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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548230/molecular-basis-of-social-competence-in-medaka-fish
#1
REVIEW
Teruhiro Okuyama, Saori Yokoi, Hideaki Takeuchi
Oryzias latipes (Medaka) is an established vertebrate model for studying developmental genetics, genomics, and evolutionary biology. The physiology, embryology, and genetics of this species have been extensively investigated for centuries. Medaka fish recently attracted attention in the field of social neuroscience. This review introduces recent advances in medaka behavioral studies, focusing on female mating preferences and male mate-guarding behaviors. The medaka female has the ability to discriminate male individuals and prefers to mate with socially familiar males (female mating preference)...
May 26, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543060/nogo-b-is-the-major-form-of-nogo-at-the-floor-plate-and-likely-mediates-crossing-of-commissural-axons-in-the-mouse-spinal-cord
#2
Liqing Wang, Chao Yu, Jun Wang, Peggy Leung, Ding Ma, Hui Zhao, Jeremy S H Taylor, Sun-On Chan
Using Nogo antibodies with defined binding specificity, Nogo-B, but not Nogo-A, was localized on radial glia in the floor plate of mouse embryos. The presence of Nogo-B was confirmed in Nogo-A knockout mice. In explant cultures of embryonic day (E) 11 and E12 spinal cord, blocking of NgR function with antagonist peptide NEP1-40 reduced the crossing of newly arrived commissural axons, resulting in an accumulation of growth cones in the floor plate. Analysis of growth cone morphology demonstrated an increase in size of growth cones in the floor plate after peptide treatment, which was not detected in axons growing towards the midline...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541424/a-new-in-vitro-bioassay-system-for-the-discovery-and-quantitative-evaluation-of-mosquito-repellents
#3
Abbas Ali, Charles L Cantrell, Ikhlas A Khan
Mosquitoes vector many pathogens that cause human diseases. Repellents play a significant role in reducing the risk of these diseases by preventing mosquito bites. In this paper, we are reporting an Ali and Khan (A & K), large cage in vitro bioassay system that can effectively be used to measure repellency of compounds against mosquitoes. The system uses temperature as a landing and feeding stimulus, and collagen as a feeding substrate. The minimum effective dose (MED) of DEET (N, N-diethyl-meta-toluamide; 19...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537617/buoyancy-increase-and-drag-reduction-through-a-simple-superhydrophobic-coating
#4
Gi Byoung Hwang, Adnan Patir, Kristopher Page, Yao Lu, Elaine Allan, Ivan P Parkin
A superhydrophobic paint was fabricated using 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane (PFOTES), TiO2 nanoparticles and ethanol. The paint has potential for aquatic application of a superhydrophobic coating as it induces increased buoyancy and drag reduction. Buoyance testing showed that the reduction of surface energy by superhydrophobic coating made it feasible that glass, a high density material, was supported by the surface tension of water. In a miniature boat sailing test, it was shown that the low energy surface treatment decreased the adhesion of water molecules to the surface of the boat resulting in a reduction of the drag force...
May 24, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533974/foraging-behaviour-of-an-egg-parasitoid-exploiting-plant-volatiles-induced-by-pentatomids-the-role-of-adaxial-and-abaxial-leaf-surfaces
#5
Francesca Frati, Antonino Cusumano, Eric Conti, Stefano Colazza, Ezio Peri, Salvatore Guarino, Letizia Martorana, Roberto Romani, Gianandrea Salerno
Several phases of herbivorous insect attack including feeding and oviposition are known to induce plant defenses. Plants emit volatiles induced by herbivores to recruit insect parasitoids as an indirect defense strategy. So far, volatiles induced by herbivore walking and their putative role in the foraging behavior of egg parasitoids have not been investigated. In this paper we studied the response of the egg parasitoid Trissolcus basalis toward volatiles emitted by Vicia faba plants as consequence of the walking activity of the host Nezara viridula...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533956/toxicity-repellency-and-flushing-out-in-triatoma-infestans-hemiptera-reduviidae-exposed-to-the-repellents-deet-and-ir3535
#6
Mercedes M N Reynoso, Emilia A Seccacini, Javier A Calcagno, Eduardo N Zerba, Raúl A Alzogaray
DEET and IR3535 are insect repellents present worldwide in commercial products; their efficacy has been mainly evaluated in mosquitoes. This study compares the toxicological effects and the behavioral responses induced by both repellents on the blood-sucking bug Triatoma infestans Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), one of the main vectors of Chagas disease. When applied topically, the Median Lethal Dose (72 h) for DEET was 220.8 µg/insect. Using IR3535, topical application of 500 µg/insect killed no nymphs. The minimum concentration that produced repellency was the same for both compounds: 1,15 µg/cm(2)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533783/progress-on-azadirachta-indica-based-biopesticides-in-replacing-synthetic-toxic-pesticides
#7
REVIEW
Suman Chaudhary, Rupinder K Kanwar, Alka Sehgal, David M Cahill, Colin J Barrow, Rakesh Sehgal, Jagat R Kanwar
Over the years, extensive use of commercially available synthetic pesticides against phytophagous insects has led to their bioaccumulation in the environment causing increased resistance and reduction in soil biodiversity. Further, 90% of the applied pesticides enter the various environmental resources as a result of run-off, exposing the farmers as well as consumers of the agricultural produce to severe health issues. Therefore, growing attention has been given toward the development of alternate environmentally friendly pesticides/insecticides that would aid an efficient pest management system and also prevent chronic exposures leading to diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532258/fumigant-and-repellent-activities-of-essential-oil-extracted-from-artemisia-dubia-and-its-main-compounds-against-two-stored-product-pests
#8
Jun-Yu Liang, Shan-Shan Guo, Wen-Juan Zhang, Zhu-Feng Geng, Zhi-Wei Deng, Shu-Shan Du, Ji Zhang
The major chemical constituents of the essential oil extracted from Artemisia dubia wall. ex Bess. (Family: Asteraceae) were found as terpinolene (19.02%), limonene (17.40%), 2,5-etheno[4.2.2]propella-3,7,9-triene (11.29%), isoelemicin (11.05%) and p-cymene-8-ol (5.93%). Terpinolene and limonene were separated as main components from the essential oil. The essential oil showed fumigant toxicity against Tribolium castaneum and Liposcelis bostrychophila with LC50 values of 49.54 and 0.74 mg/L, respectively. The essential oil and isolated compounds of A...
May 22, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531875/elaboration-of-antibacterial-plastic-surfaces-by-a-combination-of-antiadhesive-and-biocidal-coatings-of-natural-products
#9
Jean-Baptiste Paris, Damien Seyer, Thierry Jouenne, Pascal Thébault
Antibacterial polyolefins surfaces, combining biocidal and antiadhesive properties, were elaborated by a covalent grafting of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), able to kill adherent bacteria, on a pre-immobilized hyaluronic acid (HA) layer, able to repel the micro-organisms. Different HA activation rate for its immobilization, were used to change HA layer morphology and number of residual free carboxylic acid functions for AMPs grafting. Based on adhesion tests on Staphylococcus epidermidis and microscopy fluorescent observations, the presence of the two combined properties was shown to be depended on the HA activation rate...
May 13, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530844/developing-a-new-generation-of-antimicrobial-and-bioactive-dental-resins
#10
L Cheng, K Zhang, N Zhang, M A S Melo, M D Weir, X D Zhou, Y X Bai, M A Reynolds, H H K Xu
Dental caries is prevalent, and secondary caries causes restoration failures. This article reviews recent studies on developing a new generation of bioactive resins with anticaries properties. Extensive effects were made to develop new antimicrobial composites, bonding agents, and other resins containing quaternary ammonium methacrylates to suppress plaque buildup and bacterial acid production. The effects of alkyl chain length and charge density and the antimicrobial mechanisms for chlorhexidine, nano-silver, quaternary ammonium methacrylates, and protein-repellent agents were discussed...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529629/the-antihelminthic-drug-niclosamide-effectively-inhibits-the-malignant-phenotypes-of-uveal-melanoma-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#11
Jingfeng Zhou, Bei Jin, Yanli Jin, Yizhi Liu, Jingxuan Pan
Uveal melanoma (UM) is a lethal intraocular malignancy with an average survival of only 2~8 months in patients with hepatic metastasis. Currently, there is no effective therapy for metastatic UM. Here, we reported that niclosamide, an effective repellence of tapeworm that has been approved for use in patients for approximately 50 years, exhibited strong antitumor activity in UM cells in vitro and in vivo. We showed that niclosamide potently inhibited UM cell proliferation, induced apoptosis and reduced migration and invasion...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525599/analytical-method-for-pyrethroid-metabolites-in-urine-of-the-non-occupationally-exposed-population-by-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#12
Toshiaki Yoshida
Pyrethroids are widely being used as household insecticides or mothproof repellents. An analytical method is described for determination of urinary metabolites as biomarkers for monitoring exposure to the pyrethroids. In total, 11 urinary metabolites, 3-(2-carboxyprop-1-enyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid, 3-(2-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-enyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid, 3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid, 2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methylprop-1-enyl)cyclopropanecarboxylic acid, 4-fluoro-3-phenoxybenzoic acid, 4-methoxymethyl-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzly alcohol, 2-methyl-3-phenylbenzoic acid, 4-methyl-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzyl alcohol, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid, 2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzoic acid and 2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid, were enzymatically hydrolyzed and extracted with toluene...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Chromatographic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522140/membrane-fusion-stalks-and-lipid-rafts-a-love-hate-relationship
#13
Herre Jelger Risselada
Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations are applied to explore the experimentally observed ability of the liquid-ordered (lo)/liquid-disordered (ld) phase boundary to facilitate viral membrane fusion. Surprisingly, a formed fusion stalk can be both attracted (i.e., stalkophilic) and repelled (i.e., stalkophobic) by the lo/ld phase boundary. The phase boundary becomes stalkophilic if the lo phase constituents have the larger negative spontaneous curvature. In such a case, location of the highly curved stalk near the less-ordered and thus (relatively) softer boundary region becomes energetically favorable...
May 15, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521600/quantitative-structure-activity-relationship-study-of-amide-mosquito-repellents
#14
P Wang, X Xu, S Liao, J Song, G Fan, S Chen, Z Wang
A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study on 43 amide repellents was carried out by the heuristic method in order to reveal the correlations between molecular parameters of these amides and their repellency against Aedes aegypti. Sketches and optimizations of molecular structures were achieved by the Gaussian software package. Generation and screening of molecular parameters were accomplished using CODESSA 2.7.10 software. The leave-one-out method was applied for the model validation. The results showed that a four-descriptor QSAR model with r(2) of 0...
April 2017: SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520438/non-covalent-surface-modification-of-cellulose-nanopapers-by-adsorption-of-polymers-from-aprotic-solvents
#15
Katri S Kontturi, Karolina W Biegaj, Andreas Mautner, Robert T Woodward, Benjamin Paul Wilson, Leena-Sisko Johansson, Koon-Yang Lee, Jerry Y Y Heng, Alexander Bismarck, Eero Kontturi
Basic adsorption of hydrophobic polymers from aprotic solvents was introduced as a platform technology to modify exclusively the surfaces of cellulose nanopapers. Dynamic vapor sorption demonstrated that the water vapor uptake ability of the nanopapers remained unperturbed, despite strong repellency to liquid water caused by the adsorbed hy-drophobic polymer on the surface. This was enabled by the fact that the aprotic solvents used for adsorption did not swell the nanopaper unlike water that is generally applied as the adsorption medium in such systems...
May 18, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511270/laboratory-and-semi-field-evaluations-of-two-transfluthrin-spatial-repellent-devices-against-aedes-aegypti-l-diptera-culicidae
#16
Lee P McPhatter, Paula D Mischler, Meiling Z Webb, Kamal Chauhan, Erica J Lindroth, Alec G Richardson, Mustapha Debboun
Two transfluthrin-based spatial repellent products (Raid Dual Action Insect Repellent and Home Freshener and Raid Shield (currently not commercially available), SC Johnson, Racine WI) were evaluated for spatial repellent effects against female Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes under laboratory (wind tunnel) and semi-field (outdoor enclosure) conditions. The placement of either product in the wind tunnel significantly reduced host-seeking behaviors. The mean baseline (control) landing counts for the Raid Dual Action and Raid Shield were reduced by 95% and 74% respectively...
January 2017: U.S. Army Medical Department Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510590/community-based-human-elephant-conflict-mitigation-the-value-of-an-evidence-based-approach-in-promoting-the-uptake-of-effective-methods
#17
Donny Gunaryadi, Sugiyo, Simon Hedges
Human-elephant conflict (HEC) is a serious threat to elephants and can cause major economic losses. It is widely accepted that reduction of HEC will often require community-based methods for repelling elephants but there are few tests of such methods. We tested community-based crop-guarding methods with and without novel chili-based elephant deterrents and describe changes in farmers' willingness to adopt these methods following our demonstration of their relative effectiveness. In three separate field-trials that took place over almost two years (October 2005 -May 2007) in two villages adjacent to Way Kambas National Park (WKNP) in Indonesia, we found that community-based crop-guarding was effective at keeping Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) out of crop fields in 91...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505875/spatiotemporal-canards-in-neural-field-equations
#18
D Avitabile, M Desroches, E Knobloch
Canards are special solutions to ordinary differential equations that follow invariant repelling slow manifolds for long time intervals. In realistic biophysical single-cell models, canards are responsible for several complex neural rhythms observed experimentally, but their existence and role in spatially extended systems is largely unexplored. We identify and describe a type of coherent structure in which a spatial pattern displays temporal canard behavior. Using interfacial dynamics and geometric singular perturbation theory, we classify spatiotemporal canards and give conditions for the existence of folded-saddle and folded-node canards...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505815/interaction-of-toroidal-swimmers-in-stokes-flow
#19
Jianjun Huang, Lisa Fauci
A doughnut-shaped object supporting surface rotations was a hypothetical construct proposed by both Taylor and Purcell as a swimmer that would be able to propel itself in a Stokesian fluid because of the irreversibility of its stroke. Here we numerically examine the hydrodynamic interaction of pairs and trios of these free toroidal swimmers. First, we study the axisymmetric case of two toroidal swimmers placed in tandem, and show that a single torus of a corotating pair is more efficient than when it swims alone, but less efficient when paired with a counterrotating partner...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505792/deffuant-model-on-a-ring-with-repelling-mechanism-and-circular-opinions
#20
Guodong Chen, Hongyan Cheng, Changwei Huang, Wenchen Han, Qionglin Dai, Haihong Li, Junzhong Yang
We investigate a Deffuant model on a ring by introducing two modifications: the repelling mechanism and the circular opinions. The repelling mechanism drives the opinions of two individuals away from each other and the circular opinions are defined on a circle. We find that the repelling mechanism tends to polarize the opinions of adjacent individuals and the circular opinions bring up a spatiotemporal pattern in which all individuals take different opinions but the opinion difference between two neighboring individuals tends to zero in the limit of the population size...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
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