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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508366/isolation-and-proteomic-analysis-of-microvesicles-and-exosomes-from-ht22-cells-and-primary-neurons
#1
Richard Witas, Dale Chaput, Hirah Khan, Stanley M Stevens, David Kang
Exosomes and microvesicles are extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by most cell types. The role of EVs as a method of intercellular communication has led to these vesicles becoming a major area of interest in a variety of scientific fields including neuroscience. Emerging evidence is now demonstrating that the biomolecular composition of EVs, especially exosomes, can play a role in the progression of disease including various neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. In addition to the miRNA profiles of EVs, these vesicles also show interesting changes in protein expression profiles under different physiological and pathological conditions...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490497/protein-composition-of-the-hepatitis-a-virus-quasi-envelope
#2
Kevin L McKnight, Ling Xie, Olga González-López, Efraín E Rivera-Serrano, Xian Chen, Stanley M Lemon
The Picornaviridae are a diverse family of RNA viruses including many pathogens of medical and veterinary importance. Classically considered "nonenveloped," recent studies show that some picornaviruses, notably hepatitis A virus (HAV; genus Hepatovirus) and some members of the Enterovirus genus, are released from cells nonlytically in membranous vesicles. To better understand the biogenesis of quasi-enveloped HAV (eHAV) virions, we conducted a quantitative proteomics analysis of eHAV purified from cell-culture supernatant fluids by isopycnic ultracentrifugation...
May 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489901/characterization-and-proteomic-profile-of-extracellular-vesicles-from-peritoneal-dialysis-efflux
#3
Laura Carreras-Planella, Jordi Soler-Majoral, Cristina Rubio-Esteve, Sara Inés Lozano-Ramos, Marcella Franquesa, Josep Bonet, Maria Isabel Troya-Saborido, Francesc Enric Borràs
Peritoneal Dialysis (PD) is considered the best option for a cost-effective mid-term dialysis in patients with Chronic Renal Failure. However, functional failure of the peritoneal membrane (PM) force many patients to stop PD treatment and start haemodialysis. Currently, PM functionality is monitored by the peritoneal equilibration test, a tedious technique that often show changes when the membrane damage is advanced. As in other pathologies, the identification and characterization of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in the peritoneal dialysis efflux (PDE) may represent a non-invasive alternative to identify biomarkers of membrane failure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476099/gamma-glutamyltransferase-activity-in-exosomes-as-a-potential-marker-for-prostate-cancer
#4
Kyojiro Kawakami, Yasunori Fujita, Yoko Matsuda, Tomio Arai, Kengo Horie, Koji Kameyama, Taku Kato, Koichi Masunaga, Yutaka Kasuya, Masashi Tanaka, Kosuke Mizutani, Takashi Deguchi, Masafumi Ito
BACKGROUND: Exosomes or extracellular vesicles have the potential as a diagnostic marker for various diseases including cancer. In order to identify novel exosomal markers for prostate cancer (PC), we performed proteomic analysis of exosomes isolated from PC cell lines and examined the usefulness of the marker in patients. METHODS: Exosomes isolated by differential centrifugation from the culture medium of androgen-dependent LNCaP prostate cancer cell line and its sublines of partially androgen-independent C4, androgen-independent C4-2 and bone metastatic C4-2B were subjected to iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis...
May 5, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473884/characterisation-of-adipocyte-derived-extracellular-vesicle-subtypes-identifies-distinct-protein-and-lipid-signatures-for-large-and-small-extracellular-vesicles
#5
Maëva Durcin, Audrey Fleury, Emiliane Taillebois, Grégory Hilairet, Zuzana Krupova, Céline Henry, Sandrine Truchet, Martin Trötzmüller, Harald Köfeler, Guillaume Mabilleau, Olivier Hue, Ramaroson Andriantsitohaina, Patrice Martin, Soazig Le Lay
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are biological vectors that can modulate the metabolism of target cells by conveying signalling proteins and genomic material. The level of EVs in plasma is significantly increased in cardiometabolic diseases associated with obesity, suggesting their possible participation in the development of metabolic dysfunction. With regard to the poor definition of adipocyte-derived EVs, the purpose of this study was to characterise both qualitatively and quantitatively EVs subpopulations secreted by fat cells...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473883/characterisation-of-extracellular-vesicle-subsets-derived-from-brain-endothelial-cells-and-analysis-of-their-protein-cargo-modulation-after-tnf-exposure
#6
Vito Dozio, Jean-Charles Sanchez
Little is known about the composition and functional differences between extracellular vesicle (EV) subsets, such as microvesicles (MVs) and exosomes (EXOs), nor to what extent their cargo reflects the phenotypic state of the cell of origin. Brain endothelial cells are the constitutive part of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a selective barrier that maintains brain homeostasis. BBB impairment is associated with several neuroinflammatory diseases with the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF) often playing a key role...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456398/effect-of-circulating-exosomes-from-transition-cows-on-madin-darby-bovine-kidney-cell-function
#7
M A Crookenden, C G Walker, H Peiris, Y Koh, F Almughlliq, K Vaswani, S Reed, A Heiser, J J Loor, J K Kay, S Meier, S S Donkin, A Murray, V S R Dukkipati, J R Roche, M D Mitchell
The greatest risk of metabolic and infectious disease in dairy cows is during the transition from pregnancy to lactating (i.e., the transition period). The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of extracellular vesicles (microvesicles involved in cell-to-cell signaling) isolated from transition cows on target cell function. We previously identified differences in the protein profiles of exosomes isolated from cows divergent in metabolic health status. Therefore, we hypothesized that these exosomes would affect target tissues differently...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429073/urinary-extracellular-vesicles-a-promising-shortcut-to-novel-biomarker-discoveries
#8
REVIEW
Karina Barreiro, Harry Holthofer
Proteomic and genomic techniques have reached full maturity and are providing unforeseen details for the comprehensive understanding of disease pathologies at a fraction of previous costs. However, for kidney diseases, many gaps in such information remain to inhibit major advances in the prevention, treatment and diagnostics of these devastating diseases, which have enormous global impact. The discovery of ubiquitous extracellular vesicles (EV) in all bodily fluids is rapidly increasing the fundamental knowledge of disease mechanisms and the ways in which cells communicate with distant locations in processes of cancer spread, immunological regulation, barrier functions and general modulation of cellular activity...
April 20, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424693/human-melanoma-derived-extracellular-vesicles-regulate-dendritic-cell-maturation
#9
Rachel L G Maus, James W Jakub, Wendy K Nevala, Trace A Christensen, Klara Noble-Orcutt, Zohar Sachs, Tina J Hieken, Svetomir N Markovic
Evolution of melanoma from a primary tumor to widespread metastasis is crucially dependent on lymphatic spread. The mechanisms regulating the initial step in metastatic dissemination via regional lymph nodes remain largely unknown; however, evidence supporting the establishment of a pre-metastatic niche is evolving. We have previously described a dysfunctional immune profile including reduced expression of dendritic cell (DC) maturation markers in the first node draining from the primary tumor, the sentinel lymph node (SLN)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406322/mass-spectrometry-based-proteomic-exploration-of-the-human-immune-system-focus-on-the-inflammasome-global-protein-secretion-and-t-cells
#10
Tuula A Nyman, Martina B Lorey, Wojciech Cypryk, Sampsa Matikainen
The immune system is our defense system against microbial infections and tissue injury, and understanding how it works in detail is essential for developing drugs for different diseases. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics can provide in-depth information on the molecular mechanisms involved in immune responses. Areas covered: Summarized are the key immunology findings obtained with MS-based proteomics in the past five years, with a focus on inflammasome activation, global protein secretion, mucosal immunology, immunopeptidome and T cells...
May 2017: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403795/mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-extracellular-vesicles-for-renal-repair
#11
Arash A Nargesi, Lilach O Lerman, Alfonso Eirin
Transplantation of autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been shown to attenuate renal injury and dysfunction in several animal models, and its efficacy is currently being tested in clinical trials for patients with renal disease. Accumulating evidence indicates that MSCs release extracellular vesicles (EVs) that deliver genes, microRNAs and proteins to recipient cells, acting as mediators of MSC paracrine actions. In this context, it is critical to characterize the MSC-derived EV cargo to elucidate their potential contribution to renal repair...
April 12, 2017: Current Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381242/the-150-most-important-questions-in-cancer-research-and-clinical-oncology-series-questions-15-24-edited-by-chinese-journal-of-cancer
#12
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
To accelerate our endeavors to overcome cancer, Chinese Journal of Cancer has launched a program of publishing 150 most important questions in cancer research and clinical oncology. In this article, 10 more questions are presented as follows. Question 15: Can tumor-induced erythrogenesis provide qualified red blood cells for carrying oxygen to distant organs? Question 16: Can we overcome tumor resistance to platinum-containing antineoplastic drugs by activating the sensitivity factors in the tumor? Question 17: How can a cancer cell stay dormant for years? Question 18: Why do cancer cells use distinct transcriptomic and proteomic programs to reach the same metastatic phenotype? Question 19: Why do some cancers regress spontaneously? Question 20: What are the regulatory mechanisms occurring in donor cells that determine selective sorting of biological content into vesicles and their biological consequences in recipient cells? Are the genetic transfer and exchange of biological messages between cells transient? Is the phenotypic manipulation of recipient cells temporary or prolonged and persistent? If extracellular vesicles possess immune-modulatory potential, how could they be exploited for immune interventions and cancer immunotherapy? Presumably the cargo of extracellular vesicles reflects the cells of their origin and can be used for cancer diagnosis, how could the uniform/stringent capture criteria be met universally for applying EVs in point-of-care diagnostics for cancer patients? Question 21: Can we use self-sampling technologies to monitor the tumor genetic alterations for more precise targeted therapy? Can we cure a heterogeneous tumor by sequentially targeting the driver molecules? Question 22: Can we postpone the onset of non-infection-related cancers? Question 23: How many types of cells can jointly form the tumor vasculature to provide blood supply for tumor progression? Question 24: How tumor cells transmit their epigenetic features to daughter cells and maintain the malignant phenotype?...
April 5, 2017: Chinese Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369848/end-stage-renal-disease-induced-hypercalcemia-may-promote-aortic-valve-calcification-via-annexin-vi-enrichment-of-valve-interstitial-cell-derived-matrix-vesicles
#13
Lin Cui, Nabil A Rashdan, Dongxing Zhu, Elspeth Milne, Paul Ajuh, Gillian Milne, Miep Helfrich, Kelvin Lim, Sai Prasad, Daniel Lerman, Alex Vesey, Marc Dweck, W S Jenkins, David Newby, Colin Farquharson, Vicky E Macrae
Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have elevated circulating calcium (Ca) and phosphate (Pi), and exhibit accelerated progression of calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD). We hypothesised that matrix vesicles (MVs) initiate the calcification process in CAVD. Ca induced rat valve interstitial cells (VICs) calcification at 4.5 mM (16.4 fold; P < 0.05) whereas Pi treatment alone had no effect. Ca (2.7 mM) and Pi (2.5 mM) synergistically induced calcium deposition (10.8 fold; P < 0...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362488/serotonin-transporter-associated-protein-complexes-are-enriched-in-synaptic-vesicle-proteins-and-proteins-involved-in-energy-metabolism-and-ion-homeostasis
#14
Jana Haase, Joanna Grudzinska-Goebel, Heidi Kaastrup Müller, Agnieszka Münster-Wandowski, Elysian Chow, Kieran Wynne, Zohreh Farsi, Johannes-Friedrich Zander, Gudrun Ahnert-Hilger
The serotonin transporter (SERT) mediates Na(+)-dependent high-affinity serotonin uptake and plays a key role in regulating extracellular serotonin concentration in the brain and periphery. To gain novel insight into SERT regulation, we conducted a comprehensive proteomics screen to identify components of SERT-associated protein complexes in the brain by employing three independent approaches. In vivo SERT complexes were purified from rat brain using an immobilized high-affinity SERT ligand, amino-methyl citalopram...
April 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333993/integrated-transcriptomic-and-proteomic-analysis-of-the-molecular-cargo-of-extracellular-vesicles-derived-from-porcine-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#15
Alfonso Eirin, Xiang-Yang Zhu, Amrutesh S Puranik, John R Woollard, Hui Tang, Surendra Dasari, Amir Lerman, Andre J van Wijnen, Lilach O Lerman
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stromal/stem cell (MSC) transplantation is a promising therapy for tissue regeneration. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by MSCs act as their paracrine effectors by delivering proteins and genetic material to recipient cells. To assess how their cargo mediates biological processes that drive their therapeutic effects, we integrated miRNA, mRNA, and protein expression data of EVs from porcine adipose tissue-derived MSCs. METHODS: Simultaneous expression profiles of miRNAs, mRNAs, and proteins were obtained by high-throughput sequencing and LC-MS/MS proteomic analysis in porcine MSCs and their daughter EVs (n = 3 each)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331079/characterization-and-vaccine-potential-of-membrane-vesicles-produced-by-francisella-noatunensis-subsp-orientalis-in-an-adult-zebrafish-model
#16
Leidy Lagos, Julia I Tandberg, Urska Repnik, Preben Boysen, Erik Ropstad, Deepa Varkey, Ian T Paulsen, Hanne C Winther-Larsen
Vaccine development against extracellular bacteria has been important for the sustainability of the aquaculture industry. In contrast, infections with intracellular pathogens remain largely an unresolved problem. Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis is a Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacterium that causes the disease francisellosis in fish. Francisellosis is commonly characterized as a chronic granulomatous disease with high morbidity and can result in high mortality depending on the host. In this study, we explored the potential of bacterial membrane vesicles (MVs) as a vaccine agent against F...
May 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317069/deciphering-the-role-of-ectosomes-in-cancer-development-and-progression-focus-on-the-proteome
#17
REVIEW
Magdalena Surman, Ewa Stępień, Dorota Hoja-Łukowicz, Małgorzata Przybyło
Ectosomes are small heterogeneous membrane vesicles generated by budding from the plasma membrane in a variety of cell types and, more frequently, in tumor cells. They are shed into the extracellular space and are proposed as a novel form of intracellular communication in which information is transmitted from the originating cell to recipient cells without direct cell-to-cell contact. This review focuses on a single population of extracellular vesicles-ectosomes. We summarize recent studies of tumor-derived ectosomes which examine their biogenesis and protein cargo, and their influence on different aspects of cancer progression...
March 19, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300134/white-matter-repair-after-extracellular-vesicles-administration-in-an-experimental-animal-model-of-subcortical-stroke
#18
Laura Otero-Ortega, Fernando Laso-García, María Del Carmen Gómez-de Frutos, Berta Rodríguez-Frutos, Jorge Pascual-Guerra, Blanca Fuentes, Exuperio Díez-Tejedor, María Gutiérrez-Fernández
Mesenchymal stem cells have previously been shown to mediate brain repair after stroke; they secrete 50-100 nm complexes called extracellular vesicles (EVs), which could be responsible for provoking neurovascular repair and functional recovery. EVs have been observed by electron microscopy and NanoSight, and they contain associated proteins such as CD81 and Alix. This purified, homogeneous population of EVs was administered intravenously after subcortical stroke in rats. To evaluate the EVs effects, we studied the biodistribution, proteomics analysis, functional evaluation, lesion size, fiber tract integrity, axonal sprouting and white matter repair markers...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288760/isolation-and-characterization-of-exosomes-derived-from-fertile-sheep-hydatid-cysts
#19
Mar Siles-Lucas, Carlos Sánchez-Ovejero, María González-Sánchez, Esperanza González, Juan Manuel Falcón-Pérez, Belgees Boufana, Federica Fratini, Adriano Casulli, Raúl Manzano-Román
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a chronic and complex zoonotic disease. Information on the mechanisms involved in parasite establishment, growth and persistence remain limited. These may be modulated by a crosstalk between extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs including exosomes and microvesicles are able to carry developmental signaling proteins which coordinate growth and establishment of several parasites. Here, an exosome enriched EV fraction was isolated from hydatid fluid (HF) of fertile sheep cysts. A proteomic analysis of this fraction identified a number of parasite-derived vesicle-membrane associated proteins as well as cytosolic proteins...
March 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284851/clostridium-difficile-derived-membrane-vesicles-induce-the-expression-of-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-genes-and-cytotoxicity-in-colonic-epithelial-cells-in%C3%A2-vitro
#20
Asiimwe Nicholas, Hyejin Jeon, Gati Noble Selasi, Seok Hyeon Na, Hyo Il Kwon, Yoo Jeong Kim, Chi Won Choi, Seung Il Kim, Je Chul Lee
Clostridium difficile is the most common etiological agent of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients. This study investigated the secretion of membrane vesicles (MVs) from C. difficile and determined the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes and cytotoxicity of C. difficile MVs in epithelial cells in vitro. C. difficile ATCC 43255 and two clinical isolates secreted spherical MVs during in vitro culture. Proteomic analysis revealed that MVs of C. difficile ATCC 43255 contained a total of 262 proteins...
March 9, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
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