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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778973/a-two-fatal-cases-of-poisoning-involving-new-cathinone-derivative-pv8
#1
Ewelina Pieprzyca, Rafał Skowronek, Małgorzata Korczyńska, Joanna Kulikowska, Małgorzata Chowaniec
α-Pyrrolidinoheptiophenone (PV8) is a representative of α-pyrrolidinophenone derivatives, a new group of synthetic cathinones. PV8 was first detected in illegal products in Japan in 2013. It is closely related to α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP), which was one of the most popular novel psychoactive substance (NPS) in Poland in years 2013-2015. The article presents two cases of fatal poisonings of 36-year-old man and 37-year-old woman, where a new cathinone derivative - PV8 was detected in biological material collected during medicolegal autopsies...
May 14, 2018: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778816/disneyization-a-framework-for-understanding-illicit-drug-use-in-bounded-play-spaces
#2
Tim Turner
BACKGROUND: This paper combines evidence from an ethnographic study of illicit drug use amongst tourists in Ibiza with Bryman's (2004) theoretical model of Disneyization. The principal aim was to construct a new conceptual framework that may help scholars, practitioners and policy makers make sense of dynamic patterns of illegal drug use across bounded play spaces such as tourist resorts, music festivals and nightclubs. METHODS: Ethnographic fieldwork employing a grounded theory design was undertaken over three summers in tourist locations on the Balearic island of Ibiza, including nightclubs, bars, cafes, beaches, airports and hotels...
May 17, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778398/antipsychotic-induced-disorders-reported-cases-and-prospective-study-on-muscle-biomarkers-after-high-exposure-to-haloperidol
#3
Abderrezak Khelfi, Mohammed Azzouz, Rania Abtroun, Mohammed Reggabi, Berkahoum Alamir
Antipsychotic drugs are known to induce neuromuscular effects. In this study, we review 13 years (2002-2014) of antipsychotic intoxications reported by the anti-poisoning center of Algiers (APCA). The most recorded symptoms were neuromuscular/muscular disorders, of which haloperidol was the most inducer among all antipsychotics. A prospective study was conducted between December 2012 and January 2017 to evaluate muscle effects generated after intentional or accidental ingestion of haloperidol. Fifty-one patients admitted in different emergency departments in Algiers were included in this study...
May 17, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778227/what-are-the-main-environmental-factors-driving-the-development-of-the-neurotoxic-dinoflagellate-vulcanodinium-rugosum-in-a-mediterranean-ecosystem-ingril-lagoon-france
#4
Eric Abadie, Claude Chiantella, Anaïs Crottier, Lesley Rhodes, Estelle Masseret, Tom Berteaux, Mohamed Laabir
Vulcanodinium rugosum, a dinoflagellate developing in Ingril Lagoon (Mediterranean, France) is responsible for shellfish intoxications due to the neurotoxin pinnatoxin G. A one year survey (March 2012-April 2013) was conducted in this oligotrophic shallow lagoon and key environmental parameters were recorded (temperature, salinity and nutrients). The spatio-temporal distribution of V. rugosum in water column and on macrophytes was also determined. Planktonic cells of V. rugosum were observed at all sampling stations, but in relatively low concentrations (maximum of 1000 cell/L)...
May 2018: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778019/phoenix-dactylifera-protects-against-oxidative-stress-and-hepatic-injury-induced-by-paracetamol-intoxication-in-rats
#5
Gamal A Salem, Ahmed Shaban, Hussain A Diab, Wesam A Elsaghayer, Manal D Mjedib, Aomassad M Hnesh, Ravi P Sahu
The current studies were sought to determine effects of antioxidant potential of aqueous and methanolic extracts of Phoenix dactylifera leaves (PLAE and PLME) against the widely-used analgesic paracetamol (PCM) induced hepatotoxicity. Groups of rats were treated with or without PCM (1500 mg/kg), PLAE and PLME (300 mg/kg) and n-acetylcysteine (NAC, 50 mg/kg) followed by assessments of liver function tests, oxidative stress, antioxidant defenses, and hepatotoxicity. We observed that PCM significantly elevated serum liver markers, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and bilirubin compared to control (untreated) group...
May 16, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777765/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-an-oral-sustained-release-hepatoprotective-caffeine-loaded-w-o-pickering-emulsion-formula-containing-wheat-germ-oil-and-stabilized-by-magnesium-oxide-nanoparticles
#6
Heba Elmotasem, Hala K Farag, Abeer A A Salama
The objective of this study was to innovate an effective oral sustained release hepatoprotective formula for - the water soluble drug - caffeine. Caffeine is rapidly absorbed and eliminated which dictates frequent administration to achieve adequate therapeutic effect. A w/o Pickering emulsion incorporating caffeine in the internal phase was primed. It contained wheat germ oil and was stabilized by synthesized magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO NPs). Components selection was based on their antioxidant, hepatoprotective and anticarcinogenic effects...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777518/total-pancreatic-necrosis-after-organophosphate-intoxication
#7
Rui Hou, Hongmin Zhang, Huan Chen, Yuankai Zhou, Yun Long, Dawei Liu
Cases of acute pancreatitis induced by organophosphate intoxication are encountered occasionally in clinics, but very few of them develop into severe pancreas necrosis and irreversible pancreatic function impairment. Here, we report a 47-year-old female organophosphate poisoning case after ingestion of massive insecticides; she was considered to have total necrosis and function failure of the pancreas via serum amylase test, glucose level test, and CT imaging. The patient exhibited no relief under the regular medicine treatment, which included sandostatin, antibiotics, intravenous atropine, and pralidoxime methiodide...
May 18, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777122/alcohol-facilitates-detection-of-concealed-identity-information
#8
Kristina Suchotzki, Matthias Gamer
The Concealed Information Test (CIT) is a well-validated means to detect whether someone possesses certain (e.g., crime-relevant) information. The current study investigated whether alcohol intoxication during CIT administration influences reaction time (RT) CIT-effects. Two opposing predictions can be made. First, by decreasing attention to critical information, alcohol intoxication could diminish CIT-effects. Second, by hampering the inhibition of truthful responses, alcohol intoxication could increase CIT-effects...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776952/activity-based-concept-to-screen-biological-matrices-for-opiates-and-synthetic-opioids
#9
Annelies Cannaert, Lakshmi Vasudevan, Melissa Friscia, Amanda L A Mohr, Sarah M R Wille, Christophe P Stove
BACKGROUND: Detection of new highly potent synthetic opioids is challenging as new compounds enter the market. Here we present a novel screening method for the detection of opiates and (synthetic) opioids based on their activity. METHODS: A cell-based system was set up in which activation of the μ -opioid receptor (MOR) led to recruitment of β-arrestin 2, resulting in functional complementation of a split NanoLuc luciferase and allowing readout via bioluminescence...
May 18, 2018: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775726/pathological-effects-of-concurrent-administration-of-aflatoxin-b-1-and-fowl-adenovirus-4-in-broiler-chicks
#10
Muhammad Noman Naseem, Muhammad Kashif Saleemi, Ahrar Khan, Aisha Khatoon, Shafia Tehseen Gul, Farzana Rizvi, Ijaz Ahmad, Ahad Fayyaz
The current study was designed to investigate pathological effects fowl adenovirus in broilers exposed to aflatoxin B1 . Fowl Adenovirus-4 (FAdV-4) infection is remerging in all types of poultry birds in Pakistan. Poultry feed contamination with mycotoxin (aflatoxin) is another important global issue. A total of 125 a-day old broiler birds were divided into six equal groups. Group A served as control. B and C groups were administered with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) 100 and 200 μg/kg feed. Group D was infected with FAdV-4 while groups E and F administered with both AFB1 (100 & 200 μg/kg) along with FAdV-4...
May 15, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774782/the-neuroprotective-effect-of-ethanol-intoxication-in-tbi-is-associated-with-the-suppression-of-erbb-signaling-in-pv-positive-interneurons
#11
Akila Chandrasekar, Florian Olde Heuvel, Martin Wepler, Rida Rehman, Annette Palmer, Alberto Catanese, Birgit Linkus, Albert Ludolph, Tobias Boeckers, Markus Huber-Lang, Peter Radermacher, Francesco Roselli
Ethanol intoxication (EI) is a frequent comorbidity of TBI, but the impact of EI on TBI pathogenic cascades and prognosis is unclear: although clinical evidence suggests that EI may have neuroprotective effects, experimental support is, to date, inconclusive. We aimed at elucidating the impact of EI on TBI-associated neurological deficits, signaling pathways and pathogenic cascades, in order to identify new modifiers of TBI pathophysiology. We have shown that ethanol administration (5g/Kg) before trauma enhances behavioral recovery in a weight-drop TBI model; neuronal survival in the injured somatosensory cortex was enhanced by EI...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773320/cooperative-binding-of-anti-tetanus-toxin-monoclonal-antibodies-implications-for-designing-an-efficient-biclonal-preparation-to-prevent-tetanus-toxin-intoxication
#12
Ivana Lukic, Ana Filipovic, Aleksandra Inic-Kanada, Emilija Marinkovic, Radmila Miljkovic, Marijana Stojanovic
Oligoclonal combinations of several monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are being considered for the treatment of various infectious pathologies. These combinations are less sensitive to antigen structural changes than individual MAbs; at the same time, their characteristics can be more efficiently controlled than those of polyclonal antibodies. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the binding characteristics of six biclonal equimolar preparations (BEP) of tetanus toxin (TeNT)-specific MAbs and to investigate how the MAb combination influences the BEPs' protective capacity...
May 15, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773276/-psychiatric-comorbidities-of-alcohol-dependence
#13
Alain Dervaux, Xavier Laqueille
Psychiatric disorders are common among patients with alcohol dependence. Symptoms of alcohol intoxication or withdrawal need to be disentangled from symptoms of psychiatric disorders. Alcohol dependence could induce psychiatric disorders, in particular depressive disorders and anxiety disorders. Patients with psychiatric disorders may self-medicate with alcohol use. There may be common factors promoting both alcohol dependence and psychiatric disorders: about 40% of patients with alcohol dependence present personality disorders...
May 14, 2018: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773167/optimal-dosage-and-early-intervention-of-l-ascorbic-acid-inhibiting-k-2-cr-2-o-7-induced-renal-tubular-cell-damage
#14
Tzeng-Jih Lin, Yeou-Lih Huang, Jung-San Chang, Kuan-Ting Liu, Meng-Chi Yen, Fen-Wei Chen, Yueh-Lun Shih, Jo-Chi Jao, Po-Chi Huang, I-Jeng Yeh
Chromium poisoning can cause renal failure and death. Chromium intoxication may be managed using L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) therapy. However, the evidence supporting the effectiveness of this treatment is insufficient, and the mechanism of action has not been clarified in renal cells. In this study, our results showed that the optimal regimen of L-ascorbic acid therapy in human epithelial renal proximal tubule cells, HK-2 cells, was 30 μg/mL. Supplementation of L-ascorbic acid with 30 μg/mL and within 8 h of chromium intoxication (K2 Cr2 O7, Cr6+ ) was effective to inhibit renal tubular cell damage by blocking generation of free radicals, cell apoptosis, and autophagy...
July 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772996/beneficial-protective-effect-of-troxerutin-on-nickel-induced-renal-dysfunction-in-wistar-rats
#15
Perumal Elangovan, Ramalingam Ramakrishnan, Kasinathan Amudha, Abdulkadhar Mohamed Jalaludeen, Gunasekaran Karuna Sagaran, Frankline Rajan Babu, Leelavinothan Pari
Nickel (Ni) is an important environmental toxicant that can cause cancer and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to examine the protective effects of troxerutin (Txn) Ni-induced renal dysfunction in rats using biochemical and histopathological approaches. Nickel (20 mg/kg body weight [b.w.]/day) was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 20 days. Renal damage from Ni toxicity was evident from the changed levels of serum and urinary markers in Ni-treated rats. The levels of lipid peroxidation markers also significantly increased, while the levels of nonenzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants significantly decreased in the kidney of Ni-intoxicated rats...
2018: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772432/silymarin-prevents-apoptosis-through-inhibiting-the-bax-caspase-3-expression-and-suppresses-toll-like-receptor-4-pathway-in-the-snc-of-6-ohda-intoxicated-rats
#16
Rasool Haddadi, Alireza Mohajjel Nayebi, Shahla Eyvari Brooshghalan
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Several lines of evidence show that apoptosis, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are associated with the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). In the present study, we investigated the effect of pre-treatment with silymarin (SM) on oxidative stress, apoptosis and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression in substantia nigra pars copmacta (SNc) of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats. METHODS: Animals were pretreated with 100, 200 or 300 mg/kg of SM daily for 5 days and at 6th day 6-OHDA (8 μg/2 μl) was infused unilaterally into the central region of the SNc...
May 14, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769014/effect-of-fluoride-on-major-organs-with-the-different-time-of-exposure-in-rats
#17
Thanusha Perera, Shirani Ranasinghe, Neil Alles, Roshitha Waduge
BACKGROUND: High fluoride levels in drinking water in relation to the prevalence of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka were investigated using rats as an experimental model. METHOD: The effects of fluoride after oral administration of Sodium fluoride (NaF) at levels of 0, 0.5, 5 and 20 ppm F- were evaluated in adult male Wistar rats. Thirty-six rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 9), namely, control, test I, II, and III...
May 16, 2018: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768075/evaluating-mice-lacking-serum-carboxylesterase-as-a-behavioral-model-for-nerve-agent-intoxication
#18
Emily N Dunn, Teresa M Ferrara-Bowens, Mark E Chachich, Cary L Honnold, Cristin C Rothwell, Heidi M Hoard-Fruchey, Catherine A Lesyna, Erik A Johnson, Douglas M Cerasoli, John H McDonough, C Linn Cadieux
Mice and other rodents are typically utilized for chemical warfare nerve agent research. Rodents have large amounts of carboxylesterase in their blood, while humans do not. Carboxylesterase non-specifically binds to and detoxifies nerve agent. The presence of this natural bioscavenger makes mice and other rodents poor models for studies identifying therapeutics to treat humans exposed to nerve agents. To obviate this problem, a serum carboxylesterase knockout (Es1 KO) mouse was created. In this study, Es1 KO and wild type (WT) mice were assessed for differences in gene expression, nerve agent (soman; GD) median lethal dose (MLD) values, and behavior prior to and following nerve agent exposure...
May 16, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767818/adapting-the-risk-environment-framework-to-understand-substance-use-gender-based-violence-and-hiv-risk-behaviors-among-female-sex-workers-in-tanzania
#19
Anna M Leddy, Carol Underwood, Michele R Decker, Jessie Mbwambo, Samuel Likindikoki, Noya Galai, Deanna Kerrigan
Female sex workers (FSWs) in sub-Saharan Africa are disproportionately affected by HIV and gender-based violence (GBV). Substance use overlaps with these co-occurring epidemics to further increase FSWs' risk for negative health outcomes. We explored the relationship between substance use, GBV, and consistent condom use utilizing baseline data from a cohort of 496 FSWs in Tanzania. Results demonstrate high levels of alcohol use and GBV, and low levels of consistent condom use. Frequent intoxication during sex work was associated with increased odds of recent GBV (aOR 1...
May 16, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765102/the-effects-of-cannabidiol-on-impulsivity-and-memory-during-abstinence-in-cigarette-dependent-smokers
#20
C Hindocha, T P Freeman, M Grabski, H Crudgington, A C Davies, J B Stroud, R K Das, W Lawn, C J A Morgan, H V Curran
Acute nicotine abstinence in cigarette smokers results in deficits in performance on specific cognitive processes, including working memory and impulsivity which are important in relapse. Cannabidiol (CBD), the non-intoxicating cannabinoid found in cannabis, has shown pro-cognitive effects and preliminary evidence has indicated it can reduce the number of cigarettes smoked in dependent smokers. However, the effects of CBD on cognition have never been tested during acute nicotine withdrawal. The present study therefore aimed to investigate if CBD can improve memory and reduce impulsivity during acute tobacco abstinence...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
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