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Korsakoff neuroimaging

J Bradley Segal, Marc A Bouffard, Gottfried Schlaug
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: JAMA Neurology
Michael D Kopelman
In this review, the clinical, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging findings in the alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome and in thalamic amnesia, resulting from focal infarction, are compared. In both disorders, there is controversy over what is the critical site for anterograde amnesia to occur-damage to the anterior thalamus/mammillo-thalamic tract has most commonly been cited, but damage to the medio-dorsal nuclei has also been advocated. Both syndromes show 'core' features of an anterograde amnesic syndrome; but retrograde amnesia is generally much more extensive (going back many years or decades) in the Korsakoff syndrome...
July 2015: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
B K Puri, S W Lewis
Cranial single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT or SPET) can now give regional cerebral blood flow images with a resolution approaching that of positron emission tomography (PET). In this paper, the use of high resolution SPECT neuroimaging in neuropsychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, multi-infarct dementia, Pick's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, Korsakoff's psychosis, Creutzfeld-Jakob disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, schizophrenia, mood disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, HIV infection and AIDS is reviewed...
1992: Behavioural Neurology
K A Paller, A Acharya, B C Richardson, O Plaisant, A P Shimamura, B R Reed, W J Jagust
Many neuropsychological investigations of human memory have focused on the amnesic deficits of alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome. Structural neuroimaging suggests that the syndrome results from midline diencephalic damage, but functional neuroimaging has the potential to reveal additional neuropathology that may be responsible for cognitive dysfunction. Accordingly, high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) was used to measure regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose utilization in five alcoholic Korsakoff patients and nine alcoholic control subjects...
March 1997: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Toshifumi Matsui, Hideki Sakurai, Tomomi Toyama, Atsushi Yoshimura, Sachio Matsushita, Susumu Higuchi
Alcohol-related dementia (ARD) is one of the most common dementing disorders in middle-aged people and occurs in heavy drinkers who are estimated to be 10 - 15 % of the adult men in a community. While the concept of ARD is multifactorial and includes all cognitive deficits in alcoholics, the central clinical manifestations are exemplified by Korsakoff's syndrome (KS), a persistent neuropsychiatric syndrome, characterized by amnesia and disorientation that is caused by thiamine deficiency along with excessive alcohol consumption...
June 2012: Nihon Arukōru Yakubutsu Igakkai Zasshi, Japanese Journal of Alcohol Studies & Drug Dependence
Young-Chul Jung, Sandra Chanraud, Edith V Sullivan
There is considerable evidence that neuroimaging findings can improve the early diagnosis of Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) in clinical settings. The most distinctive neuroimaging finding of acute WE are cytotoxic edema and vasogenic edema, which are represented by bilateral symmetric hyperintensity alterations on T2-weighted MR images in the periphery of the third ventricle, periaqueductal area, mammillary bodies and midbrain tectal plate. An initial bout of WE can result in Korsakoff's syndrome (KS), but repeated bouts in conjunction with its typical comorbidity, chronic alcoholism, can result in signs of tissue degeneration in vulnerable brain regions...
June 2012: Neuropsychology Review
Mary E Lough
Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is a life threatening neurological disorder that results from thiamine (Vitamin B1) deficiency. Clinical signs include mental status changes, ataxia, occulomotor changes and nutritional deficiency. The conundrum is that the clinical presentation is highly variable. WE clinical signs, brain imaging, and thiamine blood levels, are reviewed in 53 published case reports from 2001 to 2011; 81 % (43/53) were non-alcohol related. Korsakoff Syndrome or long-term cognitive neurological changes occurred in 28 % (15/53)...
June 2012: Neuropsychology Review
Bonnie van Geldorp, Heiko C Bergmann, Johanna Robertson, Arie J Wester, Roy P C Kessels
Both neuroimaging work and studies investigating amnesic patients have shown involvement of the medial temporal lobe during working memory tasks, especially when multiple items or features have to be associated. However, so far no study has examined the relationship between working memory and subsequent episodic memory in patients using similar tasks. In this study, we compared patients with amnesia due to Korsakoff's syndrome (n=19) with healthy controls (n=18) on an associative working memory task followed by an unexpected subsequent episodic memory task...
January 18, 2012: Brain Research
Laurie M McCormick, Judith R Buchanan, Obiora E Onwuameze, Ronald K Pierson, Sergio Paradiso
OBJECTIVE: Wernicke encephalopathy and Korsakoff syndrome (the combined disorder is named Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome [WKS]) are preventable, life-threatening neuropsychiatric syndromes resulting from thiamine deficiency. WKS has historically been associated with alcoholism; more recently, it has been recognized in patients who have anorexia nervosa or have undergone bariatric surgery for obesity. However, patients with nutritional deficiencies of any origin are at risk for WKS. We present clinical histories and neuroimaging data on 2 young adults with underlying psychiatric disorders who became malnourished and developed WKS...
December 2011: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
B Nazarov, S Jeannin, M Mejdoubi, A Signate, D Smadja
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2011: Neurology
Kaloyan S Tanev, Melissa Roether, Clifford Yang
Wernicke's encephalopathy and Korsakoff's psychosis in alcoholics are thought to be due to thiamine deficiency. When the process goes untreated, patients may develop alcohol-induced persisting dementia. We review the literature on thermal dysregulation and the place of thiamine treatment in Wernicke's encephalopathy, Korsakoff's psychosis, and alcohol-induced persisting dementia. We describe a patient with alcohol-induced persisting dementia who showed thermal dysregulation which responded to parenteral but not oral thiamine...
December 2008: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
Clive Harper
Excessive alcohol use can cause structural and functional abnormalities of the brain and this has significant health, social and economic implications for most countries in the world. Even heavy social drinkers who have no specific neurological or hepatic problems show signs of regional brain damage and cognitive dysfunction. Changes are more severe and other brain regions are damaged in patients who have additional vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency (Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome). Quantitative studies and improvements in neuroimaging have contributed significantly to the documentation of these changes but mechanisms underlying the damage are not understood...
March 2009: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
Edith V Sullivan, Adolf Pfefferbaum
AIM: Presented is the neuroradiological signature of acute Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE), derived from different types of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences. WE results from thiamine depletion, and its most typical antecedent is chronic alcohol dependence. Brain regions observed with in vivo MRI affected in acute WE include the mammillary bodies, periaqueductal and periventricular gray matter, collicular bodies and thalamus. These affected areas are usually edematous and are best visualized and quantified with MRI sequences that highlight such tissue...
March 2009: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
Anne Lise Pitel, Hélène Beaunieux, Thomas Witkowski, François Vabret, Vincent de la Sayette, Fausto Viader, Béatrice Desgranges, Francis Eustache
BACKGROUND: The exact nature of episodic and working memory impairments in alcoholic Korsakoff patients (KS) remains unclear, as does the specificity of these neuropsychological deficits compared with those of non-Korsakoff alcoholics (AL). The goals of the present study were therefore to (1) specify the nature of episodic and working memory impairments in KS, (2) determine the specificity of the KS neuropsychological profile compared with the AL profile, and (3) observe the distribution of individual performances within the 2 patient groups...
July 2008: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Carinne Piekema, Guillén Fernández, Albert Postma, Marc P H Hendriks, Arie J Wester, Roy P C Kessels
Damage to the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and diencephalon results in impaired long-term memory, which relies on the binding of multiple, mostly contextual, features. Recent neuroimaging and patient studies have suggested that impairments may also be present in working memory after MTL or diencephalic damage. To examine whether patients with damage to these brain structures have impairments in working memory for contextual information, 15 patients with damage to the diencephalon due to Korsakoff's syndrome and 12 patients with unilateral MTL lesions, and 30 age-matched healthy controls performed a delayed match-to-sample (DMS) task in which they had to maintain either object-location associations, color-number associations, single colors or single locations...
October 3, 2007: Brain Research
Clive Harper
Patterns of drinking are changing throughout the world and in many countries this will be detrimental to the health and welfare of the local population. Even uncomplicated alcoholics who have no specific neurological or hepatic problems show signs of regional brain damage and cognitive dysfunction. Many of these changes are exaggerated and other brain regions damaged in patients who have additional vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency (Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome). Quantitative neuropathology techniques and improvements in neuroimaging have contributed significantly to the documentation of these changes but mechanisms underlying the damage are not understood...
March 2007: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Elizabeth A Nichols, Yun-Ching Kao, Mieke Verfaellie, John D E Gabrieli
Behavioral studies with amnesic patients and imaging studies with healthy adults have suggested that medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures known to be essential for long-term declarative memory (LTM) may also be involved in the maintenance of information in working memory (WM). To examine whether MTL structures are involved in WM maintenance for faces, and the nature of that involvement, WM and LTM for faces were examined in normal participants via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and in amnesic patients behaviorally...
2006: Hippocampus
Clive Harper, Gavin Dixon, Donna Sheedy, Therese Garrick
Alcohol dependence and abuse are among the most costly health problems in the world from both social and economic points of view. Patterns of drinking appear to be changing throughout the world with more women and young people drinking heavily. Excessive drinking can lead to impairment of cognitive function and structural brain changes--some permanent, some reversible. Patterns of damage appear to relate to lifetime alcohol consumption but, more importantly, to associated medical complications. The most significant of these is the alcohol-related vitamin deficient state, the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS), which is caused by thiamin deficiency but is seen most commonly in alcoholics...
September 2003: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
E V Sullivan, A Pfefferbaum
BACKGROUND: Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) is a rare, debilitating, life-threatening condition, associated with chronic alcoholism, rapid correction of hyponatremia, and advanced age. It is unknown, however, whether older alcoholic patients who by age and diagnosis are at risk for CPM have objectively determined neuroimaging evidence of preclinical CPM that could be valuable in understanding its development and in initiating appropriate treatment. Accordingly, we examined central pontine magnetic resonance (MR) transverse relaxation time (T2), which reflects myelin and axonal integrity when measured in white matter and is prolonged with pathology that causes increased free water content in tissue...
August 2001: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
A Colchester, D Kingsley, D Lasserson, B Kendall, F Bello, C Rush, T G Stevens, G Goodman, G Heilpern, N Stanhope, M D Kopelman
BACKGROUND: If they are to be replicable, MRI volume measurements require explicit definitions of structures and of criteria for delineating these structures on MRI. Previously published volumes in healthy subjects show considerable differences in measurements across different studies, including a fourfold variation in estimates of hippocampal volume. Previous neuroimaging reports in patients with Korsakoff syndrome have generally found widespread or non-specific change, whereas in patients with herpes encephalitis the extent of pathological involvement reported beyond the temporal lobes has varied...
July 2001: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
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