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Matheus D Baldissera, Carine F Souza, Carla Cristina Zeppenfeld, Sharine Descovi, Aleksandro S da Silva, Bernardo Baldisserotto
The phosphotransfer network system, through the enzymes creatine kinase (CK), adenylate kinase (AK), and pyruvate kinase (PK), contributes to efficient intracellular energetic communication between cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) consumption and production in tissues with high energetic demand, such as cerebral tissue. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) intoxication in diet negatively affects the cerebral phosphotransfer network related to impairment of cerebral ATP levels in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen)...
March 15, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Jorge C Kattah
Background: Previous series of bilateral vestibular loss (BVL) identified numerous etiologies, but surprisingly, a cause in a significant number of cases remains unknown. In an effort to understand possible etiology and management strategies, a global effort is currently in progress. Here, I contribute my 10-year experience with both acute and chronic BVL during the 2007-2017 decade. Methods: This is a retrospective review of the charts and EMR of patients diagnosed with BVL in the last 10 years...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
J H C de Roo, T M Bosch, A van Rhijn, R Del Canho
BACKGROUND: Medication is not always delivered in a safe dosing format. Up to 33% of medication errors can be attributed to confusing packaging or labelling. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 6-year-old boy with ADHD, for which he was being treated with methylphenidate and pipamperone drops, was brought to the A&E department with signs of severe encephalopathy. He had apparently been given pipamperone in streams rather than in drops in the previous months. The pipamperone level in his blood was raised to toxic levels...
2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Hitesh Raheja, Vinod Namana, Kirti Chopra, Ankur Sinha, Sushilkumar Satish Gupta, Stephan Kamholz, Norbert Moskovits, Jacob Shani, Gerald Hollander
Background: Acute alcohol intoxication has been associated with cardiac arrhythmias but the electrocardiogram (ECG) changes associated with acute alcohol intoxication are not well defined in the literature. Objective: Highlight the best evidence regarding the ECG changes associated with acute alcohol intoxication in otherwise healthy patients and the pathophysiology of the changes. Methods: A literature search was carried out; 4 studies relating to ECG changes with acute alcohol intoxication were included in this review...
2018: Open Cardiovascular Medicine Journal
Jie Hao, Shuangyue Li, Xiaoxia Shi, Zhiqiang Qian, Yijie Sun, Dunjia Wang, Xueying Zhou, Hongxin Qu, Shuhai Hu, Enjun Zuo, Cong Zhang, Liyan Hou, Qingshan Wang, Fengyuan Piao
Chronic exposure to n-hexane, a widely used organic solvent in industry, induces central-peripheral neuropathy, which is mediated by its active metabolite, 2,5-hexanedione (HD). We recently reported that transplantation of bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) significantly ameliorated HD-induced neuronal damage and motor deficits in rats. However, the mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we reported that inhibition of HD-induced autophagy contributed to BMSC-afforded protection. BMSC transplantation significantly reduced the levels of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II (LC3-II) and the degradation of sequestosome-1 (p62) in the spinal cord and sciatic nerve of HD-intoxicated rats...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Naho Hirayama, Toshihiko Aki, Takeshi Funakoshi, Kanako Noritake, Kana Unuma, Koichi Uemura
Paraquat (PQ) is an herbicide that was once used worldwide, but is now prohibited in many nations due to its high toxicity to humans. However, there are still rare cases of the fetal intoxication of PQ, which was purchased prior to the prohibition in Japan. In this study, several cell death pathways, the mitochondrial stress response, and autophagy were examined in SH-SY5Y cells exposed to PQ. The results reveal the decrease of a mitochondrial stress sensitive-BNIP3 (Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19-kDa-interacting protein 3) protein, the suppression of autophagic flux, and the lack of apoptosis as well as other regulated forms of necrosis, such as necroptosis and ferroptosis...
2018: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi, Sandra de M G Bosco, Sybren de Hoog, Frank Ebel, Daniel Elad, Renata R Gomes, Ilse D Jacobsen, An Martel, Bernard Mignon, Frank Pasmans, Elena Piecková, Anderson Messias Rodrigues, Karuna Singh, Vania A Vicente, Gudrun Wibbelt, Nathan P Wiederhold, Jacques Guillot
The importance of fungal infections in both human and animals has increased over the last decades. This article represents an overview of the different categories of fungal infections that can be encountered in animals originating from environmental sources without transmission to humans. In addition, the endemic infections with indirect transmission from the environment, the zoophilic fungal pathogens with near-direct transmission, the zoonotic fungi that can be directly transmitted from animals to humans, mycotoxicoses and antifungal resistance in animals will also be discussed...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Sa'ed H Zyoud
BACKGROUND: Paraquat is considered to be the main pesticide involved in accidental and intentional poisoning, and is responsible for a high rate of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to present a comprehensive bibliometric analysis of paraquat intoxication-related research. METHODS: Data was retrieved in March 2017 from the Scopus database. An overview of the research on paraquat intoxication was presented alongside the information related to several bibliometric indicators, such as research trends, countries with their h-index, collaboration, hot issues, top-cited publications, journals, and institutions...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
Di Ding, Lin-Lin Chen, Ying-Zhen Zhai, Chen-Jian Hou, Li-Li Tao, Shu-Han Lu, Jian Wu, Xiu-Ping Liu
Reversal of activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) to a quiescent state and apoptosis of activated HSCs are key elements in the reversion of hepatic fibrosis. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBP-α) has been shown to inhibit HSC activation and promote its apoptosis. This study aims to investigate how C/EBP-α acetylation affects the fate of activated HSCs. Effects of a histone deacetylation inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) on HSC activation were evaluated in a mouse model of liver fibrosis caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) intoxication...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ilzira A Minigalieva, Boris A Katsnelson, Larisa I Privalova, Marina P Sutunkova, Vladimir B Gurvich, Vladimir Y Shur, Ekaterina V Shishkina, Irene E Valamina, Oleg H Makeyev, Vladimir G Panov, Anatoly N Varaksin, Tatiana V Bushueva, Renata R Sakhautdinova, Svetlana V Klinova, Svetlana N Solovyeva, Ekaterina Y Meshtcheryakova
Stable suspensions of metal/metalloid oxide nanoparticles (MeO-NPs) obtained by laser ablation of 99.99% pure elemental aluminum, titanium or silicon under a layer of deionized water were used separately, or in three binary combinations, or in a ternary combination to induce subchronic intoxications in rats. To this end, the MeO-NPs were repeatedly injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) 18 times during 6 weeks before measuring a large number of functional, biochemical, morphological and cytological indices for the organism's status...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Paul Mel van Dam, Mark Wl van Geffen, Thomas Ra Havenith, Dirk Posthouwer
Triumeq is a single-tablet regimen for patients with HIV infection comprising dolutegravir, abacavir and lamivudine. Overdoses with Triumeq have not been reported previously. We present a case of a 26-year-old man who presented to our hospital after intentionally ingesting 30 tablets of Triumeq. An intoxication with Triumeq can lead to several side effects. An overdose of abacavir and lamivudine can cause mitochondrial toxicity and lactic acidosis. An intoxication with dolutegravir appears to be relatively harmless...
March 13, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Elon Richman, Nathan J Skoller, Bernice Fokum, Brandi A Burke, Chelsea A Hickerson, Robert O Cotes
: Synthetic cathinones are a class of novel psychoactive substances. α-Pyrrolidinopentiophenone (α-PVP), or "Flakka", is one of these substances. Users often present acutely psychotic or agitated. We present the case of a 20-year-old male without prior psychiatric history who was brought to the hospital by his family because of increasingly bizarre and erratic behavior after reported ingestion of Flakka. What ensued was a prolonged course of psychosis and severe catatonia. Synthetic cathinones are thought to cause catatonia in approximately 1% of cases...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Damian Jacob Sendler
INTRODUCTION: Erotic asphyxiation is a sexual phenomenon in which one partner reduces the other person's brain oxygen level through strangulation. This study analyzes deaths caused by sexually-motivated strangulation to cases of homicidal choking - summarizing criminal penalties for defendants, depending on the presence of drugs, or alcohol intoxication. METHODS: The mode of analysis involves three sources of data. First, a retrospective chart review of our clinics' two recent cases...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Rodrigo Ramos-Zúñiga, Elizabeth Sevilla, Yara Ursiel-Ortega
OBJETIVE: Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) associated to alcohol consumption is a global public health problem. It is important to identify and rethink the strategies to approach this challenge for health institutions from a professional perspective. METHODS: An online survey, created with google forms, was sent to professional neurosurgeons in Mexico and Latin America. Participation was voluntary, and the responses were anonymous and confidential. Data were captured after a month and subjected to descriptive statistical analysis using Fisher's method and Chi Square...
March 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Anders Helander, Katarina Stojanovic, Tomas Villén, Olof Beck
In recent time, structural variants of fentanyl ("designer fentanyls") have appeared on the recreational drug market for new psychoactive substances (NPS). These potent opioids have caused harmful intoxications and increased opioid related mortality in many countries. This work evaluated three commercial immunoassays for fentanyl screening in urine, and investigated whether they are useful also for screening of designer fentanyls. The assays examined were the Thermo DRI® Fentanyl Enzyme Immunoassay, the ARK™ Fentanyl Assay homogeneous enzyme immunoassay, and the Immunalysis® Fentanyl Urine SEFRIA™ Drug Screening Kit...
March 12, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Iris E Sommer, Hidde Kleijer, Kenneth Hugdahl
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hallucinations are common and often stressful experiences, occurring in all sensory modalities. They frequently complicate many disorders or situations, such as Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, hearing or vision loss, intoxications and delirium. Although psychoeducation, coping techniques and psychotherapy may be broadly applicable, they do not address a specific underlying brain mechanism. Pharmacotherapy may effectively alleviate hallucinations if the corresponding mechanism is present, whereas in its absence, may only cause harmful side effects...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Gro Askgaard, Janne S Tolstrup, Mette S Kjær, David A Leon
AIMS: Alcoholic liver cirrhosis is usually preceded by years of heavy drinking. We investigated whether the risk of alcoholic liver cirrhosis increases as the number of hospital contacts with alcohol problems goes up. METHODS: This was a supplementary analysis on a nationwide register-based cohort study. All patients in Denmark with an initial hospital contact with alcohol problems (alcohol intoxication, harmful alcohol use or alcohol dependence) 1998-2002, free of liver disease, were followed for diagnosis of alcoholic liver cirrhosis...
March 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Travis T Mallard, James R Ashenhurst, K Paige Harden, Kim Fromme
GABRA2, the gene encoding the α2 subunit of the GABAA receptor, potentially plays a role in the etiology of problematic drinking, as GABRA2 genotype has been associated with subjective response to alcohol and other alcohol-related reward processes. The GABRA2 gene has also been associated with illicit drug use, but the extent to which associations with drug use are independent of associations with alcohol use remains unclear, partly because most previous research has used a cross-sectional design that cannot discriminate comorbidity at the between-person level and co-occurrence within-persons...
February 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Neta Solomon, Ariel Many, Rotem Orbach, Dror Mandel, Shiri Shinar
BACKGROUND: Hyponatremia during labor and delivery may result in severe maternal and neonatal sequelae. Our aim was to describe the direct effect of hyponatremia in labor on pregnancy outcome. METHODS: A case series of parturients diagnosed with hyponatremia during labor and their neonates. Clinical presentation, laboratory workup, and maternal and neonatal outcomes are presented. RESULTS: Four parturients and their corresponding six neonates were diagnosed with hyponatremia...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Yin-Hui Leong, Adilah Mohamed Ariff, Halilol Rahman Mohamed Khan, Noor Afiza Abdul Rani, Mohamed Isa Abdul Majid
This study analyses the incidences and patterns of paraquat poisoning from calls received at the Malaysia National Poison Centre (NPC) since 2004 following the ban of the herbicide (2004-2006) and subsequent restriction up to year 2015. Related reported cases to the centre over twelve years (2004-2015) were retrieved and studied in respect to socio-demographic characteristics, mode and type of poisonings, exposure routes and location of incident. Ages of poisoned victims range from 10 months old to 98 years with males being intoxicated more frequently than females (ratio male to female = 2...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
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