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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914545/potential-mode-of-action-of-a-novel-plumbagin-as-a-mosquito-repellent-against-the-malarial-vector-anopheles-stephensi-culicidae-diptera
#1
Venkatraman Pradeepa, Sengottayan Senthil-Nathan, Subbiah Sathish-Narayanan, Selvaraj Selin-Rani, Prabhakaran Vasantha-Srinivasan, Annamalai Thanigaivel, Athirstam Ponsankar, Edward-Sam Edwin, Muthiah Sakthi-Bagavathy, Kandaswamy Kalaivani, Kadarkarai Murugan, Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi
Plumbagin was isolated and characterized from the roots of Plumbago zeylanica using chromatography: TLC, Column chromatogram, HPLC, FTIR and (1)H NMR. The isolated pure compounds were assayed for potency as inhibitors of: acetylcholine esterase (AchE), glutathione S-transferases (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), cytochrome P450 and α, β-esterase, and for repellency with Anopheles stephensi at four different concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100ppm). The enzyme assay against the pure compound reveals that the level of esterase and SOD was decreased significantly in contrast the level of GST and cytochrome P450 was increased significantly...
November 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910886/sequential-information-in-a-great-ape-utterance
#2
Pawel Fedurek, Klaus Zuberbühler, Christoph D Dahl
Birdsong is a prime example of acoustically sophisticated vocal behaviour, but its complexity has evolved mainly through sexual selection to attract mates and repel sexual rivals. In contrast, non-human primate calls often mediate complex social interactions, but are generally regarded as acoustically simple. Here, we examine arguably the most complex call in great ape vocal communication, the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) 'pant hoot'. This signal consists of four acoustically distinct phases: introduction, build-up, climax and let-down...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907857/membrane-effects-of-dihydropyrimidine-analogues-with-larvicidal-activity
#3
Mariela E Sánchez-Borzone, Maria E Mariani, Virginia Miguel, Raquel M Gleiser, Bharti Odhav, Katharigatta N Venugopala, Daniel A García
Two recently synthesized dihydropyrimidines (DHPMs) analogues have demonstrated larvicide and repellent activity against Anopheles arabiensis. DHPMs high lipophilicity suggests that these compounds may interact directly with the membrane and modify their biophysical properties. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the interaction of both compounds with artificial membranes. Changes on the properties of DPPC films were studied using Langmuir monolayers. The presence of DHPMs in the subphase modified the interfacial characteristics of DPPC compression isotherms, causing the expansion of the monolayer, inducing the disappearance of DPPC phase transition and increasing the molecular packing of the film...
November 24, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900803/large-area-freestanding-mof-films-of-planar-curvilinear-or-micropatterned-topographies
#4
Seok Min Yoon, Jun Heuk Park, Bartosz A Grzybowski
Freestanding MOF films up to six-inches across and replicating various surface (micro)patterns are prepared via a templated growth method. When grown on copper supports, these films have preferred orientation of the constituent crystallites, translating into markedly different wetting properties of the film's two surfaces (water-pinning vs. water repellant). In addition, the films exhibit differential sorption of various organic solvents, can recover oil spills from seawater, and can also act as active layers of chemical sensors...
November 30, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898177/a-mechanism-for-sequence-specificity-in-plant-mediated-interactions-between-herbivores
#5
Wei Huang, Christelle A M Robert, Maxime R Hervé, Lingfei Hu, Zoe Bont, Matthias Erb
Herbivore communities are shaped by indirect plant-mediated interactions whose outcomes are strongly dependent on the sequence of herbivore arrival. However, the mechanisms underlying sequence specificity are poorly understood. We examined the mechanisms that govern sequence-specific effects of the interaction between two specialist maize herbivores, the leaf feeder Spodoptera frugiperda and the root feeder Diabrotica virgifera virgifera. In the field, S. frugiperda reduces D. v. virgifera abundance, but only when it arrives on the plant first...
November 29, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897240/a-green-route-for-substrate-independent-oil-repellent-coatings
#6
Li-Ping Xu, Da Han, Xiuwen Wu, Qingqing Zhang, Xueji Zhang, Shutao Wang
Oil repellent surface have lots of practical applications in many fields. Current oil repellent coating may suffer from limited liquid repellency to oils or environmental risks. In this work, we report an eco-friendly 'green' processes for preparing oil-repellent surface using a renewable and environmentally benign bioresource alginate. The oil-repellent coating was prepared by a two-step surface coating technique and showed stable oil repellency to many kinds of oils. The fabrication process was very simple with no need for special equipment, and this approach can be successfully employed to various substrates with different compositions, sizes and shapes, or even substrate-independent oil-repellent materials...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892855/application-of-ethnobotanical-repellents-and-acaricides-in-prevention-control-and-management-of-livestock-ticks-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Roman Pavela, Angelo Canale, Heinz Mehlhorn, Giovanni Benelli
Ticks transmit at least the same number or even more pathogens than any other group of blood-feeding arthropods worldwide affecting humans and animals. The eco-friendly control and management of tick vectors in a constantly changing environment is a crucial challenge. Besides the development of vaccines against ticks, IPM practices aimed at reducing tick interactions with livestock, emerging pheromone-based control tools, and few biological control agents, the extensive employment of acaricides and tick repellents still remain the most effective and ready-to-use strategies...
September 9, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892474/caterpillar-induced-plant-volatiles-attract-conspecific-adults-in-nature
#8
Ashraf M El-Sayed, Alan L Knight, John A Byers, Gary J R Judd, David M Suckling
Plants release volatiles in response to caterpillar feeding that attract natural enemies of the herbivores, a tri-trophic interaction which has been considered an indirect plant defence against herbivores. The caterpillar-induced plant volatiles have been reported to repel or attract conspecific adult herbivores. To date however, no volatile signals that either repel or attract conspecific adults under field conditions have been chemically identified. Apple seedlings uniquely released seven compounds including acetic acid, acetic anhydride, benzyl alcohol, benzyl nitrile, indole, 2-phenylethanol, and (E)-nerolidol only when infested by larvae of the light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890563/exposure-factors-for-cleaning-automotive-care-and-surface-protection-products-for-exposure-assessments
#9
Ji Young Park, Miyoung Lim, Wonho Yang, Kiyoung Lee
Accurately measuring the usage patterns of consumer products (CPs) is important to conduct realistic exposure assessments. We determined the exposure factors for 18 consumer products: household bleach, mold stain remover, all-purpose cleaner, washing machine cleaner, air conditioner cleaner, glass cleaner, drain cleaner, adhesive remover, liquid snow chain, tire shine spray, wheel cleaner, rain repellent, car wax spray, leather polish, furniture polish, anti-fog product, fabric waterproofing spray, and rust inhibitor...
November 24, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889520/profiling-of-volatile-organic-compounds-released-from-individual-intact-juvenile-and-mature-citrus-leaves
#10
Nabil Killiny, Shelley E Jones
Plants release volatiles to communicate with each other and to attract or repel insects. The methods used to collect volatiles are varied. Here, we describe a simple solvent-less, solid phase microextraction-based method to collect the volatiles released from intact citrus leaves. We were able to collect up to 39 volatiles from both juvenile and mature leaves. Our results indicated that juvenile leaves produced both monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, and while mature leaves continued to produce a variety of monoterpenes, their release of sesquiterpenes decreased dramatically...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885261/curvature-driven-bubbles-or-droplets-on-the-spiral-surface
#11
Shanpeng Li, Jianlin Liu, Jian Hou
Directional motion of droplets or bubbles can often be observed in nature and our daily life, and this phenomenon holds great potential in many engineering areas. The study shows that droplets or bubbles can be driven to migrate perpetually on some special substrates, such as the Archimedean spiral, the logarithmic spiral and a cantilever sheet in large deflection. It is found that a bubble approaches or deviates from the position with highest curvature of the substrate, when it is on the concave or convex side...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879061/patterned-slips-for-the-formation-of-arrays-of-biofilm-microclusters-with-defined-geometries
#12
Julia Bruchmann, Ivana Pini, Tejeshwar S Gill, Thomas Schwartz, Pavel A Levkin
Biofilms represent an immense problem in medicine due to their strong drug-resistant properties and inherent stress-response activities. Due to the inhomogeneous and very complex architectures of large biofilm aggregates, biofilm studies often suffer from low reproducibility. In this study, an approach to form arrays of homogeneous biofilm microclusters with defined 2D geometries is presented. The method is based on the formation of water-infused hydrophilic porous polymer areas with precise geometries separated by "slippery" lubricant-infused porous surface (SLIPS)...
November 23, 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876974/mosquito-larvicidal-activity-of-cadmium-nanoparticles-synthesized-from-petal-extracts-of-marigold-tagetes-sp-and-rose-rosa-sp-flower
#13
Amita Hajra, Snehali Dutta, Naba Kumar Mondal
Mosquitoes are blood-thirsty insects and serve as the most important vectors for spreading most notorious diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and filariasis. The extensive use of synthetic mosquito repellent has resulted in resistance in mosquitoes. Therefore, the development of a reliable, eco-friendly processes for the synthesis of nano dimensional materials is an utmost important aspect of nanotechnology. In the present study, authors report absolute green synthesis of cadmium nanoparticles using marigold and rose flower petal extract...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875865/molecular-weight-effects-on-interfacial-properties-of-linear-and-ring-polymer-melts-a-molecular-dynamics-study
#14
Chahrazed Meddah, Andrey Milchev, Sid Ahmed Sabeur, Alexander M Skvortsov
Using molecular dynamics simulations, we study and compare the pressure, P, and the surface tension, γ, of linear chains and of ring polymers at the hard walls confining both melts into a slit. We examine the dependence of P and γ on the length (i.e., molecular weight) N of the macromolecules. For linear chains, we find that both pressure and surface tension are inversely proportional to the chain length, P(N)-P(N→∞)∝N(-1),γ(N)-γ(N→∞)∝N(-1), irrespective of whether the confining planes attract or repel the monomers...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875460/insect-repellants-during-pregnancy-in-the-era-of-the-zika-virus
#15
Beuy Joob, Viroj Wiwanitkit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873056/individual-pheromone-signature-in-males-prerequisite-for-pheromone-mediated-mate-assessment-in-the-central-american-locust-schistocerca-piceifrons
#16
Christiane Stahr, Karsten Seidelmann
Living in high-density groups of animals has advantages and disadvantages for mating. The advantage of facilitated mate finding is compromised by difficulties in protecting a suitable partner from competitors. Thus, males regularly are faced with increased competition for sperm, and females with harassment by males at high population densities. To cope with these problems, mating tactics and mate choice mechanisms have to be adjusted. An adaptation to gregarious condition observed in locusts includes the use of male-emitted pheromones...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871870/carcinogenic-risk-of-emerging-persistent-organic-pollutant-perfluorooctane-sulfonate-pfos-a-proposal-of-classification
#17
Ricardo Arrieta-Cortes, Paulina Farias, Carlos Hoyo-Vadillo, Mina Kleiche-Dray
: Perfluoroalkyls are stable synthetic chemicals, able to repel oils, fats and water. These compounds have been used in the manufacturing of products such as Teflon(®), lubricants, paints, fire-fighting foams, coatings for pans, carpets, clothes, and paperboard for packaging, among others. It is believed that populations are exposed constantly to them. Its regulation in the world is under development and several controversies are in the course of litigation. One occupational study shows bladder cancer risk...
November 18, 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869130/dynamic-structure-of-active-nematic-shells
#18
Rui Zhang, Ye Zhou, Mohammad Rahimi, Juan J de Pablo
When a thin film of active, nematic microtubules and kinesin motor clusters is confined on the surface of a vesicle, four +1/2 topological defects oscillate in a periodic manner between tetrahedral and planar arrangements. Here a theoretical description of nematics, coupled to the relevant hydrodynamic equations, is presented here to explain the dynamics of active nematic shells. In extensile microtubule systems, the defects repel each other due to elasticity, and their collective motion leads to closed trajectories along the edges of a cube...
November 21, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865772/kissing-bugs-can-generalize-and-discriminate-between-different-bitter-compounds
#19
Yamila Asparch, Gina Pontes, Santiago Masagué, Sebastian Minoli, Romina B Barrozo
Animals make use of contact chemoreception structures to examine the quality of potential food sources. During this evaluation they can detect nutritious compounds that promote feeding and recognize toxins that trigger evasive behaviors. Although animals can easily distinguish between stimuli of different gustatory qualities (bitter, salty, sweet, etc.), their ability to discriminate between compounds of the same quality may be limited. Numerous plants produce alkaloids, compounds that elicit aversive behaviors in phytophagous insects and almost uniformly evoke a bitter taste for man...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864138/sarniensine-a-mesembrine-type-alkaloid-isolated-from-nerine-sarniensis-an-indigenous-south-african-amaryllidaceae-with-larvicidal-and-adulticidal-activities-against-aedes-aegypti
#20
Marco Masi, Alet E van der Westhuyzen, Nurhayat Tabanca, Marco Evidente, Alessio Cimmino, Ivan R Green, Ulrich R Bernier, James J Becnel, Jeffrey R Bloomquist, Willem A L van Otterlo, Antonio Evidente
A new mesembrine-type alkaloid, named sarniensine, was isolated together with tazettine, lycorine, the main alkaloid, and 3-epimacronine from Nerine sarniensis, with the last two produced for the first time by this plant. This Amaryllidaceae, which is indigenous of South Africa, was investigated for its alkaloid content, because the organic extract of its bulbs showed strong larvicidal activity with an LC50 value of 0.008μgμL(-1) against first instar Aedes aegypti larvae and with an LD50 value 4.6μg/mosquito against adult female Ae...
November 15, 2016: Fitoterapia
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