio vulnificus (V. vulnificus), a Gram-negative marine bacterium, can cause life-threatening primary septicemia, especially in patients with liver diseases. How V. vulnificus affects the liver and how it acts on macrophages are not well understood. In this report, we demonstrated that V. vulnificus infection causes a strong inflammatory response, marked expansion of liver-resident macrophages, and liver damage in mice. We demonstrated further that V. vulnificus activates mTOR in macrophages and inhibition of mTOR differentially regulates V...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719574/ancient-european-dog-genomes-reveal-continuity-since-the-early-neolithic
#5
Laura R Botigué, Shiya Song, Amelie Scheu, Shyamalika Gopalan, Amanda L Pendleton, Matthew Oetjens, Angela M Taravella, Timo Seregély, Andrea Zeeb-Lanz, Rose-Marie Arbogast, Dean Bobo, Kevin Daly, Martina Unterländer, Joachim Burger, Jeffrey M Kidd, Krishna R Veeramah
Europe has played a major role in dog evolution, harbouring the oldest uncontested Palaeolithic remains and having been the centre of modern dog breed creation. Here we sequence the genomes of an Early and End Neolithic dog from Germany, including a sample associated with an early European farming community. Both dogs demonstrate continuity with each other and predominantly share ancestry with modern European dogs, contradicting a previously suggested Late Neolithic population replacement. We find no genetic evidence to support the recent hypothesis proposing dual origins of dog domestication...
July 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719545/social-media-in-pediatric-orthopaedics
#6
Sarah T Lander, James O Sanders, Peter C Cook, Natasha T O'Malley
BACKGROUND: Internet searches and social media utilization in health care has exploded over the past 5 years, and patients utilize it to gain information on their health conditions and physicians. Social media has the potential to serve as a means for education, communication, and marketing in all health care specialties. Physicians are sometimes reluctant to engage because of concerns of privacy, litigation, and lack of experience with this modality. Many surgical subspecialties have capitalized on social media but no study to date has examined the specific footprint of pediatric orthopaedic surgeons in this realm...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719390/total-pancreatectomy-with-islet-autotransplantation-recent-updates-and-outcomes
#7
Yoshitaro Shindo, Mazhar A Kanak
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TPIAT) is a reliable therapy to retain endocrine function, to alleviate pain and improve quality of life in adult and pediatric patients suffering from refractory chronic pancreatitis and recurrent acute pancreatitis. Recently, an expansion of indications to include benign and malignant pancreatic disease has been suggested. Improved methods for evaluating the functional quality of islets and predicting transplant outcome have been discussed...
July 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719054/evolutionary-cell-biology-of-proteins-from-protists-to-humans-and-plants
#8
REVIEW
Helmut Plattner
During evolution, the cell as a fine-tuned machine had to undergo permanent adjustments to match changes in its environment, while "closed for repair work" was not possible. Evolution from protists (protozoa and unicellular algae) to multicellular organisms may have occurred in basically two lineages, Unikonta and Bikonta, culminating in mammals and angiosperms (flowering plants), respectively. Unicellular models for unikont evolution are myxamoebae (Dictyostelium) and increasingly also choanoflagellates, whereas, for bikonts, ciliates are preferred models...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719044/symmetry-breaking-in-development-and-stochastic-gene-expression
#9
REVIEW
Jonathan R Chubb
The prevailing emphasis in developmental biology since the expansion of the molecular biology age has been that developmental decisions are instructive. A cell differentiates to become a specific cell type because it receives a signal, whereas its neighbor that does not receive the signal adopts a different fate. This emphasis has been generally accepted, largely because of the success of this view in tractable invertebrate model organisms, and the widespread similarities in molecular regulation to the development of more complex species...
July 18, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718914/reduced-numbers-of-circulating-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-patients-with-common-variable-immunodeficiency
#10
Christoph B Geier, Sophie Kraupp, David Bra, Martha M Eibl, Jocelyn R Farmer, Krisztian Csomos, Jolan E Walter, Hermann M Wolf
Recent studies identified an emerging role of group 2 and 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) as key players in the generation of T-dependent and T-independent antibody production. In this retrospective case-control study CD117(+) ILCs (including the majority of ILC2 and ILC3) were reduced in patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). The reduction in CD117(+) ILCs was distinctive to CVID and could not be observed in patients with X linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA). Patients with a more pronounced reduction in CD117(+) ILC numbers showed significantly lower numbers of peripheral MZ-like B cells and an increased prevalence of chronic, non-infectious enteropathy...
July 18, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718748/motion-capture-depends-upon-the-common-fate-factor-among-elements
#11
Makoto Ichikawa, Yuko Masakura
When observers move the head backwards and forwards while fixating on the center of the concentric circles that consist of oblique lines, they see illusory rotation of those circles. If several dots are superimposed on the proximity to the inner concentric circles, observers see the illusory rotation not only for the circles but also for the superimposed dots. This illusory rotation of the dots is based on motion capture. In this study, in order to understand the basis of the motion capture, we examined how motion signal with different directions (rotation, expansion/contraction, and horizontal translation) in terms of motion on a display, as well as illusory motion signal from the oblique components, affects the motion capture...
January 1, 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718709/bioaerosols-concentrations-in-working-areas-in-biomethanization-facilities
#12
Marie-Eve Dubuis, Hamza M'Bareche, Marc Veillette, Bouchra Bakhiyi, Joseph Zayed, Jacques Lavoie, Caroline Duchaine
This study sought to fill the gap in information about the type and the concentration of bioaerosols present in the air of biomethanization facilities (BF). Evaluation of bioaerosol composition and concentration was achieved in two biomethanization facilities located in Eastern Canada, during summer and winter. In order to have a thorough understanding of the studied environment, the methodology combined culture of bacteria and molds, qPCR for specific microorganisms, endotoxin quantification and NGS for bacterial diversity...
July 18, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718680/development-of-emu-oil-loaded-pcl-collagen-bioactive-nanofibers-for-proliferation-and-stemness-preservation-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cell-possible-application-in-regenerative-medicine
#13
Kazem Nejati-Koshki, Younes Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Effat Alizadeh, Abbas Ebrahimi-Kalan, Yousef Mortazavi, Nosratollah Zarghami
Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) are promising candidate in stem cell therapies, and maintaining their stemness potential is vital to achieve effective treatment. Natural based scaffolds have been recently attracted increasing attention in nanomedicine and drug delivery. In the present study, a polymeric nanofibrous scaffold was developed based on the polycaprolactone/Collagen (PCL/Coll) containing Emu oil as a bioactive material to induce the proliferation of ASCs, while simultaneously preserve the stemness property of those cells...
July 18, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718630/designed-formulation-of-se-impregnated-nitrogen-containing-hollow-core-mesoporous-shell-carbon-spheres-multifunctional-potential-cathode-for-li-se-and-na-se-batteries
#14
Balakumar Kalimuthu, Kalaiselvi Nallathamby
Nitrogen containing carbon spheres with hollow core and mesoporous shell (NHCS), capable of confining Se as high as 72 wt.% has been demonstrated to exhibit appreciable electrochemical behaviour with 52 and 61 wt.% Se loading. In particular, 52 wt.% Se confined NHCS cathode exhibits 265 mAh/g at 10C rate and retains 75% of initial capacity at 2C rate up to 10000 cycles with an insignificant decay of 0.0025% per cycle, which is an ever first report on the extended cycle life of Li-Se batteries. Due to the negligible difference found between the transport kinetics of Se and that of Li2Se, irrespective of the cycling rate, 52 wt...
July 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718627/structural-basis-for-interaction-of-the-tandem-zinc-finger-domains-of-human-muscleblind-with-cognate-rna-from-human-cardiac-troponin-t
#15
Sangho Park, Priti Deka Phukan, Markus Zeeb, Maria A Martinez-Yamout, Helen Jane Dyson, Peter E Wright
The human muscleblind-like proteins (MBNL) regulate tissue-specific splicing by targeting cardiac troponin T and other pre-mRNAs; aberrant targeting of CUG and CCUG repeat expansions frequently accompanies the neuromuscular disease myotonic dystrophy. We show, using biolayer interferometry (Octet), and NMR spectroscopy, that the zinc finger domains of MBNL isoform 1 (MBNL1) are necessary and sufficient for binding CGCU sequences within the pre-mRNA of human cardiac troponin T (hcTnT). Protein constructs containing zinc fingers 1 and 2 (zf12) and zinc fingers 3 and 4 (zf34) of MBNL1 each fold into a compact globular tandem zinc finger structure that participates in RNA binding...
July 18, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718616/photo-thermally-driven-refreshable-microactuators-based-on-graphene-oxide-doped-paraffin
#16
Sichao Hou, Miao Wang, Shouwu Guo, Ming Su
Actuators based on phase change materials (paraffin) can simultaneously produce large stroke length and large force due to thermal expansion, but the low thermal conductivity of paraffin requires high power input and long actuation time. The graphene oxide (GO) doped paraffin dynamic actuator addresses the key challenges in the design of thermal phase change actuators: Thermal conductivity and light absorbing is increased and the response time is reduced compared to the standard phase change actuator designed with metal heating resistors...
July 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718437/mutations-cancer-and-the-telomere-length-paradox
#17
REVIEW
Abraham Aviv, James J Anderson, Jerry W Shay
Individuals with short telomeres should be at increased risk for cancer, since short telomeres lead to genomic instability - a hallmark of cancer. However, individuals with long telomeres also display an increased risk for major cancers, thus creating a cancer-telomere length (TL) paradox. The two-stage clonal expansion model we propose is based on the thesis that a series of mutational hits (1st Hit) at the stem-cell level generates a clone with replicative advantage. A series of additional mutational hits (2nd Hit) transforms the expanding clone into cancer...
April 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718074/advances-in-imaging-instrumentation-for-nuclear-cardiology
#18
Jae Sung Lee, Gil Kovalski, Tali Sharir, Dong Soo Lee
Advances in imaging instrumentation and technology have greatly contributed to nuclear cardiology. Dedicated cardiac SPECT cameras incorporating novel, highly efficient detector, collimator, and system designs have emerged with the expansion of nuclear cardiology. Solid-state radiation detectors incorporating cadmium zinc telluride, which directly convert radiation to electrical signals and yield improved energy resolution and spatial resolution and enhanced count sensitivity geometries, are increasingly gaining favor as the detector of choice for application in dedicated cardiac SPECT systems...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717964/wound-morphology-in-contact-shots-from-blank-cartridge-handguns-a-study-on-composite-models
#19
Rebecca Pircher, Markus Große Perdekamp, Annette Thierauf-Emberger, Lena Kramer, Stefan Pollak, Dorothee Geisenberger
It is a well-known fact that blank cartridge guns can cause penetrating and even fatal injuries when discharged in contact or at very close ranges. In these cases, the gas jet perforates the skin leaving an entrance wound similar to that from a conventional gun. In order to investigate the wound morphology in contact shots from blank firearms, test shots were fired at composite models of pig skin and gelatin blocks using three different calibre 9-mm blank cartridge handguns (two pistols and one revolver) and two types of ammunition...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717666/whole-exome-sequencing-and-dna-methylation-analysis-in-a-clinical-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-cohort
#20
Fleur C Garton, Beben Benyamin, Qiongyi Zhao, Zhijun Liu, Jacob Gratten, Anjali K Henders, Zong-Hong Zhang, Janette Edson, Sarah Furlong, Sarah Morgan, Susan Heggie, Kathryn Thorpe, Casey Pfluger, Karen A Mather, Perminder S Sachdev, Allan F McRae, Matthew R Robinson, Sonia Shah, Peter M Visscher, Marie Mangelsdorf, Robert D Henderson, Naomi R Wray, Pamela A McCombe
BACKGROUND: Gene discovery has provided remarkable biological insights into amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). One challenge for clinical application of genetic testing is critical evaluation of the significance of reported variants. METHODS: We use whole exome sequencing (WES) to develop a clinically relevant approach to identify a subset of ALS patients harboring likely pathogenic mutations. In parallel, we assess if DNA methylation can be used to screen for pathogenicity of novel variants since a methylation signature has been shown to associate with the pathogenic C9orf72 expansion, but has not been explored for other ALS mutations...
July 2017: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
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