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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664190/child-marriage-in-the-united-states-how-common-is-the-practice-and-which-children-are-at-greatest-risk
#1
Alissa Koski, Jody Heymann
CONTEXT: Marriage before the age of 18, commonly referred to as child marriage, is legal under varying conditions across the United States. The prevalence of child marriage among recent cohorts is unknown. METHODS: American Community Survey data for 2010-2014 were used to estimate the average national and state-level proportions of children who had ever been married. Prevalence was calculated by gender, race and ethnicity, and birthplace, and the living arrangements of currently married children were examined...
April 17, 2018: Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663021/-willingness-to-participate-in-group-beneficial-dementia-research
#2
M Haupt, M Jänner
BACKGROUND: With the fourth Act on the amendment of pharmaceutical legal and other regulations it became law in Germany from the beginning of 2017 that under certain conditions, pharmaceutical research will be allowed with persons incapable of giving consent, even if this research may only be beneficial to other sufferers of the same disease, i. e. group beneficial research. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a semistructured, non-representative survey among psychiatric patients and their relatives...
April 16, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656701/estimated-cost-to-a-restaurant-of-a-foodborne-illness-outbreak
#3
Sarah M Bartsch, Lindsey Asti, Sindiso Nyathi, Marie L Spiker, Bruce Y Lee
OBJECTIVES: Although outbreaks of restaurant-associated foodborne illness occur periodically and make the news, a restaurant may not be aware of the cost of an outbreak. We estimated this cost under varying circumstances. METHODS: We developed a computational simulation model; scenarios varied outbreak size (5 to 250 people affected), pathogen (n = 15), type of dining establishment (fast food, fast casual, casual dining, and fine dining), lost revenue (ie, meals lost per illness), cost of lawsuits and legal fees, fines, and insurance premium increases...
January 1, 2018: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650539/a-call-for-more-science-in-forensic-science
#4
Suzanne Bell, Sunita Sah, Thomas D Albright, S James Gates, M Bonner Denton, Arturo Casadevall
Forensic science is critical to the administration of justice. The discipline of forensic science is remarkably complex and includes methodologies ranging from DNA analysis to chemical composition to pattern recognition. Many forensic practices developed under the auspices of law enforcement and were vetted primarily by the legal system rather than being subjected to scientific scrutiny and empirical testing. Beginning in the 1990s, exonerations based on DNA-related methods revealed problems with some forensic disciplines, leading to calls for major reforms...
April 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649273/do-all-infants-need-vitamin-d-supplementation
#5
Ane Cristina Fayão Almeida, Francisco José Albuquerque de Paula, Jacqueline Pontes Monteiro, Carlos Alberto Nogueira-de-Almeida, Luiz Antonio Del Ciampo, Davi Casale Aragon, Ivan Savioli Ferraz
A high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in children has been observed worldwide, but there are few studies on the nutritional status of vitamin D (VD) in healthy infants. The main cause of deficiency in healthy children is breastfeeding without supplementation and lack or insufficiency of sun exposure. The aims of this study were to determine serum concentrations of 25(OH)D and verify its association with parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations and use of VD supplementation in healthy infants aged ≥ 6 to ≤ 24 months attended at two Primary Health Care Units in Ribeirão Preto city, São Paulo, Brazil...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649232/the-experience-of-discrimination-of-individuals-living-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-in-four-provinces-of-china
#6
Bingfeng Han, Qianli Yuan, Yuhui Shi, Lai Wei, Jinlin Hou, Jia Shang, Ying Han, Cunduo Jin, Po-Lin Chan, Hui Zhuang, Jie Li, Fuqiang Cui
OBJECTIVES: To assess chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients' knowledge about hepatitis B and their experience of discrimination with regard to study, work, and daily life. METHODS: We administered a questionnaire to 797 CHB patients in four provinces of China and used one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a generalized linear model (GLM) to identify factors associated with discrimination. RESULTS: CHB patients had low levels of knowledge about hepatitis B...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643631/safety-of-the-medical-gas-pipeline-system
#7
Sushmita Sarangi, Savita Babbar, Dipali Taneja
Medical gases are nowadays being used for a number of diverse clinical applications and its piped delivery is a landmark achievement in the field of patient care. Patient safety is of paramount importance in the design, installation, commissioning, and operation of medical gas pipeline systems (MGPS). The system has to be operational round the clock, with practically zero downtime and its failure can be fatal if not restored at the earliest. There is a lack of awareness among the clinicians regarding the medico-legal aspect involved with the MGPS...
January 2018: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642461/german-public-support-for-tobacco-control-policy-measures-results-from-the-german-study-on-tobacco-use-debra-a-representative-national-survey
#8
Melanie Boeckmann, Daniel Kotz, Lion Shahab, Jamie Brown, Sabrina Kastaun
Smoking prevalence in Germany remains high at approximately 28%. We assessed public support for tobacco legislation and associations between level of support and smoking and socio-demographic characteristics. Data from 2087 people were collected as part of the German Study on Tobacco Use ("DEBRA"): a nationally representative, face-to-face household survey. Public support was measured on total ban of sale, raising the minimum age for sales, taxation of tobacco industry sales, research into e-cigarettes, and ban of smoking in cars when children are present...
April 7, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629679/feasibility-and-acceptability-of-conducting-hiv-vaccine-trials-in-adolescents-in-south-africa-going-beyond-willingness-to-participate-towards-implementation
#9
M Wallace, K Middelkoop, P Smith, C Pike, T Bennie, J Chandia, G Churchyard, G Gray, M H Latka, M Mathebula, M Nchabeleng, S Roux, C Slack, A Strode, L-G Bekker
BACKGROUND: HIV/AIDS remains a leading cause of death in adolescents (aged 15 - 25 years), and in sub-Saharan Africa HIV-related deaths continue to rise in this age group despite a decline in both adult and paediatric populations. This is attributable in part to high adolescent infection rates and supports the urgent need for more efficacious prevention strategies. In particular, an even partially effective HIV vaccine, given prior to sexual debut, is predicted to significantly curb adolescent infection rates...
March 28, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628978/basic-findings-regarding-breast-cancer-in-korea-in-2015-data-from-a-breast-cancer-registry
#10
REVIEW
Sang Yull Kang, Yoo Seok Kim, Zisun Kim, Hyun-Yul Kim, Se Kyung Lee, Kyu-Won Jung, Hyun Jo Youn
The Korean Breast Cancer Society (KBCS) has established a nationwide breast cancer database using an online registration program in 1996. The present study aimed to analyze the basic findings and trends of breast cancer in Korea in 2015 using the data provided by the Korea Central Cancer Registry and the KBCS. In 2015, a total of 22,550 patients were newly diagnosed with breast cancer, of which 3,331 were carcinoma in situ cases and 19,219 were invasive cancer cases. The incidence rate of breast cancer in Korea has steadily increased since the nationwide database was established, and the crude rate and age-standardized rate including that of carcinoma in situ , were 88...
March 2018: Journal of Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627160/tackling-socioeconomic-inequalities-and-non-communicable-diseases-in-low-income-and-middle-income-countries-under-the-sustainable-development-agenda
#11
REVIEW
Louis W Niessen, Diwakar Mohan, Jonathan K Akuoku, Andrew J Mirelman, Sayem Ahmed, Tracey P Koehlmoos, Antonio Trujillo, Jahangir Khan, David H Peters
Five Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) set targets that relate to the reduction of health inequalities nationally and worldwide. These targets are poverty reduction, health and wellbeing for all, equitable education, gender equality, and reduction of inequalities within and between countries. The interaction between inequalities and health is complex: better economic and educational outcomes for households enhance health, low socioeconomic status leads to chronic ill health, and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) reduce income status of households...
April 4, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625566/passing-mrcp-uk-paces-a-cross-sectional-study-examining-the-performance-of-doctors-by-sex-and-country
#12
Emily Unwin, Henry W W Potts, Jane Dacre, Andrew Elder, Katherine Woolf
BACKGROUND: There is much discussion about the sex differences that exist in medical education. Research from the United Kingdom (UK) and United States has found female doctors earn less, and are less likely to be senior authors on academic papers, but female doctors are also less likely to be sanctioned, and have been found to perform better academically and clinically. It is also known that international medical graduates tend to perform more poorly academically compared to home-trained graduates in the UK, US, and Canada...
April 6, 2018: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623403/-digital-pathology-in-diagnostics-guideline-reporting-on-digital-images
#13
REVIEW
G Haroske, R Zwönitzer, P Hufnagl
BACKGROUND: The digitization of medicine is gaining momentum in pathology. Long-known technologies have reached such a degree of maturity that their use in primary diagnostics in routine pathology will be possible. In spite of the complexity of technological solutions and the far-reaching consequences in terms of diagnostic reliability, as well as due to the high investments, the decision for a specific product may become highly sophisticated for a pathologist. AIM: An implementation guide for Digital Diagnostics in Pathology is presented to describe technical and legal conditions for making this new technology feasible for the single pathologist...
April 5, 2018: Der Pathologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621142/a-vehicular-mobile-standard-instrument-for-field-verification-of-traffic-speed-meters-based-on-dual-antenna-doppler-radar-sensor
#14
Lei Du, Qiao Sun, Changqing Cai, Jie Bai, Zhe Fan, Yue Zhang
Traffic speed meters are important legal measuring instruments specially used for traffic speed enforcement and must be tested and verified in the field every year using a vehicular mobile standard speed-measuring instrument to ensure speed-measuring performances. The non-contact optical speed sensor and the GPS speed sensor are the two most common types of standard speed-measuring instruments. The non-contact optical speed sensor requires extremely high installation accuracy, and its speed-measuring error is nonlinear and uncorrectable...
April 5, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617797/distributed-deep-learning-networks-among-institutions-for-medical-imaging
#15
Ken Chang, Niranjan Balachandar, Carson Lam, Darvin Yi, James Brown, Andrew Beers, Bruce Rosen, Daniel L Rubin, Jayashree Kalpathy-Cramer
Objective: Deep learning has become a promising approach for automated support for clinical diagnosis. When medical data samples are limited, collaboration among multiple institutions is necessary to achieve high algorithm performance. However, sharing patient data often has limitations due to technical, legal, or ethical concerns. In this study, we propose methods of distributing deep learning models as an attractive alternative to sharing patient data. Methods: We simulate the distribution of deep learning models across 4 institutions using various training heuristics and compare the results with a deep learning model trained on centrally hosted patient data...
March 29, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611610/prevalence-of-skin-diseases-amongst-moroccan-fishermen
#16
Omar Laraqui, Nadia Manar, Salwa Laraqui, Tarik Ghailan, Frédéric Deschamps, Reda Hammouda, Chakib El Houssine Laraqui
BACKGROUND: The main objective was to evaluate the prevalence of skin diseases amongst fishermen, to specify the different clinical forms, associations and most frequent localisations, and to identify potential aetiological factors. The secondary objectives were to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of seafarers regarding occupational dermatoses to conduct information, awareness and education campaigns on risk factors and behaviours and to propose adapted prevention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional survey involved 1102 artisanal fishermen who attended the annual legal medical consultation at the occupational health service...
2018: International Maritime Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611529/oncology-drugs-in-the-crosshairs-of-pharmaceutical-crime
#17
REVIEW
Bastiaan J Venhuis, Angela E Oostlander, Domenico Di Giorgio, Ruth Mosimann, Ines du Plessis
Oncology drugs clearly have become a target for pharmaceutical crime. In 2016, falsified oncology drugs ranked fifth in the most commonly falsified drug category among the reports received by the Pharmaceutical Security Institute. Although the prevalence of illicit oncology drugs in the legal supply chains appears to be small, these drugs are difficult to detect, particularly in clinical practice. Forthcoming countermeasures to detect illicit drugs in high-income countries include compulsory antitampering devices and product verification technology for a risk-based selection of medicines...
April 2018: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611433/a-real-world-community-health-worker-care-coordination-model-for-high-risk-children
#18
Molly A Martin, Kenita Perry-Bell, Mark Minier, Anne Elizabeth Glassgow, Benjamin W Van Voorhees
Health care systems across the United States are considering community health worker (CHW) services for high-risk patients, despite limited data on how to build and sustain effective CHW programs. We describe the process of providing CHW services to 5,289 at-risk patients within a state-run health system. The program includes 30 CHWs, six care coordinators, the Director of Care Coordination, the Medical Director, a registered nurse, mental health specialists, and legal specialists. CHWs are organized into geographic and specialized teams...
April 1, 2018: Health Promotion Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604537/chronic-exposure-to-low-environmental-concentrations-and-legal-aquaculture-doses-of-antibiotics-cause-systemic-adverse-effects-in-nile-tilapia-and-provoke-differential-human-health-risk
#19
Samwel M Limbu, Li Zhou, Sheng-Xiang Sun, Mei-Ling Zhang, Zhen-Yu Du
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics used globally to treat human and animal diseases exist ubiquitously in the environment at low doses because of misuse, overdose and poor absorption after ingestion, coupled with their high-water solubility and degradation resistance. However, the systemic chronic effects of exposure to low environmental concentrations of antibiotics (LECAs) and legal aquaculture doses of antibiotics (LADAs) in fish and their human health risk are currently unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the in vivo chronic effects of exposure to LECAs and LADAs using oxytetracycline (OTC) and sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and their human health risk...
March 27, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600953/multi-day-patterns-around-taking-action-in-intimate-partner-violence
#20
David Katerndahl, Sandra Burge, Robert Ferrer, Johanna Becho, Robert Wood
This study was to determine the multi-day relationships among stressors, need and taking action (seeking counseling, taking legal action, leaving) by women in violent relationships. Women with recent husband-to-wife abuse but not at high-risk for life-threatening violence were recruited from six primary care clinics and asked to complete a daily description of the previous day's violence, need-for-action, and stressors using Interactive Voice Response via telephone for 8 weeks. Taking action (seeking counseling, taking legal action, leaving) was determined via weekly telephone contacts...
April 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
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