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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774170/liquid-biopsy-of-vitreous-reveals-an-abundant-vesicle-population-consistent-with-the-size-and-morphology-of-exosomes
#1
Yuanjun Zhao, Sarah R Weber, Joshua Lease, Mariano Russo, Christopher A Siedlecki, Li-Chong Xu, Han Chen, Weiwei Wang, Michael Ford, Rafael Simó, Jeffrey M Sundstrom
Purpose: To investigate the molecular components of the vitreous in order to better understand retinal physiology and disease. Methods: Vitreous was acquired from patients undergoing vitrectomy for macular hole and/or epiretinal membrane, postmortem donors, and C57BL/6J mice. Unbiased proteomic analysis was performed via electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Gene ontology analysis was performed and results were confirmed with transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA)...
May 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768689/hsp-enriched-properties-of-extracellular-vesicles-involve-survival-of-metastatic-oral-cancer-cells
#2
Kisho Ono, Takanori Eguchi, Chiharu Sogawa, Stuart K Calderwood, Junya Futagawa, Tomonari Kasai, Masaharu Seno, Kuniaki Okamoto, Akira Sasaki, Ken-Ichi Kozaki
Cancer cells often secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs) that carry heat shock proteins (HSPs) with roles in tumor progression. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) belongs to head and neck cancers (HNC) whose lymph-node-metastases often lead to poor prognosis. We have examined the EV proteome of OSCC cells and found abundant secretion of HSP90-enriched EVs in lymph-node-metastatic OSCC cells. Double knockdown of HSP90α and HSP90β, using small interfering RNA significantly reduced the survival of the metastatic OSCC cells, although single knockdown of each HSP90 was ineffective...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760697/hookworm-secreted-extracellular-vesicles-interact-with-host-cells-and-prevent-inducible-colitis-in-mice
#3
Ramon M Eichenberger, Stephanie Ryan, Linda Jones, Geraldine Buitrago, Ramona Polster, Marcela Montes de Oca, Jennifer Zuvelek, Paul R Giacomin, Lindsay A Dent, Christian R Engwerda, Matthew A Field, Javier Sotillo, Alex Loukas
Gastrointestinal (GI) parasites, hookworms in particular, have evolved to cause minimal harm to their hosts, allowing them to establish chronic infections. This is mediated by creating an immunoregulatory environment. Indeed, hookworms are such potent suppressors of inflammation that they have been used in clinical trials to treat inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and celiac disease. Since the recent description of helminths (worms) secreting extracellular vesicles (EVs), exosome-like EVs from different helminths have been characterized and their salient roles in parasite-host interactions have been highlighted...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739896/quantitative-proteomics-analysis-of-sporadic-medullary-thyroid-cancer-reveals-fn1-as-a-potential-novel-candidate-prognostic-biomarker
#4
Shaohua Zhan, Jinming Li, Tianxiao Wang, Wei Ge
BACKGROUND: Sporadic medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a rare neuroendocrine tumor. Currently, although the diagnosis of sporadic MTC is relatively simple, the need to discover novel candidate prognostic biomarkers for sporadic MTC and investigate the underlying mechanism involved in this rare disease is urgent. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We employed tandem mass tag-based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify and analyze differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in sporadic MTC...
May 8, 2018: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726126/human-prostasomes-from-normozoospermic-and-non-normozoospermic-men-show-a-differential-protein-expression-pattern
#5
A García-Rodríguez, M de la Casa, H Peinado, J Gosálvez, R Roy
Prostasomes are exosomes such as extracellular vesicles, produced in the prostatic epithelium and released into the seminal plasma, that play an important role enhancing male fertility. Although some studies have demonstrated that prostasomes have a rich proteomic content, it is still unclear if that proteomic content varies depending on the male fertility status. Prostasomes from 12 normozoospermic and 14 non-normozoospermic seminal samples were isolated by differential ultracentrifugation. Protein content was studied by quantitative mass spectrometry and compared between both cohorts...
May 3, 2018: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721020/detection-of-hiv-1-and-human-proteins-in-urinary-extracellular-vesicles-from-hiv-patients
#6
Samuel I Anyanwu, Akins Doherty, Michael D Powell, Chamberlain Obialo, Ming B Huang, Alexander Quarshie, Claudette Mitchell, Khalid Bashir, Gale W Newman
Background: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane bound, secreted by cells, and detected in bodily fluids, including urine, and contain proteins, RNA, and DNA. Our goal was to identify HIV and human proteins (HPs) in urinary EVs from HIV+ patients and compare them to HIV- samples. Methods: Urine samples were collected from HIV+ ( n = 35) and HIV- ( n = 12) individuals. EVs were isolated by ultrafiltration and characterized using transmission electron microscopy, tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA)...
2018: Advances in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713426/extracellular-vesicles-from-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-support-ex-vivo-survival-of-human-antibody-secreting-cells
#7
Doan C Nguyen, Holly C Lewis, Chester Joyner, Vivien Warren, Haopeng Xiao, Haydn T Kissick, Ronghu Wu, Jacques Galipeau, F Eun-Hyung Lee
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) from bone marrow (BM)-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSC) are novel mechanisms of cell-cell communication over short and long distances. BM-MSC have been shown to support human antibody secreting cells (ASC) survival ex vivo , but whether the crosstalk between the MSC-ASC interaction can occur via EVs is not known. Thus, we evaluated the role of EVs in ASC survival and IgG secretion. EVs were isolated from irradiated and non-irradiated primary BM-MSC and were quantified. They were further characterized by electron microscopy (EM) and CD63 and CD81 immuno-gold EM staining...
2018: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704537/testosterone-and-fsh-modulate-sertoli-cell-extracellular-secretion-proteomic-analysis
#8
Francesca Mancuso, Mario Calvitti, Domenico Milardi, Giuseppe Grande, Giulia Falabella, Iva Arato, Stefano Giovagnoli, Federica Vincenzoni, Francesca Mancini, Claudio Nastruzzi, Maria Bodo, Tiziano Baroni, Massimo Castagnola, Riccardo Marana, Alfredo Pontecorvi, Riccardo Calafiore, Giovanni Luca
Spermatogenesis is a highly complicated biological process that occurs in the epithelium of the seminiferous tubules. It is regulated by a complex network of endocrine and paracrine factors and by juxtacrine testicular cross-talk. Sertoli cells (SC) play a key role in spermatogenesis due to their production of trophic, differentiation and immune-modulating factors, but many of the molecular pathways of SC action remain controversial and unclear. Over the last two decades, research has focused on extracellular vesicles as an important mechanism of intercellular communication...
April 25, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696081/proteomic-analysis-reveals-different-composition-of-extracellular-vesicles-released-by-two-trypanosoma-cruzi-strains-associated-with-their-distinct-interaction-with-host-cells
#9
Kleber Silva Ribeiro, Camilla Ioshida Vasconcellos, Rodrigo Pedro Soares, Maria Tays Mendes, Cameron C Ellis, Marcela Aguilera-Flores, Igor Correia de Almeida, Sergio Schenkman, Leo Kei Iwai, Ana Claudia Torrecilhas
Trypanosoma cruzi , the aetiologic agent of Chagas disease, releases vesicles containing a wide range of surface molecules known to affect the host immunological responses and the cellular infectivity. Here, we compared the secretome of two distinct strains (Y and YuYu) of T. cruzi , which were previously shown to differentially modulate host innate and acquired immune responses. Tissue culture-derived trypomastigotes of both strains secreted extracellular vesicles (EVs), as demonstrated by electron scanning microscopy...
2018: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696079/profiling-plasma-extracellular-vesicle-by-pluronic-block-copolymer-based-enrichment-method-unveils-features-associated-with-breast-cancer-aggression-metastasis-and-invasion
#10
Zhenyu Zhong, Matthew Rosenow, Nick Xiao, David Spetzler
Extracellular vesicle (EV)-based liquid biopsies have been proposed to be a readily obtainable biological substrate recently for both profiling and diagnostics purposes. Development of a fast and reliable preparation protocol to enrich such small particles could accelerate the discovery of informative, disease-related biomarkers. Though multiple EV enrichment protocols are available, in terms of efficiency, reproducibility and simplicity, precipitation-based methods are most amenable to studies with large numbers of subjects...
2018: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693711/telocytes-in-skeletal-cardiac-and-smooth-muscle-interstitium-morphological-and-functional-aspects
#11
REVIEW
Mirca Marini, Irene Rosa, Lidia Ibba-Manneschi, Mirko Manetti
Telocytes (TCs) represent a new distinct type of cells found in the stromal compartment of many organs, including the skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscles. TCs are morphologically defined as interstitial cells with a small cellular body from which arise very long (up to hundreds of micrometers) and thin moniliform processes (named telopodes) featuring the alternation of slender segments (called podomers) and small dilated portions (called podoms) accommodating some organelles. Although these stromal cells are mainly characterized by their ultrastructural traits, in the last few years TCs have been increasingly studied for their immunophenotypes, microRNA profiles, and gene expression and proteomic signatures...
April 25, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687643/proteomic-analysis-of-exosomes-and-its-application-in-hiv-1-infection
#12
REVIEW
Collins Cheruiyot, Zemplen Pataki, Bharat Ramratnam, Ming Li
Exosomes are 30-100 nm extracellular vesicles secreted from late endosomes by various types of cells. Numerous studies have suggested that exosomes play significant roles in HIV-1 biogenesis. Proteomics coupled with exosome fractionation has been successfully used to identify various exosomal proteins and helped us to uncover the interactions between exosomes and HIV-1. To inform the current progress in the intersection of exosome, proteomics and HIV-1, this review is focused on: i) analyzing different exosome isolation, purification methods and their implications in HIV-1 studies; ii) evaluating the roles of various proteomic techniques in defining exosomal contents; iii) discussing the research and clinical applications of proteomics and exosome in HIV-1 biology...
April 23, 2018: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684588/extracellular-vesicle-mediated-long-range-communication-in-stressed-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cell-monolayers
#13
Navjot Shah, Masakii Ishii, Carlene Brandon, Zsolt Ablonczy, Jingwen Cai, Yutao Liu, James Chou, Bärbel Rohrer
Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) alterations in age-related macular degeneration occur in patches, potentially involving long-distance communication between damaged and healthy areas. Communication along the epithelium might be mediated by extracellular vesicles (EVs). To test this hypothesis, EVs were collected from supernatants of polarized ARPE-19 and primary porcine RPE monolayers for functional and biochemical assays. EVs from oxidatively stressed donor cells reduced barrier function in recipient RPE monolayers when compared to control EVs...
April 20, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681158/proteomic-analysis-of-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-reveal-a-paracrine-role-for-mfap5-in-human-oral-tongue-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#14
Simona Principe, Salvador Mejia-Guerrero, Vladimir Ignatchenko, Ankit Sinha, Alex Ignatchenko, Wei Shi, Keira Pereira, Susie Su, Shao Hui Huang, Brian O'Sullivan, Wei Xu, David Goldstein, Ilan Weinreb, Laurie Ailles, Fei-Fei Liu, Thomas Kislinger
Bidirectional communication between cells and their microenvironment is crucial for both normal tissue homeostasis and tumor growth. During the development of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC), cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) create a supporting niche by maintaining a bidirectional crosstalk with cancer cells, mediated by classically secreted factors and various nanometer-sized vesicles, termed as extracellular vesicles (EVs). To better understand the role of CAFs within the tumor stroma and elucidate the mechanism by which secreted proteins contribute to OTSCC progression, we isolated and characterized patient-derived CAFs from resected tumors with matched adjacent tissue fibroblasts (AFs)...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677633/differences-in-the-bovine-milk-whey-proteome-between-early-pregnancy-and-the-estrous-cycle
#15
D Johnston, I Malo Estepa, H A Ebhardt, M A Crowe, M G Diskin
Current bovine pregnancy detection methods are not reliable until at least day 28 post artificial insemination (AI). The bovine estrous cycle is approximately 21 days; consequently, producers miss an opportunity to rebreed at the next estrous event. Therefore, commercial interest exists for the discovery of novel biomarkers of pregnancy which could reliably detect pregnancy status at or before day 21 of pregnancy. The objective of the present study was to use liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to perform a global, label-free, proteomics study on (i) milk whey and (ii) extracellular vesicle (EV) enriched milk whey samples, from day 21 of pregnancy, compared with day 21 of the estrous cycle, in order to identify potential protein biomarkers of early pregnancy...
April 12, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659599/profiling-extracellular-vesicle-release-by-the-filarial-nematode-brugia-malayi-reveals-sex-specific-differences-in-cargo-and-a-sensitivity-to-ivermectin
#16
Hiruni Harischandra, Wang Yuan, Hannah J Loghry, Mostafa Zamanian, Michael J Kimber
The filarial nematode Brugia malayi is an etiological agent of Lymphatic Filariasis. The capability of B. malayi and other parasitic nematodes to modulate host biology is recognized but the mechanisms by which such manipulation occurs are obscure. An emerging paradigm is the release of parasite-derived extracellular vesicles (EV) containing bioactive proteins and small RNA species that allow secretion of parasite effector molecules and their potential trafficking to host tissues. We have previously described EV release from the infectious L3 stage B...
April 16, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650776/lymphatic-exosomes-promote-dendritic-cell-migration-along-guidance-cues
#17
Markus Brown, Louise A Johnson, Dario A Leone, Peter Majek, Kari Vaahtomeri, Daniel Senfter, Nora Bukosza, Helga Schachner, Gabriele Asfour, Brigitte Langer, Robert Hauschild, Katja Parapatics, Young-Kwon Hong, Keiryn L Bennett, Renate Kain, Michael Detmar, Michael Sixt, David G Jackson, Dontscho Kerjaschki
Lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) release extracellular chemokines to guide the migration of dendritic cells. In this study, we report that LECs also release basolateral exosome-rich endothelial vesicles (EEVs) that are secreted in greater numbers in the presence of inflammatory cytokines and accumulate in the perivascular stroma of small lymphatic vessels in human chronic inflammatory diseases. Proteomic analyses of EEV fractions identified >1,700 cargo proteins and revealed a dominant motility-promoting protein signature...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603567/involvement-of-serum-derived-exosomes-of-elderly-patients-with-bone-loss-in-failure-of-bone-remodeling-via-alteration-of-exosomal-bone-related-proteins
#18
Yong Xie, Yanpan Gao, Licheng Zhang, Yanyu Chen, Wei Ge, Peifu Tang
Exosomes are secreted into the blood by various types of cells. These extracellular vesicles are involved in the contribution of exosomal proteins to osteoblastic or osteoclastic regulatory networks during the failure of bone remodeling, which results in age-related bone loss. However, the molecular changes in serum-derived exosomes (SDEs) from aged patients with low bone density and their functions in bone remodeling remain to be fully elucidated. We present a quantitative proteomics analysis of exosomes purified from the serum of the elderly patients with osteoporosis/osteopenia and normal volunteers; these data are available via Proteome Xchange with the identifier PXD006463...
March 30, 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599781/extracellular-vesicle-subtypes-released-from-activated-or-apoptotic-t-lymphocytes-carry-a-specific-and-stimulus-dependent-protein-cargo
#19
Christine Tucher, Konrad Bode, Petra Schiller, Laura Claßen, Carolin Birr, Maria Margarida Souto-Carneiro, Norbert Blank, Hanns-Martin Lorenz, Martin Schiller
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are released from nearly all mammalian cells and different EV populations have been described. Microvesicles represent large EVs (LEVs) released from the cellular surface, while exosomes are small EVs (SEVs) released from an intracellular compartment. As it is likely that different stimuli promote the release of distinct EV populations, we analyzed EVs from human lymphocytes considering the respective release stimuli (activation Vs. apoptosis induction). We could clearly separate two EV populations, namely SEVs (average diameter <200 nm) and LEVs (diameter range between 200 and 1000 nm)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581472/proteomic-analysis-of-plasma-extracellular-vesicles-reveals-mitochondrial-stress-upon-htlv-1-infection
#20
Patricia Jeannin, Thibault Chaze, Quentin Giai Gianetto, Mariette Matondo, Olivier Gout, Antoine Gessain, Philippe V Afonso
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) can participate in intercellular communication and pathogenesis. EVs contain many cargos, including proteins, and the composition of EVs differs between cell-types and activation levels. Thus, plasma EVs can be used as a biomarker of systemic response to infection and/or disease progression. In this study, we aimed at describing alterations in the protein content of plasma EVs upon infection with the human T-lymphotropic retrovirus type 1 (HTLV-1). HTLV-1 is the etiological agent of a lymphoproliferative disease (ATL) and a series of inflammatory diseases, including a neurodegenerative inflammatory disease (HAM/TSP)...
March 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
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