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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355378/methylprednisolone-modulates-intracranial-pressure-in-the-brain-cellular-edema-induced-by-water-intoxication
#1
P Kozler, D Marešová, J Pokorný
Continuous monitoring of the intracranial pressure (ICP) detects impending intracranial hypertension resulting from the impaired intracranial volume homeostasis, when expanding volume generates pressure increase. In this study, cellular brain edema (CE) was induced in rats by water intoxication (WI). Methylprednisolone (MP) was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) before the start of CE induction, during the induction and after the induction. ICP was monitored for 60 min within 20 h after the completion of the CE induction by fibreoptic pressure transmitter...
December 30, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355351/happy-hour-drink-specials-in-the-alcohol-purchase-task
#2
Brent A Kaplan, Derek D Reed
There is strong evidence to suggest that happy hour drink specials are associated with undesirable outcomes such as increased amount of drinking, increased likelihood of being highly intoxicated, and increased likelihood of experiencing negative outcomes related to drinking (e.g., getting into fights). Public policy efforts have been made to ban or at least restrict alcohol drink specials. Research in behavioral economics-primarily demand curve analyses-has yielded valuable insights into the role of environmental effects on reinforcer consumption, especially within the context of alcohol reinforcement...
January 22, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355350/allocating-under-the-influence-effects-of-alcohol-intoxication-and-social-identification-on-in-group-favoritism
#3
Jin Zhou, Derek Heim, Rebecca Monk, Andrew Levy, Paul Pollard
The "social lubrication" function of alcohol during interpersonal interactions is well documented. However, less is known about the effects of alcohol consumption on group-level behavior. Empirical findings from social psychological literature suggest that individuals tend to favor those who are considered as members of their own social group. Not yet evaluated is how alcohol intoxication interacts with this group-level bias. Therefore, the current study examined experimentally the effects of intoxication on group bias...
January 22, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355331/a-qualitative-examination-of-contextual-influences-on-negative-alcohol-consequence-evaluations-among-young-adult-drinkers
#4
Jennifer E Merrill, Rochelle K Rosen, Susan B Walker, Kate B Carey
Alcohol misuse and associated negative consequences experienced by college students persists as a public health concern. Quantitative studies demonstrate variability in subjective evaluations of consequences, and how positively or negatively consequences are evaluated is associated with drinking behavior. Lacking is a qualitative exploration of how drinkers evaluate consequences and what influences those evaluations. We conducted a series of single-gender focus groups (13 groups; 3-7 per group; n = 62, 48% female) with college student drinkers...
January 22, 2018: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354652/effect-of-centruroides-antivenom-on-reversal-of-methamphetamine-induced-hyperkinesis-and-hyperthermia-in-rats
#5
Pouran Malekzadeh, Jackie Hu, Alexander J Sandweiss, Nina Ameli, Philippe Bierny, Tally M Largent-Milnes, Todd W Vanderah, Farshad Shirazi
Context: Methamphetamine (MA) toxicity is a major health concern causing agitation, hyperkinesia, hyperthermia, and even death, affecting 24.7 million people worldwide. It has been observed that MA generates movement disorders in children similar to that of scorpion envenomation. Four cases have been reported where MA intoxication in children were both subjectively and objectively improved as indicated by the reversal of nystagmus and movement disorders following administration of Centruroides antivenom (AV) therapy...
April 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutics & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353780/development-of-a-quechers-method-for-simultaneous-analysis-of-antibiotics-in-carcasses-for-supplementary-feeding-of-endangered-vultures
#6
P Gómez-Ramírez, P J Jiménez-Montalbán, D Delgado, E Martínez-López, P María-Mojica, A Godino, A J García-Fernández
Antibiotics have been beneficial for human and animal health. However, an excessive use in livestock and a deficient management of the carcasses can lead to adverse effects in the scavengers that ingest them, especially in "supplementary feeding sites" (SFS). The aim of this study was to assess the potential risk of exposure to antibiotics for an endangered population of Cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus) from southeastern Portugal. Hence, a multi-residue method based on QuEChERs was adapted and validated to analyse, in small volumes of tissues, the most frequent antibiotics used in livestock...
January 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353357/heath-risk-among-pesticide-sellers-in-bamenda-cameroon-and-peripheral-areas
#7
Jean Sonchieu, Edouard Nantia Akono, Cheche Tanwi Ngwamitang, Benoït Martin Ngassoum
In Bamenda and peripheral zones, studies have been focused on the effects of pesticides on farmers (pesticide users) while nothing has been done to assess the exposure of sellers to pesticides. This study aimed at evaluating the exposure of pesticide sellers in the same area. Thirty-two questionnaires were administered to 32 pesticide sellers systematically selected, and chi-square was used for statistical analysis. From each shop, a respondent was chosen among the workers according to its daily time spent in the workplace...
January 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353014/neuroprotective-effect-of-morin-on-lead-acetate-induced-apoptosis-by-preventing-cytochrome-c-translocation-via-regulation-of-bax-bcl-2-ratio
#8
Sumathi Thangarajan, Aishwarya Vedagiri, Shanmathy Somasundaram, Rathika Sakthimanogaran, Mahalakshmi Murugesan
Lead (Pb) intoxication is a prevalent type of environmental toxicity as well as minimal amount of lead exposure is liable for neurobehavioral or perhaps intelligence defects. The present study was undertaken to investigate the beneficial effects of morin in protecting the lead acetate (PbAc)-induced oxidative stress in rat brain. PbAc intoxication resulted in motor deficit, memory impairment and oxidative stress Further, PbAc administration alters Bax/Bcl-2 expression thereby increases cytochrome c release from the mitochondria...
January 15, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350750/the-hepatoprotective-effect-of-selenium-enriched-yeast-and-gum-arabic-combination-on-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-chronic-liver-injury-in-rats
#9
Mohammed Hamid, Yassin Abdulrahim, Dandan Liu, Gang Qian, Alamzeb Khan, Kehe Huang
The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of selenium-enriched yeast (SY) and Gum Arabic (GA) have been reported. This study aimed to determine the hepatoprotective effect of SY and GA combination on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )-induced chronic liver injury in rats and to explore their synergistic mechanisms of action. Forty adult male Wistar rats randomly allotted to 5 groups: (A) worked as control, (B) was administered CCl4 , (C-E) were fed daily by GA, SY, and GA+SY respectively after mixing with basal diet, following CCl4 -intoxication...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350490/chronic-exposure-to-high-doses-of-selenium-in-the-first-trimester-of-pregnancy-case-report-and-brief-literature-review
#10
Luisa D'Oria, Massimo Apicella, Carmen De Luca, Angelo Licameli, Caterina Neri, Marcella Pellegrino, Daniela Simeone, Marco De Santis
BACKGROUND: Obstetricians usually prescribe supplements during pregnancy without actual indication. The use of selenium during pregnancy has increased, due to its function in several antioxidant mechanisms. CASE: A pregnant woman received 200,000 micrograms (μg) per day of a selenium galenic formulation, since gestational week (g.w.) 7 to 12, due to a prescription error. The patient experienced nausea, vomiting, hand and foot paresthesia, followed by fatigue, loss of fingernails and hair...
January 19, 2018: Birth Defects Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350117/-treating-poisoning-how-do-you-choose-the-best-type-of-gastrointestinal-decontamination
#11
M V Verschueren, F G A Jansman, D J Touw, C Kramers
- A new guideline: 'Intoxication: initial approach in the hospital' will be published this year. This guideline sets out the latest insights on gastrointestinal decontamination in intoxication; the advice is summarized in a flowchart.- The advice is to generally administer activated charcoal, unless there are indications that the toxin will not bind to activated charcoal or that the amount of toxin that the patient has ingested is too great; in these cases gastric lavage can be considered.- Activated charcoal can be administered up to 2 hours after the ingestion of a toxic substance, unless there are contra-indications...
2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344293/ligand-activation-of-ppar%C3%AE-by-ligustrazine-suppresses-pericyte-functions-of-hepatic-stellate-cells-via-smrt-mediated-transrepression-of-hif-1%C3%AE
#12
Feng Zhang, Shuai Lu, Jianlin He, Huanhuan Jin, Feixia Wang, Li Wu, Jiangjuan Shao, Anping Chen, Shizhong Zheng
Rationale: Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are liver-specific pericytes regulating vascular remodeling during hepatic fibrosis. Here, we investigated how ligustrazine affects HSC pericyte functions. Methods: Rat HSC-T6 and human HSC-LX2 cells were cultured, and multiple molecular experiments including real-time PCR, Western blot, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, electrophoretic mobility shift assay and co-immunoprecipitation were used to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Molecular simulation and site-directed mutagenesis were performed to uncover the target molecule of ligustrazine...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344061/subacute-acrylamide-intoxication-with-severe-visual-disturbance-a-case-report
#13
Takashi Kageyama, Shuji Hashimoto, Toshihiko Suenaga
A 35-year-old man was admitted due to somnolence and progressive sensory-motor polyneuropathy, followed by severe visual impairment in both eyes after direct skin exposure to an acrylamide monomer solution. The results of an ophthalmological examination including central critical flicker fusion frequency and the decreased amplitude of action potentials observed in the visual evoked potential studies suggested that acrylamide intoxication resulted in neuronal degeneration in the optic pathways. Additional attention should be directed to the potential effect of acrylamide on the human visual system...
August 2017: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344053/an-overview-of-exposure-to-ethanol-containing-substances-and-ethanol-intoxication-in-children-based-on-three-illustrated-cases
#14
REVIEW
Kam Lun Hon, Alexander Kc Leung, Eddie Cheung, Bryan Lee, Michelle Mc Tsang, Alcy R Torres
Alcohol addiction and intoxication are major health problems worldwide. Acute alcohol intoxication is well reported in adults and adolescents but less frequently reported in children of younger ages. We report three anonymized cases of pediatric ethanol exposure and illustrate the different mechanisms of intoxication. In all cases, a focused history is the key to prompt diagnosis and timely management. Physicians should be aware of this potential poison in children presented with acute confusional or encephalopathic state...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343296/quantitative-method-for-analysis-of-six-anticoagulant-rodenticides-in-faeces-applied-in-a-case-with-repeated-samples-from-a-dog
#15
Kristin Opdal Seljetun, Elin Eliassen, Ritva Karinen, Lars Moe, Vigdis Vindenes
BACKGROUND: Accidental poisoning with anticoagulant rodenticides is not uncommon in dogs, but few reports of the elimination kinetics and half-lives in this species have been published. Our objectives were to develop and validate a new method for the quantification of anticoagulant rodenticides in canine blood and faeces using reversed phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) and apply the method on a case of anticoagulant rodenticide intoxication...
January 17, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342206/silymarin-prevents-acetaminophen-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-mice
#16
Zuzana Papackova, Marie Heczkova, Helena Dankova, Eva Sticova, Alena Lodererova, Lenka Bartonova, Martin Poruba, Monika Cahova
Acetaminophen or paracetamol (APAP) overdose is a common cause of liver injury. Silymarin (SLM) is a hepatoprotective agent widely used for treating liver injury of different origin. In order to evaluate the possible beneficial effects of SLM, Balb/c mice were pretreated with SLM (100 mg/kg b.wt. per os) once daily for three days. Two hours after the last SLM dose, the mice were administered APAP (300 mg/kg b.wt. i.p.) and killed 6 (T6), 12 (T12) and 24 (T24) hours later. SLM-treated mice exhibited a significant reduction in APAP-induced liver injury, assessed according to AST and ALT release and histological examination...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340871/neurotoxicity-of-prosopis-juliflora-from-natural-poisoning-to-mechanism-of-action-of-its-piperidine-alkaloids
#17
Victor Diogenes Amaral da Silva, André Mario Mendes da Silva, Juliana Helena Castro E Silva, Silvia Lima Costa
Prosopis juliflora was introduced in northeastern Brazil in the 1940s, and since then, it has been available as an alternative for animal nutrition. However, the consumption of P. juliflora as main or sole source of food causes an illness in animals known locally as "cara torta" disease. Cattle and goats experimentally intoxicated presents neurotoxic damage in the central nervous system. Histologic lesions were mainly characterized by vacuolation and loss of neurons in trigeminal motor nuclei. Furthermore, mitochondrial damage in neurons and gliosis was reported in trigeminal nuclei of intoxicated cattle...
January 16, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338922/alcohol-consumption-masculinity-and-alcohol-related-violence-and-anti-social-behaviour-in-sportspeople
#18
Kerry S O'Brien, Walter Forrest, Iain Greenlees, Daniel Rhind, Sophia Jowett, Ilana Pinsky, Albert Espelt, Marina Bosque-Prous, Anders Larrabee Sonderlund, Matteo Vergani, Muhammad Iqbal
OBJECTIVES: There is no research examining alcohol-related aggression and anti-social behaviour in UK or European sportspeople (athletes), and no research has examined relationships between masculinity, alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related aggression and antisocial behaviour in sportspeople (athletes). This study addresses this gap. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS: A sample (N=2048; women=892, 44%) of in season sportspeople enrolled at UK universities (response 83%), completed measures of masculinity, alcohol consumption, within-sport (on-field) violence, and having been the perpetrator and/or victim of alcohol-related violent/aggressive and antisocial behaviour (e...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338236/detection-of-the-cytotoxic-penitrems-a-f-in-cheese-from-the-european-single-market-eu-by-hplc-ms-ms
#19
Svetlana Kalinina, Annika Jagels, Sebastian Hickert, Lucas Maciel Mauriz Marques, Benedikt Cramer, Hans-Ulrich Humpf
Penitrems are fungal indole diterpene derived tremorgenic secondary metabolites, which are mainly produced by Penicillium spp. Several cases of intoxications with penitrems and subsequent occurrences of penitrem A in foodstuff underline the need for reliable quantitation methods for the detection of these mycotoxins in food. In this study, a simple and fast HPLC-MS/MS method for the quantitative analysis of penitrems A-F in cheese was developed. Therefore, penitrems A-F were isolated from Penicillium crustosum as analytical reference standards...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337837/accidental-rivaroxaban-intoxication-in-a-boy-some-lessons-in-managing-new-oral-anticoagulants-in-children
#20
Julieta Weirthein, Dennis Scolnik, Nili Yanai Milshtein, Tali Capua, Miguel Glatstein
Novel oral anticoagulants offer equivalent or improved therapeutic profiles compared with warfarin, with less risk of bleeding, no interactions with food, and no need for routine laboratory monitoring. Caution must be exercised in using these drugs in certain patient populations, for example, renal insufficiency, those receiving additional antithrombotic therapy, those with questionable compliance, children, and those with a high risk of gastrointestinal bleeding. One of the novel oral anticoagulants, rivaroxaban, is a direct Factor Xa inhibitor, used to reduce risk of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism...
January 15, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
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