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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229823/sex-determination-of-human-remains-from-peptides-in-tooth-enamel
#1
Nicolas Andre Stewart, Raquel Fernanda Gerlach, Rebecca L Gowland, Kurt J Gron, Janet Montgomery
The assignment of biological sex to archaeological human skeletons is a fundamental requirement for the reconstruction of the human past. It is conventionally and routinely performed on adults using metric analysis and morphological traits arising from postpubertal sexual dimorphism. A maximum accuracy of ∼95% is possible if both the cranium and os coxae are present and intact, but this is seldom achievable for all skeletons. Furthermore, for infants and juveniles, there are no reliable morphological methods for sex determination without resorting to DNA analysis, which requires good DNA survival and is time-consuming...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227883/associations-between-medical-cannabis-and-other-drug-use-among-unstably-housed-women
#2
Meredith C Meacham, Danielle E Ramo, Alex H Kral, Elise D Riley
BACKGROUND: Several studies suggest that U.S. state-level legalization of cannabis for medical purposes may be associated with reductions in opioid use; yet its relationship with stimulant use, particularly in high-risk populations like unstably housed women, has received less attention. The purpose of this study was to estimate independent associations between medical and non-medical use of cannabis and use of stimulants and opioids among unstably housed women. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were analyzed from 245 women in the SHADOW study, a community based cohort in San Francisco, CA, in which HIV+ women were oversampled (126 HIV+ and 119 HIV-)...
December 8, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227692/autonomous-emergency-braking-systems-adapted-to-snowy-road-conditions-improve-drivers-perceived-safety-and-trust
#3
Ioana Koglbauer, Jürgen Holzinger, Arno Eichberger, Cornelia Lex
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated drivers' evaluation of a conventional autonomous emergency braking (AEB) system on high and reduced tire-road friction, and compared these results to those of an AEB system adaptive to the reduced tire-road friction by earlier braking. Currently automated systems such as the AEB do not adapt the vehicle control strategy to the road friction, e.g. on snowy roads. Since winter precipitation is associated with a 19% increase in traffic crashes and a 13% increase in injuries compared to dry conditions, the potential of conventional AEB to prevent collisions could be significantly improved by including friction in the control algorithm...
December 11, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227234/could-you-buy-me-a-beer-measuring-secondary-supply-of-alcohol-in-dutch-on-premise-outlets
#4
Ruud T J Roodbeen, Suzie Geurtsen, Karen Schelleman-Offermans
OBJECTIVE: Alcohol is largely available for Dutch minors through on-premise secondary supply, which occurs when an adult furnishes an alcoholic drink to a minor in an on-premise outlet. Vendors allowing this secondary supply on their premises are in violation of the Dutch Licensing and Catering Act (legal age limit is 18 years old for the sale and possession of alcohol). Using existing mystery shopping protocols as a standard, our study objective was the development and field testing of a novel procedure, measuring vendors' compliance with secondary supply...
January 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227051/serum-alcohol-levels-correlate-with-injury-severity-and-resource-utilization
#5
A I Elshiere, M A Noorbhai, T E Madiba
BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption leads to violence and poor judgement. The resultant trauma is the leading cause of emergency department visits. In South Africa, alcohol-related emergency visits can be as high as 57%. The purpose of this prospective study was to establish the prevalence of positive blood alcohol and Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) at a tertiary trauma unit in Durban, and to correlate it with injury severity, length of hospital stay and resource utilization. METHOD: A total of 100 patients from King Edward trauma unit were analysed prospectively during the period December 2014 to February 2015...
November 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222580/-use-of-antibiotics-in-bones-prophylaxis-and-current-treatment-standards
#6
REVIEW
L Frommelt
BACKGROUND: Treatment of bone infection is difficult due the systemic administration of antibiotics, which means that only low concentrations reach the inflamed bone tissue. Loss of bone stock is common in osteomyelitis and device associated infection. Local antibiotics are administered in several ways for prophylactic purposes and also for treatment of bone infection. We intend to show the options and limitations of clinical use of antibiotic-loaded bone grafts. SUITABILITY: Bone grafts are a suitable carrier system for antibiotics...
December 8, 2017: Der Orthopäde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222322/inferior-vena-cava-filter-use-and-patient-safety-legacy-or-science
#7
REVIEW
William Geerts, Rita Selby
There has been a dramatic increase in vena cava filter (VCF) use over the past 20 years in the absence of evidence that filters provide a net patient benefit or are required in most cases. This increase is largely attributable to the availability of retrievable filters and expanded indications, particularly as primary prophylaxis in patients thought to be at high risk of pulmonary embolism. Substantial variability in VCF use, unrelated to patient clinical factors, has been shown between hospitals, from region to region, and among various countries...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221329/inter-hospital-transports-on-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-in-different-health-care-systems
#8
Lars Mikael Broman
The feasibility and the recognition of the possibility to transport patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) aroused in the 1970s. The number of transporting facilities worldwide was less than 20 in the beginning of the second Millennium. In 2009 the H1N1 pandemic and a publication showing survival benefit for adult patients transported to a hospital with ECMO resource increased both awareness and interest for ECMO treatment. The number of transport organizations increased rapidly. As of today, the number of transport organizations increases world-wide, though some centers where ECMO is an established treatment report decreasing numbers of transports...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220861/do-we-need-plant-food-supplements-a-critical-examination-of-quality-safety-efficacy-and-necessity-for-a-new-regulatory-framework
#9
Mona Abdel-Tawab
Given the expanding market of plant food supplements (PFSs) not undergoing any pre-marketing authorization, the overall quality, safety and efficacy of PFSs were subjected to a critical examination. Although many high-quality PFSs exist on the legal market, quality concerns are in general justified. Besides economic adulteration, active ingredients dramatically differing from label claims and among products were reported in several studies. In addition, PFSs sold via the Internet may be intentionally adulterated with undeclared prescription drugs...
December 8, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216967/caring-for-transgender-people-looking-beyond-the-hype
#10
Jason J Ong, Darren B Russell, Kevan Wylie
This special issue of Sexual Health presents a collection of articles that addresses issues facing transgender individuals that are particularly challenging. Issues covered range from sexual health education in schools, the need for accurate epidemiological measurements, the perils of inaccurate diagnostic labels of transgender children, legal issues, the disproportionately high prevalence of HIV and sexually transmissible infections (STIs), and the role of primary care. We need to think critically, constructively and compassionately about transgender people...
October 2017: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216493/intimate-partner-violence-against-women-circumstances-of-aggressions-and-oral-maxillofacial-traumas-a-medical-legal-and-forensic-approach
#11
Ítalo de Macedo Bernardino, Luzia Michelle Santos, Alysson Vinicius Porto Ferreira, Tomás Lucio Marques de Almeida Lima, Lorena Marques da Nóbrega, Sérgio d'Avila
INTRODUCTION: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious public health problem that frequently results in oral-maxillofacial traumas, generating high social and economic costs. The aim of this study was to describe the profile of women victims of IPV and determine the pattern of oral-maxillofacial traumas, according to a medical-legal and forensic perspective. An exploratory study of 1361 suspected cases of women victims of IPV was carried out based on database of an Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Dentistry of Northeastern Brazil during a period of 4 years...
December 4, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214592/the-european-union-policy-in-the-field-of-rare-diseases
#12
Antoni Montserrat Moliner, Jaroslaw Waligora
Rare diseases, are defined by the European Union as life-threatening or chronically debilitating diseases with low prevalence (less than 5 per 10,000). The specificities of rare diseases - limited number of patients and scarcity of relevant knowledge and expertise - single them out as a unique domain of very high European added-value.The legal instruments at the disposal of the European Union, in terms of the Article 168 of the Treaties, are very limited. However a combination of instruments using the research and the pharmaceutical legal basis and an intensive and creative use of funding from the Health Programmes has permitted to create a solid basis that Member States have considered enough to put rare diseases in a privileged position in the health agenda...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213010/continuous-improvement-of-fitness-for-duty-management-programs-for-workers-engaging-in-stabilizing-and-decommissioning-work-at-the-fukushima-daiichi-nuclear-power-plant
#13
Koji Mori, Seiichiro Tateishi, Tatsuhiko Kubo, Yuichi Kobayashi, Ko Hiraoka, Futoshi Kawashita, Takeshi Hayashi, Yoshifumi Kiyomoto, Masaki Kobashi, Kota Fukai, Hiroyuki Tahara, Ryuji Okazaki, Akira Ogami, Kazuyuki Igari, Katsunori Suzuki, Hiroshi Kikuchi, Kazuhiro Sakai
BACKGROUND: Numerous workers have participated in recovery efforts following the accident that occurred at the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant after the Great East Japan Earthquake. These workers, belonging to various companies, have been engaged in various tasks since the accident. Given the hazards and stress involved in these tasks and the relatively long time required to transport sick or injured workers to medical institutions, it became necessary to quickly implement a more stringent management program for fitness for duty than in ordinary work environments...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210367/surface-enhanced-raman-scattering-sensor-for-highly-sensitive-and-selective-detection-of-ochratoxin-a
#14
Raymond Gillibert, Mohamed N Triba, Marc Lamy de la Chapelle
The trace detection of toxic compounds in complex matrices is a major concern, in particular when it comes to mycotoxins in food. We developed a highly sensitive and specific SERS sensor for the detection of ochratoxin A using a simple rough gold film as a substrate. When adding the analyte, we observed spectral variations related to the interaction of the analyte with the specific aptamer used as a bioreceptor. Using a partial least squares regression method, our sensor is able to detect concentrations down to the picomolar range, which is much lower than the minimum legal concentration allowed in food products...
December 6, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210251/lightning-or-lightning-bug-the-role-of-the-language-gap-and-the-access-to-proper-information-on-entitlements-in-cross-border-patient-mobility
#15
Gabriella Berki
The language barrier and the lack of reliable information were identified as major practical obstacles of European patient mobility. Patients are highly concerned about the ability to communicate with their doctors when obtaining healthcare in a country where they do not speak the local language, as well as they find it complicated to gather all the necessary information about an unfamiliar healthcare system or about their cross-border healthcare entitlements conferred on them by the Union legislation. In a multilingual and patient-friendly European Union these issues must be tackled in order to ensure effective healthcare and to enforce patients’ right to cross-border healthcare...
March 2017: European Journal of Health Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209788/-reform-of-emergency-physician-training-in-austria-finally-up-to-date
#16
REVIEW
H Trimmel, M Baubin, J Kreutziger, G Frank, G Prause
During the last 20 years Austrian prehospital emergency medical services (EMS) have significantly improved. The structure and organization of Austrian EMS comply with European standards but training requirements for prehospital EMS physicians are insufficient when compared with other countries. Although some EMS systems follow the German or Swiss postgraduate training concepts, the legal requirements in Austria defining the scope of mandatory training for physicians in the prehospital setting are only minimal...
December 5, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208991/high-definition-tdcs-of-the-temporo-parietal-cortex-enhances-access-to-newly-learned-words
#17
Garon Perceval, Andrew K Martin, David A Copland, Matti Laine, Marcus Meinzer
Learning associations between words and their referents is crucial for language learning in the developing and adult brain and for language re-learning after neurological injury. Non-invasive transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the posterior temporo-parietal cortex has been suggested to enhance this process. However, previous studies employed standard tDCS set-ups that induce diffuse current flow in the brain, preventing the attribution of stimulation effects to the target region. This study employed high-definition tDCS (HD-tDCS) that allowed the current flow to be constrained to the temporo-parietal cortex, to clarify its role in novel word learning...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208739/correlates-of-compliance-with-national-comprehensive-smoke-free-laws
#18
Armando Peruga, Luminita S Hayes, Ximena Aguilera, Vinayak Prasad, Douglas W Bettcher
OBJECTIVE: To explore correlates of high compliance with smoking bans in a cross-sectional data set from the 41 countries with national comprehensive smoke-free laws in 2014 and complete data on compliance and enforcement. METHODS: Outcome variable: compliance with a national comprehensive smoke-free law in each country was obtained for 2014 from the WHO global report on the global tobacco epidemic. Explanatory variables: legal enforcement requirements, penalties, infrastructure and strategy were obtained through a separate survey of governments...
December 5, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208370/design-and-development-of-a-manual-pump-for-bolus-enteral-nutrition
#19
Judit Romano-García, Juan Luis Fernández-Morera
INTRODUCTION: Enteral nutrition (EN) is based on administration of liquid solutions into the gastrointestinal tract using a tube. After identifying unsolved practical difficulties in administration of EN using volume syringes, a new device to overcome such technical difficulties was proposed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Specific technologies (CAD, 3D printing) were used in collaboration with the PRODINTEC Foundation (Gijón, Asturias). Clarke Modet, a law firm specialized in intellectual property, provided legal advice on formulas for legal protection of the invention...
December 2, 2017: Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207521/-i-am-ready-and-willing-to-provide-the-service-%C3%A2-though-my-religion-frowns-on-abortion-ghanaian-midwives-mixed-attitudes-to-abortion-services-a-qualitative-study
#20
Prince Oppong-Darko, Kwame Amponsa-Achiano, Elisabeth Darj
BACKGROUND: Unsafe abortion is a major preventable public health problem and contributes to high mortality among women. Ghana has ratified international conventions to prevent unwanted pregnancies and provide safe abortion services, legally authorizing midwives to provide induced abortion services in certain circumstances. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to understand midwives' readiness to be involved in legal induced abortions, should the law become less restricted in Ghana...
December 4, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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