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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346868/circulation-of-zoonotic-arboviruses-in-equine-populations-of-mallorca-island-spain
#1
Jessica Vanhomwegen, Cécile Beck, Philippe Desprès, Amanda Figuerola, Ramón García, Sylvie Lecollinet, Marc López-Roig, Jean-Claude Manuguerra, Jordi Serra-Cobo
The presence of major arbovirus vector species, climate change that promotes the expansion and increase of their populations, and potential animal reservoirs mean that vector-borne diseases represent a significant health risk for Mallorca's inhabitants. Microbiological monitoring of circulating arboviruses, particularly flaviviruses causing encephalitis, was initiated using domestic horses from localities near wetlands as "sentinel" hosts. A total of 291 blood samples were taken from 172 horses between 2011 and 2012, using paired samples to highlight seroconversion events...
March 27, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346707/periurethral-muscle-derived-mononuclear-cell-injection-improves-urethral-sphincter-restoration-in-rats
#2
Marcelo Pitelli Turco, Alex Balduino de Souza, Isida de Campos Sousa, Paula Fratini, Mariana Matera Veras, Marcio Nogueira Rodrigues, José de Bessa, Marina Pandolphi Brolio, Katia Ramos Moreira Leite, Homero Bruschini, Miguel Srougi, Maria Angélica Miglino, Cristiano Mendes Gomes
AIMS: Investigate the effect of a novel cell-based therapy with skeletal muscle-derived mononuclear cells (SMDMCs) in a rat model of stress urinary incontinence. METHODS: Male Wistar-Kyoto rats' hind limb muscles were enzymatically dissociated, and SMDMCs were isolated without needing expansion. The cell population was characterized. Twenty female rats underwent urethrolysis. One week later, 10 rats received periurethral injection of 10(6) cells (SMDMC group), and 10 rats received saline injections (Saline group)...
March 27, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346621/current-status-of-family-medicine-faculty-development-in-sub-saharan-africa
#3
Paul R Larson, Patrick Chege, Bruce Dahlman, Christine Gibson, Ann Evensen, Maria C Colon-Gonzalez, Stephanie Onguka, Roberta Lamptey, William E Cayley, Bich-May Nguyen, Brian Johnson, Sawra Getnet, Memoona Hasnain
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Reducing the shortage of primary care physicians in sub-Saharan Africa requires expansion of training programs in family medicine. Challenges remain in preparing, recruiting, and retaining faculty qualified to teach in these pioneering programs. Little is known about the unique faculty development needs of family medicine faculty within the sub-Saharan African context. The purpose of this study was to assess the current status and future needs for developing robust family medicine faculty in sub-Saharan Africa...
March 2017: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346587/a-new-sign-of-intracerebral-hematoma-expansion-reply
#4
Gregoire Boulouis, Andreas Charidimou, M Edip Gurol
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 27, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346576/a-new-sign-of-intracerebral-hematoma-expansion
#5
Zhi-Wei Xia, Quan Cheng, Jing Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 27, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346517/cd22-is-required-for-formation-of-memory-b-cell-precursors-within-germinal-centers
#6
Craig P Chappell, Kevin E Draves, Edward A Clark
CD22 is a BCR co-receptor that regulates B cell signaling, proliferation and survival and is required for T cell-independent Ab responses. To investigate the role of CD22 during T cell-dependent (TD) Ab responses and memory B cell formation, we analyzed Ag-specific B cell responses generated by wild-type (WT) or CD22-/- B cells following immunization with a TD Ag. CD22-/- B cells mounted normal early Ab responses yet failed to generate either memory B cells or long-lived plasma cells, whereas WT B cells formed both populations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346373/harmful-use-of-alcohol-a-shadow-over-sub-saharan-africa-in-need-of-workable-solutions
#7
Carina Ferreira-Borges, Charles D H Parry, Thomas F Babor
Alcohol consumption and alcohol-attributable burden of disease in Africa are expected to rise in the near future, yet. increasing alcohol-related harm receives little attention from policymakers and from the population in general. Even where new legislation is proposed it is rarely enacted into law. Being at the center of social and cultural activities in many countries, alcohol's negative role in society and contribution to countries' burden of disease are rarely questioned. After the momentum created by the adoption in 2010 of the WHO Global Strategy and the WHO Regional Strategy (for Africa) to Reduce the Harmful Use of Alcohol, and the WHO Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Non-Communicable Diseases, in 2013, little seems to have been done to address the increasing use of alcohol, its associated burden and the new challenges that derive from the growing influence of the alcohol industry in Africa...
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346302/the-benefit-of-microskin-in-combination-with-autologous-keratinocyte-suspension-to-treat-full-skin-loss-in-vivo
#8
Yuru Shang, Dawei Li, Chuanan Shen, Kai Yin, Li Ma, Longzhu Li, Dongxu Zhao, Wenfeng Cheng
Patients with extensive deep burns often lack enough autologous skin to cover the wounds. This study explores a new method using microskin in combination with autologous keratinocytes in the treatment of extensive deep burn. Wounds in the combination group were treated with automicroskin at an area expansion ratio of 20:1 (wound area to automicroskin area) and autologous keratinocyte suspension, which were compared with the following treatments: no autotransplant, only allografts (control group); autologous keratinocyte suspension only (keratinocyte only group); automicroskin at an area expansion ratio of 20:1 (20:1 group); and automicroskin at an area expansion ratio of 10:1 (10:1 group, positive control)...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346027/biologically-based-mechanistic-models-of-radiation-related-carcinogenesis-applied-to-epidemiological-data
#9
W Rühm, M Eidemüller, J C Kaiser
PURPOSE: Biologically-based mechanistic models that are used in combining current understanding of human carcinogenesis with epidemiological studies were reviewed. Assessment was made of how well they fit the data, whether they account for non-linear radiobiological low-dose effects, and whether they suggest any implications for the dose response at low doses and dose rates. However, the present paper does not make an attempt to provide a complete review of the existing literature on biologically-based models and their application to epidemiological data...
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345888/influence-of-ring-strain-and-bond-polarization-on-the-ring-expansion-of-phosphorus-homocycles
#10
Saurabh S Chitnis, Rebecca A Musgrave, Hazel A Sparkes, Natalie E Pridmore, Vincent T Annibale, Ian Manners
Heterolytic cleavage of homoatomic bonds is a challenge, as it requires separation of opposite charges. Even highly strained homoatomic rings (e.g., cyclopropane and cyclobutane) are kinetically stable and do not react with nucleophiles or electrophiles. In contrast, cycloalkanes bearing electron-donating/withdrawing substituents on adjacent carbons have polarized C-C bonds and undergo numerous heterolytic ring-opening and expansion reactions. Here we show that upon electrophile activation phosphorus homocycles exhibit analogous reactivity, which is modulated by the amount of ring strain and extent of bond polarization...
March 27, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345732/comparative-analysis-in-continuous-expansion-of-bovine-and-human-primary-nucleus-pulposus-cells-for-tissue-repair-applications
#11
D H Rosenzweig, J Tremblay Gravel, D Bisson, J A Ouellet, M H Weber, L Haglund
Autologous NP cell implantation is a potential therapeutic avenue for intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. However, monolayer expansion of cells isolated from surgical samples may negatively impact matrix production by way of dedifferentiation. Previously, we have used a continuous expansion culture system to successfully preserve a chondrocyte phenotype. In this work, we hypothesised that continuous expansion culture could also preserve nucleus pulposus (NP) phenotype. We confirmed that serial passaging drove NP dedifferentiation by significantly decreasing collagen type II, aggrecan and chondroadherin (CHAD) gene expression, compared to freshly isolated cells...
March 24, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345503/physical-fitness-and-shapes-of-subcortical-brain-structures-in-children
#12
Francisco B Ortega, Daniel Campos, Cristina Cadenas-Sanchez, Signe Altmäe, Cristina Martínez-Zaldívar, Miguel Martín-Matillas, Andrés Catena, Cristina Campoy
A few studies have recently reported that higher cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with higher volumes of subcortical brain structures in children. It is, however, unknown how different fitness measures relate to shapes of subcortical brain nuclei. We aimed to examine the association of the main health-related physical fitness components with shapes of subcortical brain structures in a sample of forty-four Spanish children aged 9·7 (sd 0·2) years from the NUtraceuticals for a HEALthier life project...
March 27, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345375/the-chemo-prophylactic-efficacy-of-an-ethanol-moringa-oleifera-leaf-extract-against-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-rats
#13
Kadry M Sadek, Tarek K Abouzed, Reham Abouelkhair, Sherif Nasr
CONTEXT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the most well-known threatening tumours around the world, and the outlook remains bleak. Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) exhibits antitumor, antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. OBJECTIVES: To assess the chemo-prophylactic proficiency and other likely activities of Moringa oleifera leaf ethanol extract (MOLEE) against diethyl nitrosamine (DEN)-induced HCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wistar rats were gastrogavaged with MOLEE (500 mg/kg) for one week and then gastrogavaged with MOLEE and DEN (10 mg/kg) for the following 16 weeks...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345194/decay-of-the-glycolytic-pathway-and-adaptation-to-intranuclear-parasitism-within-enterocytozoonidae-microsporidia
#14
Dominic Wiredu Boakye, Pattana Jaroenlak, Anuphap Prachumwat, Tom A Williams, Kelly S Bateman, Ornchuma Itsathitphaisarn, Kallaya Sritunyalucksana, Konrad H Paszkiewicz, Karen A Moore, Grant D Stentiford, Bryony A P Williams
Glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation are the fundamental pathways of ATP generation in eukaryotes. Yet in microsporidia, endoparasitic fungi living at the limits of cellular streamlining, oxidative phosphorylation has been lost: energy is obtained directly from the host or, during the dispersive spore stage, via glycolysis. It was therefore surprising when the first genome from the Enterocytozoonidae - a major family of human and animal-infecting microsporidians - appeared to have lost glycolysis. Here we sequence and analyse genomes from four additional members of this family, shedding new light on their unusual biology...
March 26, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345193/retention-of-gene-diversity-during-the-spread-of-a-non-native-plant-species
#15
Katrien Vandepitte, Kenny Helsen, Kasper Van Acker, Joachim Mergeay, Olivier Honnay
Spatial expansion, which is a crucial stage in the process to successful biological invasion, is anticipated to profoundly affect the magnitude and spatial distribution of genetic diversity in novel colonized areas. Here we show that, contrasting common expectations, Pyrenean rocket (Sisymbrium austriacum), retained SNP diversity as this introduced plant species descended in the Meuse river basin. Allele frequencies did not mirror between-population distances along the predominant expansion axis. Reconstruction of invasion history based on the genotypes of historical herbarium specimens indicated no influence of additional introductions or multiple points of entry on this non-gradual pattern...
March 27, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345024/ovad1-a-novel-potent-and-selective-chimeric-oncolytic-virus-developed-for-ovarian-cancer-by-3d-directed-evolution
#16
Irene Kuhn, Maxine Bauzon, Nicola Green, Len Seymour, Kerry Fisher, Terry Hermiston
Effective therapeutics for ovarian cancer continue to be urgently needed, particularly for chemotherapy-resistant cases. Here we present both a 3D-Matrigel culture-based expansion of our directed evolution method for generation of oncolytic virotherapies and two promising ovarian-cancer targeted oncolytic viruses, OvAd1 and OvAd2. OvAd1 was developed using Matrigel cell cultures, whereas OvAd2 was developed in parallel using traditional monolayer tissue culture methods. Both viruses are potent against a panel of platinum-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines and are attenuated on normal cells in vitro, resulting in therapeutic windows of ∼200-fold...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy Oncolytics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345003/expansion-of-human-tregs-from-cryopreserved-umbilical-cord-blood-for-gmp-compliant-autologous-adoptive-cell-transfer-therapy
#17
Howard R Seay, Amy L Putnam, Judit Cserny, Amanda L Posgai, Emma H Rosenau, John R Wingard, Kate F Girard, Morey Kraus, Angela P Lares, Heather L Brown, Katherine S Brown, Kristi T Balavage, Leeana D Peters, Ashley N Bushdorf, Mark A Atkinson, Jeffrey A Bluestone, Michael J Haller, Todd M Brusko
Umbilical cord blood is a traditional and convenient source of cells for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Thymic regulatory T cells (Tregs) are also present in cord blood, and there is growing interest in the use of autologous Tregs to provide a low-risk, fully human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched cell product for treating autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes. Here, we describe a good manufacturing practice (GMP)-compatible Treg expansion protocol using fluorescence-activated cell sorting, resulting in a mean 2,092-fold expansion of Tregs over a 16-day culture for a median yield of 1...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344993/bringing-neural-cell-therapies-to-the-clinic-past-and-future-strategies
#18
REVIEW
Stefan Irion, Susan E Zabierowski, Mark J Tomishima
Cell replacement therapy in the nervous system has a rich history, with ∼40 years of research and ∼30 years of clinical experience. There is compelling evidence that appropriate cells can integrate and function in the dysfunctioning human nervous system, but the clinical results are mixed in practice. A number of factors conspire to vary patient outcome: the indication, cell source, patient selection, and team performing transplantation are all variables that can affect efficacy. Most early clinical trials have used fetal cells, a limited cell source that resists scale and standardization...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344988/inspiired-quantification-and-visualization-tools-for-analyzing-integration-site-distributions
#19
Charles C Berry, Christopher Nobles, Emmanuelle Six, Yinghua Wu, Nirav Malani, Eric Sherman, Anatoly Dryga, John K Everett, Frances Male, Aubrey Bailey, Kyle Bittinger, Mary J Drake, Laure Caccavelli, Paul Bates, Salima Hacein-Bey-Abina, Marina Cavazzana, Frederic D Bushman
Analysis of sites of newly integrated DNA in cellular genomes is important to several fields, but methods for analyzing and visualizing these datasets are still under development. Here, we describe tools for data analysis and visualization that take as input integration site data from our INSPIIRED pipeline. Paired-end sequencing allows inference of the numbers of transduced cells as well as the distributions of integration sites in target genomes. We present interactive heatmaps that allow comparison of distributions of integration sites to genomic features and that support numerous user-defined statistical tests...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344893/integrated-analysis-of-somatic-mutations-and-immune-microenvironment-in-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma
#20
Kazuma Kiyotani, Jae-Hyun Park, Hiroyuki Inoue, Aliya Husain, Sope Olugbile, Makda Zewde, Yusuke Nakamura, Wickii T Vigneswaran
To investigate the link between the genomic landscape of cancer cells and immune microenvironment in tumor tissues, we characterized somatic mutations and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), including mutation/neoantigen load, spatial heterogeneity of somatic mutations of cancer cells and TILs (T-cell receptor β (TCRβ) repertoire), and expression profiles of immune-related genes using specimens of three different tumor sites (anterior, posterior, and diaphragm) obtained from six MPM patients...
2017: Oncoimmunology
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