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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778813/ozone-disrupts-adsorption-of-rhododendron-tomentosum-volatiles-to-neighbouring-plant-surfaces-but-does-not-disturb-herbivore-repellency
#1
Adedayo O Mofikoya, Minna Kivimäenpää, James D Blande, Jarmo K Holopainen
The perennial evergreen woody shrub, Rhododendron tomentosum, confers associational resistance against herbivory and oviposition on neighbouring plants through passive adsorption of some of its constitutively emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The adsorption process is dependent on transport of VOCs in the air. In polluted atmospheres, the VOCs may be degraded and adsorption impeded. We studied the effect of elevated ozone regimes on the adsorption of R. tomentosum volatiles to white cabbage, Brassica oleracea, and the oviposition of the specialist herbivore Plutella xylostella on the exposed plants...
May 17, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777752/chemical-profile-and-pharmacological-effects-of-the-resin-and-essential-oil-from-bursera-slechtendalii-a-medicinal-copal-tree-of-southern-mexico
#2
Nemesio Villa-Ruano, Yesenia Pacheco-Hernández, Elvia Becerra-Martínez, José Alejo Zarate-Reyes, Ramiro Cruz-Duran
This study reports on the volatile profile and pharmacological activities of the essential oil and resin from Bursera slechtendalii, an aromatic medicinal tree commercialized in southern Mexico. The essential oil contained 25 volatiles including p-cymen-8-ol (25.4-35.7%), n-hexyl hexanoate (6.8-17.6%) and n-octyl hexanoate (7.6-14.8%), whereas the crystallized resin contained 14 volatiles, including n-octyl acetate (29.6-34.2%), limonene (15.8-18.7%) and n-octyl butyrate (12.6-17-6%). The inhalation of vapors from the resin and essential oil caused a significant anxiolytic-like effect (p < ...
May 16, 2018: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775317/a-combined-sfg-and-thin-liquid-film-study-of-the-specific-effect-of-monovalent-cations-on-interfacial-water-structure
#3
Afshin Asadzadeh Shahir, Khristo Khristov, Khoi Tan Nguyen, Anh V Nguyen, Elena D Mileva
Some salts have been recently shown to decrease the SFG (sum frequency generation spectroscopy) intensity of the hydrogen-bonded water molecules, but a quantitative explanation is still awaited. Here we report a similar trend for the chloride salts of monovalent cations, i.e., LiCl, NaCl, and CsCl, at low concentrations. Specifically, we revealed not only the specific adsorption of cations at the water surface but also the concentration-dependent effect of ions on the SFG response of the interfacial water molecules...
May 18, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774286/biological-control-of-anopheles-darlingi-aedes-aegypti-and-culex-quinquefasciatus-larvae-using-shrimps
#4
Willian Marinho Dourado Coelho, Juliana de Carvalho Apolinário Coêlho, Katia Denise Saraiva Bresciani, Wilma Aparecida Starke Buzetti
Mosquitoes can act as vectors of important diseases such as malaria, dengue, Zika virus, yellow fever, Chikungunya and Mayaro fever, in addition to filariasis. The use of insecticides, larvicides, bed nets and repellents, besides the use of drugs as chemoprevention and the treatment of the sick are currently the pillars of the control of these vectors. We studied the biological control against of Anopheles darlingi , Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae using shrimps of the species M. pantanalense , M...
August 2017: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774237/an-herbivore-induced-plant-volatile-reduces-parasitoid-attraction-by-changing-the-smell-of-caterpillars
#5
Meng Ye, Nathalie Veyrat, Hao Xu, Lingfei Hu, Ted C J Turlings, Matthias Erb
Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) can mediate tritrophic interactions by attracting natural enemies of insect herbivores such as predators and parasitoids. Whether HIPVs can also mediate tritrophic interactions by influencing the attractiveness of the herbivores themselves remains unknown. We explored this question by studying the role of indole, a common HIPV in the plant kingdom. We found that herbivory-induced indole increases the recruitment of the solitary endoparasitoid Microplitis rufiventris to maize plants that are induced by Spodoptera littoralis caterpillars...
May 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773013/critical-review-on-curcumin-as-a-therapeutic-agent-from-traditional-herbal-medicine-to-an-ideal-therapeutic-agent
#6
Muhammad Usman Akbar, Kanwal Rehman, Khalid Mahmood Zia, Muhammad Imran Qadir, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash, Muhammad Ibrahim
Traditionally, many natural medicinal plants have been used to treat a variety of diseases since ancient times and are considered a potential source of phytochemicals for the development of new drugs. One of these is curcumin, which is an easily accessible, inexpensive, and nontoxic bioactive compound. Curcumin is a very important, naturally occurring, and highly lipophilic and phenolic substance derived from the rhizomes of plant Curcuma longa, a member of the Zingiberaceae (ginger) family, which is mostly used as a curry spice, flavoring agent, insect repellent, coloring agent in food, traditional drug, and ingredient in cosmetics...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772278/zika-virus-incidence-preventive-and-reproductive-behaviors-correlates-from-new-survey-data
#7
Climent Quintana-Domeque, José Raimundo Carvalho, Victor Hugo de Oliveira
During the outbreak of the Zika virus, Brazilian health authorities recommended that pregnant women take meticulous precaution to avoid mosquito bites and that women in general use contraceptive methods to postpone/delay pregnancies. In this article, we present new estimates on the Zika virus incidence, its correlates and preventive behaviors in the Northeast of Brazil, where the outbreak initiated, using survey data collected between March 30th and June 3rd of 2016. The target population were women aged 15-49 in the capital cities of the nine states of the Northeast region of Brazil...
May 1, 2018: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771946/in-vitro-comparison-of-three-common-essential-oils-mosquito-repellents-as-inhibitors-of-the-ross-river-virus
#8
Miora Ralambondrainy, Essia Belarbi, Wildriss Viranaicken, Renata Baranauskienė, Petras Rimantas Venskutonis, Philippe Desprès, Pierre Roques, Chaker El Kalamouni, Jimmy Sélambarom
BACKGROUND: The essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus (CC), Pelargonium graveolens (PG) and Vetiveria zizanioides (VZ) are commonly used topically to prevent mosquito bites and thus the risk of infection by their vectored pathogens such as arboviruses. However, since mosquito bites are not fully prevented, the effect of these products on the level of viral infection remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate in vitro the essentials oils from Reunion Island against one archetypal arbovirus, the Ross River virus (RRV), and investigate the viral cycle step that was impaired by these oils...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770555/binding-matter-with-antimatter-the-covalent-positron-bond
#9
Jorge Alfonso Charry, Marcio T Do N Varella, Andrés Reyes
We report sufficient theoretical evidence of the energy stability of the e⁺H₂²⁻ molecule, formed by two H⁻ anions and one positron. Analysis of the electronic and positronic densities of the latter compound undoubtedly points out the formation of a positronic covalent bond between the otherwise repelling hydride anions. The lower limit for the bonding energy of the e⁺H₂²⁻ molecule is 74 kJ/mol (0.77 eV), accounting for the zero-point vibrational correction. The formation of a non electronic covalent bond is fundamentally distinct from positron attachment to stable molecules, as the latter process is characterized by a positron affinity, analogous to the electron affinity...
May 16, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769620/carvacrol-and-linalool-co-loaded-in-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-grafted-chitosan-nanoparticles-as-sustainable-biopesticide-aiming-pest-control
#10
Estefânia V R Campos, Patrícia L F Proença, Jhones L Oliveira, Anderson E S Pereira, Lígia Nunes de Morais Ribeiro, Fabrício O Fernandes, Kelly C Gonçalves, Ricardo A Polanczyk, Tatiane Pasquoto-Stigliani, Renata Lima, Cirano C Melville, Jaqueline F Della Vechia, Daniel J Andrade, Leonardo F Fraceto
Pesticides are the main tactics for pest control because they reduce the pest population very fast and their efficiency does not depend on abiotic factors. However, the indiscriminate use of these substances can speed up the development of resistant populations and causing environmental contamination. Therefore, alternative methods of pest control are sought, such as the use of botanical compounds. Nanoencapsulation of volatile compounds has been shown to be an important tool that can be used to overcome the lack of stability of these compounds...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766650/social-communication-in-bats
#11
Gloriana Chaverri, Leonardo Ancillotto, Danilo Russo
Bats represent one of the most diverse mammalian orders, not only in terms of species numbers, but also in their ecology and life histories. Many species are known to use ephemeral and/or unpredictable resources that require substantial investment to find and defend, and also engage in social interactions, thus requiring significant levels of social coordination. To accomplish these tasks, bats must be able to communicate; there is now substantial evidence that demonstrates the complexity of bat communication and the varied ways in which bats solve some of the problems associated with their unique life histories...
May 15, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763445/pyrethroid-insecticides-maintain-repellent-effect-on-knock-down-resistant-populations-of-aedes-aegypti-mosquitoes
#12
Natalie M Bowman, Kristin Akialis, Grayson Cave, Roberto Barrera, Charles S Apperson, Steven R Meshnick
Pyrethroid-treated clothing is commonly worn for protection against mosquitoes; pyrethroids are both insecticides and repellents. Pyrethroid resistance has become increasingly common in Aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue, Zika, and other arboviruses, but it is not clear whether resistance is associated with reductions in repellency. In order to determine whether long-lasting permethrin impregnated (LLPI) clothing is protective, we used Aedes aegypti from New Orleans, LA (pyrethroid-sensitive) and San Juan, PR (resistant) to measure both lethality and repellency...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762719/repellence-of-common-tobacco-flavorants-on-lasioderma-serricorne-coleoptera-anobiidae
#13
Hongfei Zhang, Weizheng Li, Jingjing An, Gaoping Wang, Xianru Guo, Pu Hu, Guohui Yuan
The cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (F.) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) is a destructive pest species of tobacco. Olfactory repellents derived from permitted tobacco flavorants have the advantage of not adversely effecting tobacco flavor. Among 12 test compounds, neral exhibited the strongest repellent effect. Among six binary blends prepared, three blends (neral + ethyl cinnamate, neral + cinnamaldehyde, and neral + methyl cinnamate) evoked the strongest repellent response. The interactions between neral and any one of the cinnamic acid derivatives were additive, and the interactions between neral and the cinnamic acid derivatives were antagonistic...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761442/acquisition-of-volatile-compounds-by-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-gc-ms
#14
José G Vallarino, Alexander Erban, Ines Fehrle, Alisdair R Fernie, Joachim Kopka, Sonia Osorio
Plants synthesize and emit a large range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that play important roles in their interactions with the environment, from attracting pollinators and seed dispersers to protectants such as repellants and pathogen inhibitors. As such, the development of techniques for headspace collection of volatiles in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has an important impact on our understanding of the biosynthesis of plant VOCs. Furthermore, knowledge of the plant VOCs can be valuable in relation to plant breeding for improving fruit flavor or enhancing resistance to insects or pathogens...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760441/origin-and-maintenance-of-chemical-diversity-in-a-species-rich-tropical-tree-lineage
#15
Diego Salazar, John Lokvam, Italo Mesones, Magno Vásquez Pilco, Jacqueline Milagros Ayarza Zuñiga, Perry de Valpine, Paul V A Fine
Plant secondary metabolites play important ecological and evolutionary roles, most notably in the deterrence of natural enemies. The classical theory explaining the evolution of plant chemical diversity is that new defences arise through a pairwise co-evolutionary arms race between plants and their specialized natural enemies. However, plant species are bombarded by dozens of different herbivore taxa from disparate phylogenetic lineages that span a wide range of feeding strategies and have distinctive physiological constraints that interact differently with particular plant metabolites...
May 14, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758733/role-of-short-periodic-orbits-in-quantum-maps-with-continuous-openings
#16
Carlos A Prado, Gabriel G Carlo, R M Benito, F Borondo
We apply a recently developed semiclassical theory of short periodic orbits to the continuously open quantum tribaker map. In this paradigmatic system the trajectories are partially bounced back according to continuous reflectivity functions. This is relevant in many situations that include optical microresonators and more complicated boundary conditions. In a perturbative regime, the shortest periodic orbits belonging to the classical repeller of the open map-a cantor set given by a region of exactly zero reflectivity-prove to be extremely robust in supporting a set of long-lived resonances of the continuously open quantum maps...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758714/hydrodynamic-interaction-of-trapped-active-janus-particles-in-two-dimensions
#17
Tanwi Debnath, Yunyun Li, Pulak K Ghosh, Fabio Marchesoni
The dynamics of a pair of identical artificial microswimmers bound inside two harmonic traps, in a thin sheared fluid film, is numerically investigated. In a two-dimensional Oseen approximation, the hydrodynamic pair coupling is long-ranged and proportional to the particle radius to film thickness ratio. On increasing such ratio above a certain threshold, a transition occurs between a free regime, where each swimmer orbits in its own trap with random phase, and a strong synchronization regime, where the two swimmers strongly repel each other to an average distance larger than both the trap distance and their free orbit diameter...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756351/cinnamaldehyde-and-related-phenylpropanoids-natural-repellents-and-insecticides-against-sitophilus-zeamais-motsch-a-chemical-structure-bioactivity-relationship
#18
Yésica P Zaio, Gerardo Gatti, Andrés A Ponce, Natalia A Saavedra Larralde, María J Martinez, María P Zunino, Julio A Zygadlo
BACKGROUND: Insecticidal activity and repellent effects on adults of Sitophilus zeamais of 12 cinnamaldehyde-related compounds was evaluated by contact toxicity bioassays and a two-choice olfactometer, respectively. To determine non-toxicity in mammals, additionally, body weight, serum biochemical profiles, liver weight, physiological parameters, sperm motility and histopathological data were obtained as complementary information in C57BL/6 mice, treated with the best natural compound...
May 13, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754481/a-self-aligned-functionalization-approach-to-order-neuronal-networks-at-the-single-cell-level
#19
Adrien Casanova, Charline Blatché, Cecile Ferre, Hélène Martin, Daniel Gonzalez-Dunia, Liviu Nicu, Guilhem Larrieu
Despite significant progress, our knowledge of the functioning of the central nervous system still remains scarce to date. A better understanding of its behavior, in either normal or diseased conditions, goes through an increased knowledge of basic mechanisms involved in neuronal function, including at the single cell level. This has motivated significant efforts for the development of miniaturized sensing devices to monitor neuronal activity with high spatial and signal resolution. One of the main challenges remaining to be addressed in this domain is, however, the ability to create in vitro spatially-ordered neuronal networks at low density with a precise control of the cell location, to ensure proper monitoring of the activity of a defined set of neurons...
May 12, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752541/stratum-corneum-substantivity-drug-development-implications
#20
REVIEW
Becky S Li, John Havens Cary, Howard I Maibach
There are at least 15 factors that influence the ability of chemicals to penetrate the skin. Substantivity is yet another factor and allows penetrants to remain on and in skin for many days. As many skin pathologies involve stratum corneum and require multiple dosing of topicals, understanding substantivity mechanisms may provide insight for topical dosing strategies. Substantivity is also of importance in the development of other consumer products that necessitate adherence to skin, including sunscreens, insect repellents, and cosmetics...
May 11, 2018: Archives of Dermatological Research
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