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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731320/fabrication-of-nanostructured-omniphobic-and-superomniphobic-surfaces-with-inexpensive-co2-laser-engraver
#1
Anudeep Pendurthi, Sanli Movafaghi, Wei Wang, Soran Shadman, Azer Yalin, Arun K Kota
Superomniphobic surfaces (i.e. surfaces that are extremely repellent to both high surface tension liquids like water and low surface tension liquid like oils and alcohols) can be fabricated through a combination of surface chemistry that imparts low solid surface energy with a re-entrant surface texture. Recently, surface texturing with lasers has received significant attention because laser texturing is scalable, solvent-free, and can produce a monolithic texture on virtually any material. In this work, we fabricated nanostructured omniphobic and superomniphobic surfaces with a variety of materials using a simple, inexpensive and commercially available CO2 laser engraver...
July 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729661/surface-modification-of-anisotropic-dielectric-elastomer-actuators-with-uni-and-bi-axially-wrinkled-carbon-electrodes-for-wettability-control
#2
Kiwoo Jun, Donggyu Kim, Seunghwa Ryu, Il-Kwon Oh
Interest in soft actuators for next-generation electronic devices, such as wearable electronics, haptic feedback systems, rollable flexible displays, and soft robotics, is rapidly growing. However, for more practical applications in diverse electronic devices, soft actuators require multiple functionalities including anisotropic actuation in three-dimensional space, active tactile feedback, and controllable wettability. Herein, we report anisotropic dielectric elastomer actuators with uni- and bi-axially wrinkled carbon black electrodes that are formed through pre-streching and relaxation processes...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729630/mechanically-durable-liquid-impregnated-honeycomb-surfaces
#3
Philip S Brown, Bharat Bhushan
Liquid repellent surfaces typically work by keeping the fouling liquid in a metastable state, with trapped pockets of air between the substrate and the liquid. An alternative method with greater long-term stability utilizes liquid-impregnated surfaces, where the liquid being repelled slides over an immiscible liquid immobilized on a porous surface. Here, we report a method for creating honeycomb surfaces amenable to liquid-impregnation. Polystyrene dissolved in a water-immiscible, volatile solvent was deposited in a humid environment on a variety of substrates to achieve the necessary porosity...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728005/thermal-destruction-of-organic-waste-hydrophobicity-for-agricultural-soils-application
#4
Francisco Comino, Víctor Aranda, Ana Domínguez-Vidal, María José Ayora-Cañada
Use of organic amendments is a good strategy for combating the growing problem of soil degradation due to deterioration of organic matter content, particularly severe in semi-arid European Mediterranean regions, while at the same time providing an opportunity for recycling organic wastes. Olive mill pomace (OMP), the main by-product of the olive oil industry, is being used increasingly in olive grove soils for this purpose. Although the positive effects of OMP amendments have been widely studied, they also have some negative effects on soil...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725142/rhanterium-epapposum-oliv-essential-oil-chemical-composition-and-antimicrobial-insect-repellent-and-anticholinesterase-activities
#5
Betul Demirci, Hasan Soliman Yusufoglu, Nurhayat Tabanca, Halide Edip Temel, Ulrich R Bernier, Natasha M Agramonte, Saleh Ibrahim Alqasoumi, Adnan Jathlan Al-Rehaily, Kemal Husnu Can Başer, Fatih Demirci
The essential oil (EO) of the aerial parts of Rhanterium epapposum Oliv. (Asteraceae), was obtained by hydrodistillation. The oil was subsequently analyzed by both GC-FID and GC-MS, simultaneously. Forty-five components representing 99.2% of the oil composition were identified. The most abundant compounds were camphene (38.5%), myrcene (17.5%), limonene (10.1%) and α-pinene (8.7%). Referring to the ethnobotanical utilization, an insecticidal assay was performed, where the oil repelled the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti L...
July 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724097/influence-of-long-term-application-of-feedlot-manure-amendments-on-water-repellency-of-a-clay-loam-soil
#6
Jim J Miller, Bruce W Beasley, Paul Hazendonk, Craig F Drury, David S Chanasyk
Long-term application of feedlot manure to cropland may increase the quantity of soil organic carbon (C) and change its quality, which may influence soil water repellency. The objective was to determine the influence of feedlot manure type (stockpiled vs. composted), bedding material (straw [ST] vs. woodchips [WD]), and application rate (13, 39, or 77 Mg ha) on repellency of a clay loam soil after 17 annual applications. The repellency was determined on all 14 treatments using the water repellency index ( index), the water drop penetration time (WDPT) method, and molarity of ethanol (MED) test...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719881/perfluoroalkyl-acids-in-surface-waters-and-tapwater-in-the-qiantang-river-watershed-influences-from-paper-textile-and-leather-industries
#7
Guo-Hui Lu, Nan Gai, Peng Zhang, Hai-Tao Piao, Shu Chen, Xiao-Chun Wang, Xing-Chun Jiao, Xiao-Cai Yin, Ke-Yan Tan, Yong-Liang Yang
Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are widely used as multi-purpose surfactants or water/oil repellents. In order to understand the contamination level and compositional profiles of PFAAs in aqueous environment in textile, leather, and paper making industrial areas, surface waters and tap waters were collected along the watershed of the Qiantang River where China's largest textile, leather, and paper making industrial bases are located. For comparison, surface water and tapwater samples were also collected in Hangzhou and its adjacent areas...
July 4, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719291/knowledge-and-prevention-practices-among-u-s-pregnant-immigrants-from-zika-virus-outbreak-areas
#8
Abbey B Berenson, Ha N Trinh, Jacqueline M Hirth, Fangjian Guo, Erika L Fuchs, Scott C Weaver
We administered an anonymous survey to assess knowledge, attitudes, and prevention practices related to the Zika virus among pregnant women residing in Texas. Multivariate logistic regression models controlling for age, race/ethnicity, education, and number of years in the United States assessed differences between women born in outbreak areas (N = 390) versus those born in the United States (N = 249). Results demonstrated that most women wanted more information on the Zika virus and desired to obtain it from their physician...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718821/tick-haller-s-organ-a-new-paradigm-for-arthropod-olfaction-how-ticks-differ-from-insects
#9
Ann L Carr, Robert D Mitchell Iii, Anirudh Dhammi, Brooke W Bissinger, Daniel E Sonenshine, R Michael Roe
Ticks are the vector of many human and animal diseases; and host detection is critical to this process. Ticks have a unique sensory structure located exclusively on the 1st pairs of legs; the fore-tarsal Haller's organ, not found in any other animals, presumed to function like the insect antennae in chemosensation but morphologically very different. The mechanism of tick chemoreception is unknown. Utilizing next-generation sequencing and comparative transcriptomics between the 1st and 4th legs (the latter without the Haller's organ), we characterized 1st leg specific and putative Haller's organ specific transcripts from adult American dog ticks, Dermacentor variabilis...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717957/repellency-effect-of-an-imidacloprid-flumethrin-seresto-%C3%A2-controlled-release-polymer-matrix-collar-against-the-australian-paralysis-tick-ixodes-holocyclus-in-dogs
#10
Susan de Burgh, Kasia Hunter, Chrissie Jackson, Michael Chambers, Corinna Klupiec, Veronica Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 17, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717202/%C3%AE-caryophyllene-emitted-from-a-transgenic-arabidopsis-or-chemical-dispenser-repels-diaphorina-citri-vector-of-candidatus-liberibacters
#11
Berta Alquézar, Haroldo Xavier Linhares Volpe, Rodrigo Facchini Magnani, Marcelo Pedreira de Miranda, Mateus Almeida Santos, Nelson Arno Wulff, Jose Mauricio Simões Bento, José Roberto Postali Parra, Harro Bouwmeester, Leandro Peña
Production of citrus, the main fruit tree crop worldwide, is severely threatened by Huanglongbing (HLB), for which as yet a cure is not available. Spread of this bacterial disease in America and Asia is intimately connected with dispersal and feeding of the insect vector Diaphorina citri, oligophagous on rutaceous host plants. Effective control of this psyllid is an important component in successful HLB management programs. Volatiles released from the non-host guava have been shown to be repellent to the psyllid and to inhibit its response to citrus odour...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709332/separation-of-two-attractive-ferromagnetic-ellipsoidal-particles-by-hydrodynamic-interactions-under-alternating-magnetic-field
#12
Micheline Abbas, Georges Bossis
In applications where magnetic particles are used to detect and dose targeted molecules, it is of major importance to prevent particle clustering and aggregation during the capture stage in order to maximize the capture rate. Elongated ferromagnetic particles can be more interesting than spherical ones due to their large magnetic moment, which facilitates their separation by magnets or the detection by optical measurement of their orientation relaxation time. Under alternating magnetic field, the rotational dynamics of elongated ferromagnetic particles results from the balance between magnetic torque that tends to align the particle axis with the field direction and viscous torque...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709326/curvature-driven-stability-of-defects-in-nematic-textures-over-spherical-disks
#13
Xiuqing Duan, Zhenwei Yao
Stabilizing defects in liquid-crystal systems is crucial for many physical processes and applications ranging from functionalizing liquid-crystal textures to recently reported command of chaotic behaviors of active matters. In this work, we perform analytical calculations to study the curvature-driven stability mechanism of defects based on the isotropic nematic disk model that is free of any topological constraint. We show that in a growing spherical disk covering a sphere the accumulation of curvature effect can prevent typical +1 and +1/2 defects from forming boojum textures where the defects are repelled to the boundary of the disk...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701936/an-adaptation-induced-repulsion-illusion-in-tactile-spatial-perception
#14
Lux Li, Arielle Chan, Shah M Iqbal, Daniel Goldreich
Following focal sensory adaptation, the perceived separation between visual stimuli that straddle the adapted region is often exaggerated. For instance, in the tilt aftereffect illusion, adaptation to tilted lines causes subsequently viewed lines with nearby orientations to be perceptually repelled from the adapted orientation. Repulsion illusions in the nonvisual senses have been less studied. Here, we investigated whether adaptation induces a repulsion illusion in tactile spatial perception. In a two-interval forced-choice task, participants compared the perceived separation between two point-stimuli applied on the forearms successively...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701769/perfluorooctane-sulfonate-affects-intestinal-immunity-against-bacterial-infection
#15
Caixia Suo, Zhiqin Fan, Liang Zhou, Ju Qiu
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is an environmental contaminant that has been manufactured to be used as surfactants and repellents in industry. Due to long half-life for clearance and degradation, PFOS is accumulative in human body and has potential threat to human health. Previous studies have shown the development and function of immune cells can be affected by PFOS. Although PFOS has a high chance of being absorbed through the oral route, whether and how PFOS affects immune cells in the gut is unknown...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695834/sand-flies-and-their-control-methods
#16
Hüseyin Çetin, Yusuf Özbel
The main aim of managing arthropod vectors that carry the disease agents is interrupting the infection cycle. Therefore, the management of the disease implies that all precautions related to all elements (i.e., human, arthropod vector, and reservoir) in the infection cycle need to be taken. There are important points that need to be considered while dealing with sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), which in many regions worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical areas, are vectors of diseases such as leishmaniasis and sand fly fever and are the arthropods of the infection cycle...
June 2017: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695826/an-insect-anti-antiaphrodisiac
#17
Colin S Brent, John A Byers, Anat Levi-Zada
Passive mechanisms of mate guarding are used by males to promote sperm precedence with little cost, but these tactics can be disadvantageous for their mates and other males. Mated females of the plant bug Lygus hesperus are rendered temporarily unattractive by seminal fluids containing myristyl acetate and geranylgeranyl acetate. These antiaphrodisiac pheromones are gradually released from the female's gonopore, declining until they no longer suppress male courtship. Because starting quantities of these compounds can vary widely, the repellant signal becomes less reliable over time...
July 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695731/investigating-the-interaction-of-octapeptin-a3-with-model-bacterial-membranes
#18
Mei-Ling Han, Hsin-Hui Shen, Karl A Hansford, Elena K Schneider, Sivashangarie Sivanesan, Kade D Roberts, Philip E Thompson, Anton P Le Brun, Yan Zhu, Marc-Antoine Sani, Frances Separovic, Mark A T Blaskovich, Mark A Baker, Samuel M Moskowitz, Matthew A Cooper, Jian Li, Tony Velkov
Octapeptins are cyclic lipopeptides with a broader spectrum of activity against fungi and polymyxin-resistant Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. In the present study, we investigated the interaction of octapeptin A3 with asymmetric outer membrane models of Gram-negative pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa using neutron reflectometry, together with fluorimetric and calorimetry methods. For the first time, our neutron reflectometry results reveal that the interaction of octapeptin A3 with the Gram-negative outer membrane involves an initial transient polar interaction with the phospholipid and lipid A headgroups, followed by the penetration of the entire octapeptin molecule into the fatty acyl core of the outer membrane...
July 11, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690793/postfire-soil-water-repellency-in-pi%C3%A3-on-juniper-woodlands-extent-severity-and-thickness-relative-to-ecological-site-characteristics-and-climate
#19
Daniel L Zvirzdin, Bruce A Roundy, Nicholas S Barney, Steven L Petersen, Val J Anderson, Matthew D Madsen
Wildfires can create or intensify water repellency in soil, limiting the soil's capacity to wet and retain water. The objective of this research was to quantify soil water repellency characteristics within burned piñon-juniper woodlands and relate this information to ecological site characteristics. We sampled soil water repellency across forty-one 1,000 m(2) study plots within three major wildfires that burned in piñon-juniper woodlands. Water repellency was found to be extensive-present at 37% of the total points sampled-and strongly related to piñon-juniper canopy cover...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689759/amplification-of-f-actin-disassembly-and-cellular-repulsion-by-growth-factor-signaling
#20
Jimok Yoon, Sang Bum Kim, Giasuddin Ahmed, Jerry W Shay, Jonathan R Terman
Extracellular cues that regulate cellular shape, motility, and navigation are generally classified as growth promoting (i.e., growth factors/chemoattractants and attractive guidance cues) or growth preventing (i.e., repellents and inhibitors). Yet, these designations are often based on complex assays and undefined signaling pathways and thus may misrepresent direct roles of specific cues. Here, we find that a recognized growth-promoting signaling pathway amplifies the F-actin disassembly and repulsive effects of a growth-preventing pathway...
July 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
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