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Kang Jia Lu, Jian Zuo, Jian Chang, Hong Nan Kuan, Tai-Shung Chung
Management of produced water from shale gas production is a global challenge. Vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) is considered as a promising solution because of its various advantages. However, low surface tension species in produced water can easily deposit on the membrane surface and cause severe fouling or wetting problems. To solve the problems, an omniphobic polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber membrane has been developed via silica nanoparticle deposition followed by a Teflon® AF 2400 coating in this study...
March 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Amanda Figueiredo, Leonor M Nascimento, Louyse G Lopes, Rodrigo Giglioti, Ricardo D D G Albuquerque, Marcelo G Santos, Deborah Q Falcão, Jeane A P Nogueira, Leandro Rocha, Ana Carolina S Chagas
Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is responsible for reducing animal welfare, causing a drop in productive performance and transmitting hemoparasites. The main strategy of tick control is application of synthetic acaricides. However, parasite resistance to these compounds is a major concern. Therefore, the acaricidal and repellent in vitro effect of the Ocotea elegans essential oil on larvae and adult females of R. (B.) microplus were evaluated. The larval packet test (LPT), larval repellency test (RT) and adult immersion test (AIT) were performed...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Xiang Li, Yang Li, Tingting Guan, Fuchang Xu, Junqi Sun
Electrically conductive fabrics with liquid repellency and corrosive resistance are strongly desirable for wearable displays, biomedical sensors and so forth. In the present work, highly electrically conductive and healable superamphiphobic cotton fabrics are fabricated by a solution-dipping method that involves (NH4)2PdCl4-catalyzed electroless deposition of Cu and the subsequent deposition of a mixture of fluorinated-decyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (F-POSS) and 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane (POTS) on cotton fabrics...
March 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Seynabou Sougoufara, Omar Thiaw, Aurélie Cailleau, Nafissatou Diagne, Myriam Harry, Charles Bouganali, Pape M Sembène, Souleymane Doucoure, Cheikh Sokhna
The implementation of long-lasting insecticidal-treated bed nets (LLINs) has contributed to halving the mortality rate due to malaria since 2000 in sub-Saharan Africa. These tools are highly effective against indoor-feeding malaria vectors. Thus, to achieve the World Health Assembly's new target to reduce the burden of malaria over the next 15 years by 90%, it is necessary to understand how the spatiotemporal dynamics of malaria vectors and human exposure to bites is modified in the context of scaling up global efforts to control malaria transmission...
March 19, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Qiang Guo, Ian T Major, Gregg A Howe
Induced plant resistance depends on the production of specialized metabolites that repel attack by biotic aggressors and is often associated with reduced growth of vegetative tissues. Despite progress in understanding the signal transduction networks that control growth-defense tradeoffs, much remains to be learned about how growth rate is coordinated with changes in metabolism during growth-to-defense transitions. Here, we highlight recent advances in jasmonate research to suggest how a major branch of plant immunity is dynamically regulated to calibrate growth-defense balance with shifts in carbon availability...
March 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Keiji Yasuda, Tam Thanh Nguyen, Yoshiyuki Asakura
Cross-sectional area distribution of broadband noise in a sonochemical reactor was measured to estimate reaction fields. A needle-type hydrophone scanned the sonochemical reactor in horizontal and vertical directions at one-millimeter interval. To show an absolute value of broadband noise, average of broadband sound pressure was defined. The distribution of sound pressures at the fundamental and second harmonic frequencies were also measured. In the case of driving frequency at 130 kHz, sonochemical reaction fields were observed in several ellipse shapes...
May 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Xiao Huang, Qian-Xi Wang, A-Man Zhang, Jian Su
Acoustic bubbles have wide and important applications in ultrasonic cleaning, sonochemistry and medical ultrasonics. A two-microbubble system (TMS) under ultrasonic wave excitation is explored in the present study, by using the boundary element method (BEM) based on the potential flow theory. A parametric study of the behaviour of a TMS has been carried out in terms of the amplitude and direction of ultrasound as well as the sizes and separation distance of the two bubbles. Three regimes of the dynamic behaviour of the TMS have been identified in terms of the pressure amplitude of the ultrasonic wave...
May 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Angelica Plata-Rueda, Juliana Mendonça Campos, Gabriela da Silva Rolim, Luis Carlos Martínez, Marcelo Henrique Dos Santos, Flávio Lemes Fernandes, José Eduardo Serrão, José Cola Zanuncio
This study evaluated toxic effects, repellency and respiration rate caused by terpenoid constituents of cinnamon and clove essential oils and against Sitophilus granarius L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90 ), repellent effect, and behavior repellency response on adults of S. granarius after exposure to six concentrations of each essential oil and terpenoids were evaluated. The chemical composition of the cinnamon oil was also determined and primary compounds were eugenol (10...
March 16, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Mathew Boban, Kevin Golovin, Brian Tobelmann, Omkar Gupte, Joseph M Mabry, Anish Tuteja
The utility of omniphobic surfaces stems from their ability to repel a multitude of liquids, possessing a broad range of surface tensions and polarities, by causing them to bead up and either roll or slide off. These surfaces may be self-cleaning, corrosion-resistant, heat-transfer enhancing, stain-resistant or resistant to mineral- or bio-fouling. The majority of reported omniphobic surfaces use texture, lubricants, and/or grafted monolayers to engender these repellent properties. Unfortunately, these approaches often produce surfaces with deficiencies in long-term stability, durability, scalability, or applicability to a wide range of substrates...
March 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Shandala Msangi, Eliningaya Kweka, Aneth Mahande
A study was conducted to assess efficacy of a new repellent brand TRIG (15% N-N Diethyl Benzamide) when compared to DEET (20% N-N Methyl Toluamide). The repellents were tested in laboratory and field. In the laboratory, the repellence was tested on human volunteers, by exposing their repellent-treated arms on starved mosquitoes in cages for 3 minutes at hourly intervals, while counting the landing and probing attempts. Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were used. Field evaluation was conducted by Human Landing Catch technique...
2018: Journal of Tropical Medicine
Bartosz Baran, Michał Krzyżowski, Mikołaj Cup, Jakub Janiec, Mateusz Grabowski, Jacek Francikowski
Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are a group of common metabolites and semiochemicals mediating information transfer between higher organisms and bacteria, either from microbiome or external environment. VFAs commonly occur among various insect orders. There are numerous studies exploring their influence on the behavior of different insect species. In relation to the papers published by J. E. McFarlane in 1985, we assessed the effects of formic, acetic, propionic, butyric and valeric acids on the spatial preference of the lesser mealworm ( Alphitobius diaperinus ), a common pest of stored food grain products and the poultry industry...
March 16, 2018: Insects
Lin Lei, Dylan A Kovacevich, Michael P Nitzsche, Jihyun Ryu, Kutaiba Al-Marzoki, Gabriela Rodriguez, Lisa Klein, Andrei Jitianu, Jonathan P Singer
The electrospray process utilizes the balance of electrostatic forces and surface tension within a charged spray to produce charged microdroplets with a narrow dispersion in size. In electrospray deposition, each droplet carries a small quantity of suspended material to a target substrate. Past electrospray deposition results fall into two major categories: (1) continuous spray of films onto conducting substrates and (2) spray of isolated droplets onto insulating substrates. A cross-over regime, or a self-limited spray, has only been limitedly observed in the spray of insulating materials onto conductive substrates...
March 15, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Silvia Zingg, Patrick Dolle, Maarten Jeroen Voordouw, Maren Kern
BACKGROUND: Ticks and tick-borne pathogens are a global problem for the health of humans and their livestock. Wood ants are important ecosystem engineers in forests worldwide. Although both taxa are well studied, little is known about their interactions under natural conditions. The purpose of the present field study was to test whether European red wood ants (Formica polyctena) influence the abundance of Ixodes tick populations in temperate forests. METHODS: Data collection took place in 130 sampling plots located at 26 ant nest sites paired with 26 control sites in northwestern Switzerland...
March 15, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Hiang Kwee Lee, Charlynn Sher Lin Koh, Yih Hong Lee, Chong Liu, In Yee Phang, Xuemei Han, Chia-Kuang Tsung, Xing Yi Ling
Electrochemical nitrogen-to-ammonia fixation is emerging as a sustainable strategy to tackle the hydrogen- and energy-intensive operations by Haber-Bosch process for ammonia production. However, current electrochemical nitrogen reduction reaction (NRR) progress is impeded by overwhelming competition from the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) across all traditional NRR catalysts and the requirement for elevated temperature/pressure. We achieve both excellent NRR selectivity (~90%) and a significant boost to Faradic efficiency by 10 percentage points even at ambient operations by coating a superhydrophobic metal-organic framework (MOF) layer over the NRR electrocatalyst...
March 2018: Science Advances
Il Jeon, Hiroshi Ueno, Seungju Seo, Kerttu Aitola, Ryosuke Nishikubo, Akinori Saeki, Hiroshi Okada, Gerrit Boschloo, Shigeo Maruyama, Yutaka Matsuo
Herein, we report use of [Li+ @C60 ]TFSI- as a dopant for spiro-MeOTAD in lead halide perovskite solar cells. This approach gave an air stability nearly 10-fold that of conventional devices using Li+ TFSI- . Such high stability is attributed to the hydrophobic nature of [Li+ @C60 ]TFSI- repelling moisture and absorbing intruding oxygen, thereby protecting the perovskite device from degradation. Furthermore, [Li+ @C60 ]TFSI- could oxidize spiro-MeOTAD without the need for oxygen. The encapsulated devices exhibited outstanding air stability for more than 1000 h while illuminated under ambient conditions...
March 13, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Shugo Sato, Satoru Ohisa, Yukihiro Hayashi, Ryo Sato, Daisuke Yokoyama, Tetsuya Kato, Michinori Suzuki, Takayuki Chiba, Yong-Jin Pu, Junji Kido
A lot of research, mostly using electron-injection layers (EILs) composed of alkali-metal compounds has been reported with a view to increase the efficiency of solution-processed organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs). However, these materials have intractable properties, such as a strong affinity for moisture, which cause the degradation of OLEDs. Consequently, optimal EIL materials should exhibit high electron-injection efficiency as well as be stable in air. In this study, polymer light-emitting devices (PLEDs) based on the commonly used yellow-fluorescence-emitting polymer F8BT, which utilize poly(diallyldimethylammonium)-based polymeric ionic liquids, are experimentally and analytically investigated...
March 13, 2018: Advanced Materials
Lindon W K Moodie, Gunnar Cervin, Rozenn Trepos, Christophe Labriere, Claire Hellio, Henrik Pavia, Johan Svenson
By combining the recently reported repelling natural dihydrostilbene scaffold with an oxime moiety found in many marine antifoulants, a library of nine antifouling hybrid compounds was developed and biologically evaluated. The prepared compounds were shown to display a low antifouling effect against marine bacteria but a high potency against the attachment and growth of microalgae down to MIC values of 0.01 μg/mL for the most potent hybrid. The mode of action can be characterized as repelling via a reversible non-toxic biostatic mechanism...
March 13, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Bryony Sands, Neludo Mgidiswa, Casper Nyamukondiwa, Richard Wall
Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used to control ectoparasites of livestock, particularly ticks and biting flies. Their use in African livestock systems is increasing, driven by the need to increase productivity and local food security. However, insecticide residues present in the dung after treatment are toxic to dung-inhabiting insects. In a semiarid agricultural habitat in Botswana, dung beetle adult mortality, brood ball production, and larval survival were compared between untreated cattle dung and cattle dung spiked with deltamethrin, to give concentrations of 0...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Michal Goga, Dajana Ručová, Vladislav Kolarčik, Marko Sabovljević, Martin Bačkor, Ingeborg Lang
Lichens and mosses often share the same environmental conditions where they compete for substrate and other essential factors. Lichens use secondary metabolites as allelochemicals to repel surrounding plants and potential rivals. In mosses, endoreduplication leads to the occurrence of various ploidy levels in the same individual and has been suggested as an adaptation to abiotic stresses. Here, we show that also biotic factors such as usnic acid, an allelochemical produced by lichens, directly influenced the level of ploidy in mosses...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Yasmin A Williams, Lucy S Tusting, Sophia Hocini, Patricia M Graves, Gerry F Killeen, Immo Kleinschmidt, Fredros O Okumu, Richard G A Feachem, Allison Tatarsky, Roly D Gosling
BACKGROUND: Additional vector control tools (VCTs) are needed to supplement insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) to achieve malaria elimination in many settings. To identify options for expanding the malaria vector control toolbox, we conducted a systematic review of the availability and quality of the evidence for 21 malaria VCTs, excluding ITNs and IRS. METHODS: Six electronic databases and grey literature sources were searched from January 1, 1980 to September 28, 2015 to identify systematic reviews, Phase I-IV studies, and observational studies that measured the effect of malaria VCTs on epidemiological or entomological outcomes across any age groups in all malaria-endemic settings...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
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