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elderly imbalance electrolyte

Ce Yang, Jie Gao, Juan Du, Haiyan Wang, Jianxin Jiang, Zhengguo Wang
BACKGROUND: Rescue after a maritime disaster remains a great challenge in emergency medicine. OBJECTIVE: We performed an overview of rescue efforts among the victims in the sunken cruise ship Eastern Star in the 2015 Changjiang River marine disaster, as well as possible preventive measures in maritime transport situations. METHODS: The rescue records of 454 victims of the sunken ship were analyzed retrospectively. Their demographic data, rescue effects, accident inducement, and injury disposition were reviewed...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Mauro Giordano, Tiziana Ciarambino, Pietro Castellino, Lorenzo Malatino, Salvatore Di Somma, Gianni Biolo, Giuseppe Paolisso, Luigi Elio Adinolfi
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to investigate the prevalence of electrolyte imbalance (EI) in the emergency department (ED) with systemic diseases in different decades of life. METHODS: We enrolled patients admitted to the ED. The population study included 7941 patients, subdivided in 3 groups: young group (Y), middle-aged group (MA), and elderly group (E). RESULTS: We observed EI in 13.7% of the whole population. Hyponatremia (hNa(+)) is the most frequent EI (44%) followed by hypokalemia (hK(+)) (39%), hyperkalemia (HK(+)) (13%), and hypernatremia (HNa(+)) (4...
October 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Andrea Winquist, Andrew Grundstein, Howard H Chang, Jeremy Hess, Stefanie Ebelt Sarnat
PURPOSE: Extreme heat events will likely increase in frequency with climate change. Heat-related health effects are better documented among the elderly than among younger age groups. We assessed associations between warm-season ambient temperature and emergency department (ED) visits across ages in Atlanta during 1993-2012. METHODS: We examined daily counts of ED visits with primary diagnoses of heat illness, fluid/electrolyte imbalances, renal disease, cardiorespiratory diseases, and intestinal infections by age group (0-4, 5-18, 19-64, 65+years) in relation to daily maximum temperature (TMX) using Poisson time series models that included cubic terms for TMX at single-day lags of 0-6 days, controlling for maximum dew-point temperature, time trends, week day, holidays, and hospital participation periods...
May 2016: Environmental Research
Lukshe Kanagaratnam, Moustapha Dramé, Thierry Trenque, Nadia Oubaya, Pierre Nazeyrollas, Jean-Luc Novella, Damien Jolly, Rachid Mahmoudi
Elderly subjects with cognitive disorders are at particularly high risk of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The objectives of our systematic review were to describe the prevalence of ADRs in elderly patients with cognitive disorders, the different types of ADRs and the medications suspected of involvement; to describe whether the ADRs were preventable or not, and to identify risk factors for occurrence of ADRs in this population. A bibliographic search was performed in the following databases: PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, Opengrey and Scopus...
March 2016: Maturitas
Susan Canaday, John Rompala, John Rowles, Josh Fisher, David Holt
Serum sodium concentration affects every cell in the body with respect to cellular tonicity. Hyponatremia is the most frequent electrolyte abnormality encountered, occurring at clinical admission in 22% of elderly patients. Any rapid correction of chronic severe hyponatremia can result in rapid cellular shrinking due to loss of intracellular free water. This is commonly associated with paralysis and severe brain damage due to osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS). ODS occurs because the body has the ability to compensate for cellular fluid shifts due to chronic hyponatremia (by a decrease in brain concentration of several ions, amino acids, and organic osmolytes)...
December 2015: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
Chia-Ter Chao, Hung-Bin Tsai, Chia-Yi Wu, Yu-Feng Lin, Nin-Chieh Hsu, Jin-Shing Chen, Kuan-Yu Hung
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with higher hospital mortality. However, the relationship between geriatric AKI and in-hospital complications is unclear. We prospectively enrolled elderly patients (≥65 years) from general medical wards of National Taiwan University Hospital, part of whom presented AKI at admission. We recorded subsequent in-hospital complications, including catastrophic events, incident gastrointestinal bleeding, hospital-associated infections, and new-onset electrolyte imbalances...
2015: Scientific Reports
Sunil K Dash, Ranajit Panigrahi, Nishit Palo, Ashok Priyadarshi, Manas Biswal
Elderly patients with hip fracture constitute Single Largest Group of Emergency Orthopaedics Admissions. In 2050, 6.26 million hip fractures worldwide, approximately 50%, will occur in Asia. Only small number of reports on incidence of hip fractures in the Asian population exist. India lacks data registry for fragility hip fractures, therefore, the magnitude and standard of patient care are not known. A prospective multicenter study was conducted from January 2012 to April 2014 to describe population-based longitudinal trends, namely, age-specific incidence, fracture type, timing of presentation, kilometers traveled, timing of surgery, hospital stay, man hours lost, pressure ulcers, weight bearing, 30-day return, 3-month mortality, and so on, of fragility hip fractures...
March 2015: Geriatric Orthopaedic Surgery & Rehabilitation
K Westaway, O Frank, A Husband, A McClure, R Shute, S Edwards, J Curtis, D Rowett
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Hot days are increasingly common and are often associated with increased morbidity and mortality, especially in the elderly. Most heat-related illness and heat-related deaths are preventable. COMMENT: Medicines may accentuate the risk of dehydration and heat-related illness, especially in elderly people taking multiple medicines, through the following mechanisms: diuresis and electrolyte imbalance, sedation and cognitive impairment, changed thermoregulation, reduced thirst recognition, reduced sweat production, and hypotension and reduced cardiac output...
August 2015: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Ryoma Michishita, Kazuko Ishikawa-Takata, Eiichi Yoshimura, Rikako Mihara, Masahiro Ikenaga, Kazuhiro Morimura, Noriko Takeda, Yosuke Yamada, Yasuki Higaki, Hiroaki Tanaka, Akira Kiyonaga
It is well known that imbalances in the dietary electrolytes are associated with a significantly higher incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). On the other hand, a prolonged heart rate corrected-QT (QTc) interval is associated with an increased risk of cardiac autonomic nervous system dysfunction, the incidence of CVD and sudden cardiac death. This study was designed to clarify the association between the nutritional status and the QTc interval in elderly subjects. The subjects included 119 elderly subjects (46 males and 73 females, age; 72...
2015: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Matthew B Fortes, Julian A Owen, Philippa Raymond-Barker, Claire Bishop, Salah Elghenzai, Samuel J Oliver, Neil P Walsh
OBJECTIVES: Dehydration in older adults contributes to increased morbidity and mortality during hospitalization. As such, early diagnosis of dehydration may improve patient outcome and reduce the burden on healthcare. This prospective study investigated the diagnostic accuracy of routinely used physical signs, and noninvasive markers of hydration in urine and saliva. DESIGN: Prospective diagnostic accuracy study. SETTING: Hospital acute medical care unit and emergency department...
March 2015: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Kirsten Cumming, Stephen McKenzie, Graeme E Hoyle, James D Hutchison, Roy L Soiza
BACKGROUND: Hyponatremia (serum sodium < 135 mmol/L) is the commonest electrolyte imbalance encountered in clinical practice. It is associated with multiple poor clinical outcomes including increased length of hospital stay, institutionalization and mortality. Prevalence of hyponatremia is higher in frail patient groups, and elderly patients with fragility fractures (EPFF) are particularly susceptible. This study aimed to establish the impact of hyponatremia on total length of inpatient stay (TLOS), need for inpatient rehabilitation and mortality in EPFF...
January 2015: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
Yaseen Ali, Amila Parekh, Mirza Baig, Taseen Ali, Tazeen Rafiq
Chronic vitamin D deficiency, though common in the elderly, is often under diagnosed and when progressing to renal tubular acidosis type II (RTA 2) can cause several simultaneous electrolyte imbalances that may present with weakness and pain as chief symptoms. We present such a case that after months of evaluation and symptomatic treatment did not lead to an effective establishment of the etiology causing chronic weakness and body pain in an elderly female patient. Eventually, after a careful review of the patient's history, repeat physical examinations, laboratory data evaluation, and diagnostic testing led to the establishment of the diagnosis of proximal RTA 2 associated with vitamin D deficiency, which caused the patient to develop several remarkable secondary electrolyte imbalances such as hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, acidemia, hyperparathyroidism, with weakness and body pain...
August 2014: Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism
Hadiza S Kazaure, Sanziana A Roman, Douglas Tyler, Julie A Sosa
BACKGROUND: The Institute of Medicine has identified atrial fibrillation (AF) among national priorities for research. We examine the incidence of AF and its association with outcomes of patients undergoing abdominal surgery. METHODS: Patients ≥ 55 years who underwent abdominal surgery captured in a State Inpatient Database, 2008-2010. Three patient groups were created: (1) No diagnosis of AF (No-AF), (2) Pre-existing AF (Hx-AF), and (3) New-onset AF (New-AF). Outcomes were analysed using bivariate and multivariate methods...
January 2015: World Journal of Surgery
Roy L Soiza, Hannah S C Talbot
Hyponatraemia is the commonest electrolyte abnormality seen in clinical practice, and is especially prevalent in frail, older people. However, the serious implications of hyponatraemia in this age group are seldom recognized by clinicians. Hyponatraemia is associated with osteoporosis, impaired balance, falls, hip fractures and cognitive dysfunction. Even mild, apparently asymptomatic hyponatraemia is associated with prolonged stays in hospital, institutionalization and increased risk of death. Emerging evidence of the potential benefits of improved treatment of hyponatraemia is slowly generating renewed clinical interest in this area...
February 2011: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
Hye Eun Yoon, Bum Soon Choi
Aging is associated with progressive functional deterioration and structural changes in the kidney. Changes in the activity or responsiveness of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) occur with aging. RAS changes predispose the elderly to various fluid and electrolyte imbalances as well as acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease. Among the multiple pathways involved in renal aging, the RAS plays a central role. This review summarizes the association of the RAS with structural and functional changes in the aging kidney and age-related renal injury, and describes the underlying mechanisms of RAS-related renal aging...
May 2014: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
Carmen A Pfortmueller, Georg-Christian Funk, Alexander B Leichtle, Georg M Fiedler, Christoph Schwarz, Aristomenis K Exadaktylos, Gregor Lindner
BACKGROUND: Heat periods during recent years were associated with excess hospitalization and mortality rates, especially in the elderly. We intended to study whether prolonged warmth/heat periods are associated with an increased prevalence of disorders of serum sodium and potassium and an increased hospital mortality. METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis all patients admitted to the Department of Emergency Medicine of a large tertiary care facility between January 2009 and December 2010 with measurements of serum sodium were included...
2014: PloS One
Kirsten Cumming, Graeme E Hoyle, James D Hutchison, Roy L Soiza
INTRODUCTION: Hyponatremia (serum sodium<135 mMol/L) is the commonest electrolyte imbalance encountered in clinical practice. It is associated with multiple poor clinical outcomes including increased mortality, longer hospital stay, falls and fractures. Prevalence is higher in frail patient groups, and elderly patients with fragility fractures (EPFF) are particularly susceptible. Euvolemic hyponatremia due to syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone (SIADH) is widely assumed to be the commonest cause...
2014: PloS One
Kareeann Sok Fun Khow, Su Yin Lau, Jordan Yuanzhi Li, Tuck Yean Yong
Electrolyte and acid-base disorders are commonly encountered adverse effects of various diuretic agents, which are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality especially in elderly patients. Diuretic use is associated with hyponatraemia, hypernatraemia, hypokalaemia, hyperkalaemia, hyperuricaemia and alterations in magnesium, calcium, phosphate and acid-base homeostasis. Clinical studies have provided important data on the relative frequency and risk factors for these diuretic-associated electrolyte and acid-base disorders...
March 2014: Current Drug Safety
I Hoffmanová, M Anděl
Sodium phosphate solutions are commonly used to cleanse the bowel in preparation for colonoscopy, for barium enema or surgical procedures and eventually for treatment of severe constipation. Though relatively safe, these drugs must be used with caution in patients with kidney disease, small intestinal disorders, or poor gut motility and are prohibited in renal insufficiency and bowel obstruction. Especially elderly patients are at increased risk for phosphate intoxication due to decreased glomerular filtration rate, concomitant medication use, and systemic and gastrointestinal diseases...
December 2013: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
Pietro Gareri, Pasquale De Fazio, Valeria Graziella Laura Manfredi, Giovambattista De Sarro
In recent years, the use of antipsychotics has been widely debated for reasons concerning their safety in elderly patients affected with dementia. To update the use of antipsychotics in elderly demented people, a MEDLINE search was conducted using the following terms: elderly, conventional and atypical antipsychotics, adverse events, dementia, and behavioral and psychotic symptoms in dementia (BPSD). Owing to the large amounts of studies on antipsychotics, we mostly restricted the field of research to the last 10 years...
February 2014: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
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