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N Didbaridze, N Lomidze, T Abuladze, G Qiliptari, T Didbaridze, I Gvasalia, Z Mkervalishvili, N Gogokhia
Anaerobic clostridial infection is the most severe form of paraproctitis. The incubation period is very short, from 3 to 6 hours, sometimes lasting for 1-2 days. Clostridial infection spreads rapidly and induces gas gangrene, causes destruction of cells and other intermediate substances, and impedes blood circulation. This paper presents a case study of an extremely severe form of anaerobic infection with spontaneous gas gangrene, cellulitis, fasciomyositic necrosis, severe intoxication and septic shock on the abdominal front and lateral surfaces...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
Pearl L H Mok, Sussie Antonsen, Carsten Bøcker Pedersen, Roger T Webb
BACKGROUND: Younger or older parental age has been linked with a range of adverse offspring endpoints. We investigated associations between parental age and nine adverse offspring outcomes in three correlated domains: (i) Premature death: suicide, unnatural death, natural death; (ii) Psychiatric morbidity: any mental illness, suicide attempt, substance misuse; (iii) Criminality: violent offending, imprisonment, driving whilst intoxicated. METHODS: Persons born in Denmark 1966-1996 were followed from their 15th until 40th birthday or December 2011 (N=1,793,681)...
October 2, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Sanna Rönkä, Anu Katainen
BACKGROUND: The non-medical use of prescription drugs is a growing phenomenon associated with increasing health-related harms. However, little is known about the drivers of this process among illicit drug users. Our aim is to show how the qualities of pharmaceutical drugs, pharmaceutical related knowledge, online communities sharing this knowledge and medical professionals mediate and transform the consumption behaviour related to pharmaceutical drugs. METHODS: The data consist of discussion threads from an online drug use forum...
October 18, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Namitosh Tyagi, D Dash, Rashmi Singh
OBJECTIVE: Paraquat (PQ), a potent herbicide can cause severe toxicity. We report here that fibroproliferation phase of acute lung injury (ALI) is initiated much earlier (within 48 h) after PQ intoxication than previously reported (after 2 weeks) and we aimed to study the protective effects of intranasal curcumin as new therapeutic strategy in mouse model. METHODS: Mice (Park's strain) were divided into five experimental groups (I) control, received only saline (0...
October 20, 2016: Inflammopharmacology
Daniel Schober, Nicole Schwendener, Wolf-Dieter Zech, Christian Jackowski
Segmentation of the lungs using post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) data was so far not feasible due to post-mortem changes such as internal livores. Recently, an Osirix plug-in has been developed allowing automatically segmenting lungs also in PMCT data. The aim of this study was to investigate if the Hounsfield unit (HU) profiles obtained in PMCT data of the segmented lung tissue present with specific behaviour in relation to the cause of death. In 105 PMCT data sets of forensic cases, the entire lung volumes were segmented using the Mia Lite plug-in on Osirix...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Maciej Woźny, Bogdan Lewczuk, Natalia Ziółkowska, Piotr Gomułka, Stefan Dobosz, Alicja Łakomiak, Maciej Florczyk, Paweł Brzuzan
To date, there has been no systematic approach comprehensively describing the sequence of pathological changes in fish during prolonged exposure to microcystin-LR (MC-LR). Towards this aim, juvenile whitefish individuals received an intraperitoneal injection with pure MC-LR, and the injection was repeated every week to maintain continuous exposure for 28days. During the exposure period, growth and condition of the fish were assessed based on biometric measurements. Additionally, selected biochemical markers were analysed in the fishes' blood, and their livers were carefully examined for morphological, ultrastructural, and molecular changes...
October 17, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Rob Stenstrom, Daphne Ling, Eric Grafstein, Rolando Barrios, Chris Sherlock, Reka Gustafson, Farzaneh Osati, Iraj Poureslami, Aslam Anis
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of HIV infection and the acceptability of point-of-care HIV testing in an innercity Canadian emergency department. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study in an urban tertiary care emergency department between August 2009 and January 2011. Randomly selected patients were enrolled using probabilistic sampling based on patient volumes. Inclusion criteria were age 19-75 years and ability to provide informed consent...
October 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
V S Ulanov
This paper is designed to report the results of the comparative analysis of the structural alterations in the testicles under conditions of experimental acute and chronic alcohol intoxication in the laboratory rats. It was shown that experimental acute alcohol intoxication causes only such changes that suggest the non-specific gonadal response to alcohol poisoning and represent characteristic manifestations of the general organ reactions. The chronic exposure of the experimental animals to alcohol results in more pronounced changes in the testicles the severity of which depends on the duration of alcohol consumption...
2016: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
Robim M Rodrigues, Olivier Govaere, Tania Roskams, Tamara Vanhaecke, Vera Rogiers, Joery De Kock
This data set is composed of transcriptomics analyses of (i) liver samples from patients suffering from acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure (ALF) and (ii) hepatic cell systems exposed to acetaminophen and their respective controls. The in vitro systems include widely employed cell lines i.e. HepaRG and HepG2 cells as well as a novel stem cell-derived model i.e. human skin-precursors-derived hepatocyte-like cells (hSKP-HPC). Data from primary human hepatocytes was also added to the data set "Open TG-GATEs: a large-scale toxicogenomics database" (Igarashi et al...
June 2016: Data in Brief
Işıl Bavunoğlu, Musa Balta, Zeynep Türkmen
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing interest in herbal products as a self-medication method in recent years. Some plant extracts either turn into drugs over time or are consumed directly without treatment. One of these plants is Nerium oleander L., which is a potentially lethal plant, since it has cardiac glycosides. However, numerous researches of its extracts have been performed against cancer cell lines in recent literature. This contradiction leads to misinterpretation and induces the prevalence of intoxication or fatal cases...
September 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
Mohamed A Farag, Ahlam M El Fishawy, Sayed A El-Toumy, Khadiga F Amer, Ahmed M Mansour, Hala E Taha
BACKGROUND: Panicum turgidum, desert grass, has not reported any detailed phytochemical or biological study as yet. OBJECTIVE: To establish P. turgidum secondary metabolite profile and to assess its antihepatotoxic effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to quadrupole high-resolution time of flight mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS) was used for large-scale secondary metabolites profiling in P. turgidum extract, alongside assessing median lethal dose (LD50) and hepatoprotective effect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxication...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Leidy Johanna Ocampo Arroyave, María Clara Restrepo-Méndez, Bernardo Lessa Horta, Ana Maria Baptista Menezes, Denise Petrucci Gigante, Helen Gonçalves
This study focuses on trends and inequalities in health risk behaviors among adolescents. A cross-sectional study compared two birth cohorts in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The sample included 1,281 adolescents from the 1982 cohort and 4,106 from the 1993 cohort, followed in 2001 and 2011, respectively. The study recorded alcohol intake, illegal drug use, smoking, sexual initiation < 16 years, lack of condom use, and multiple sex partners. Total prevalence rates were calculated for each cohort, stratified by gender and per capita income, besides absolute and relative measures of inequality...
October 10, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Mark Haden, John R H Archer, Paul I Dargan, David M Wood
BACKGROUND: MDMB-CHMICA (methyl 2-[[1-(cyclohexylmethyl)indole-3-carbonyl]amino]-3,3-dimethylbutanoate) is a synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist that has been detected in several recreational drug products in Europe since August 2014. OBJECTIVES: This article aims to describe the prevalence of use, availability, and desired and adverse effects of MDMB-CHMICA. METHODS: Data were collated from published scientific literature, and systematic searches were conducted of publically available Internet sources (the "gray literature"), including websites offering to sell MDMB-CHMICA and Internet discussion forums featuring user reports...
October 19, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Claudia Baumung, Jürgen Rehm, Heike Franke, Dirk W Lachenmeier
Nicotine was not included in previous efforts to identify the most important toxicants of tobacco smoke. A health risk assessment of nicotine for smokers of cigarettes was conducted using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach and results were compared to literature MOEs of various other tobacco toxicants. The MOE is defined as ratio between toxicological threshold (benchmark dose) and estimated human intake. Dose-response modelling of human and animal data was used to derive the benchmark dose. The MOE was calculated using probabilistic Monte Carlo simulations for daily cigarette smokers...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Douglas Senna Engelke, Renato Filev, Luiz E Mello, Jair Guilherme Santos-Junior
Addiction is a multifactorial disease that comprises physiological mechanisms of learning and memory. Addict subjects have intense plasticity in cortical and limbic circuits during intoxication, abstinence or even in drug seeking behavior. Locomotor sensitization is a classic animal model of drug addiction that mimics the changes that occur in the transition from drug use to drug addiction. Several studies have demonstrated the importance of contextual associative processes in this task. However, whether the mechanisms of sensitization are maintained and precise over the time remain an open question...
October 15, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Maria Schirone, Pierina Visciano, Rosanna Tofalo, Giovanna Suzzi
The consumption of food containing high amounts of histamine and other biogenic amines can cause food poisoning with different symptoms linked to the individual sensitivity and the detoxification activity. Histamine is the only biogenic amine with regulatory limits set by the European Commission in fish and fishery products, because it can lead to a fatal outcome. However, also fermented foods can be involved in outbreaks and sporadic cases of intoxication. The factors affecting the presence of histamine in food are variable and product specific including the availability of the precursor amino acid, the presence of microorganisms producing decarboxylases, and the conditions allowing their growth and enzyme production...
October 18, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Hee Nyung Kim, Han Ho Do, Jun Seok Seo, Hee Young Kim
Podostroma cornu-damae is a rare, deadly fungus. However, it can be easily mistaken for antler Ganoderma lucidum. In this case report, two patients made tea with the fungus and drank it over a 2-week period. Both patients presented with bicytopenia, and one patient had desquamation of the palms and soles. Both were treated with prophylactic antibiotics and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. One patient was admitted to the intensive care unit and received a platelet transfusion. Both patients were discharged without complications...
September 2016: Clin Exp Emerg Med
Kazuki Kawahara, Shinya Yonogi, Ryota Munetomo, Hiroya Oki, Takuya Yoshida, Yuko Kumeda, Shigeaki Matsuda, Toshio Kodama, Tadayasu Ohkubo, Tetsuya Iida, Shota Nakamura
Binary enterotoxin of Clostridium perfringens (BEC), consisting of the components BECa and BECb, was recently identified as a novel enterotoxin produced by C. perfringens that causes acute gastroenteritis in humans. Although the detailed mechanism of cell intoxication by BEC remains to be defined, BECa shows both NAD(+)-glycohydrolase and actin ADP-ribosyltransferase activities in the presence of NAD(+). In this study, we determined the first crystal structure of BECa in its apo-state and in complex with NADH...
October 14, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
J S Munday, S C Finch, J B Vlaming, B L Sutherland, L R Fletcher
AIM: To investigate whether Mediterranean tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. (syn Festuca arundinacea)) infected with selected fungal endophytes (Epichloë coenophiala (formerly Neotyphodium coenophialum)) caused equine fescue oedema when grown in New Zealand, and to examine the pathological changes associated with this intoxication. METHODS: Horses were grazed on Mediterranean tall fescue that was infected with the endophytes AR542 (n=2), or AR584 (n=3), or Mediterranean tall fescue that was endophyte-free (n=2)...
October 17, 2016: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
Xiaojuan Huang, Jung-Ho Shin, Azul Pinochet-Barros, Tina T Su, John D Helmann
The Bacillus subtilis MntR metalloregulatory protein senses manganese, an essential element required for central metabolism, oxidative stress resistance and replication. An mntR null mutant is highly sensitive to Mn(II) intoxication, which is attributed in part to the constitutive expression of two importers: the proton-dependent NRAMP family transporter MntH and the ABC transporter MntABCD. Here, we show that an mntR null mutant is still sensitive to Mn(II) intoxication even if both of the import systems are absent...
October 17, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
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