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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136657/contrasts-in-the-marine-ecosystem-of-two-macaronesian-islands-a-comparison-between-the-remote-selvagens-reserve-and-madeira-island
#1
Alan M Friedlander, Enric Ballesteros, Sabrina Clemente, Emanuel J Gonçalves, Andrew Estep, Paul Rose, Enric Sala
The islands of Madeira and Selvagens are less than 300 km apart but offer a clear contrast between a densely populated and highly developed island (Madeira), and a largely uninhabited and remote archipelago (Selvagens) within Macaronesia in the eastern Atlantic. The Madeira Archipelago has ~260,000 inhabitants and receives over six million visitor days annually. The Selvagens Islands Reserve is one of the oldest nature reserves in Portugal and comprises two islands and several islets, including the surrounding shelf to a depth of 200 m...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127561/the-role-of-public-health-in-the-development-of-a-collaborative-agreement-with-rural-and-semi-urban-partners-in-cases-of-severe-domestic-squalor-and-hoarding
#2
Marie-Claude Lacombe, Bruno Cossette
When confronted with complex situations of hoarding and severe domestic squalor, small municipal communities and their partners frequently feel overwhelmed due to limited resources at their disposal. Stakeholders often report these situations to Public Health Service and seek their support. In order to facilitate more effective and coordinated actions, the main stakeholders involved (municipal, fire, police, public health and the regional health center) must agree on the most appropriate intervention strategies...
November 10, 2017: Community Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104021/police-violence-among-women-in-four-u-s-cities
#3
Lisa Fedina, Bethany L Backes, Hyun-Jin Jun, Roma Shah, Boyoung Nam, Bruce G Link, Jordan E DeVylder
Police violence has been identified as a public health concern in the U.S., yet few studies have assessed the prevalence and nature of police violence among women. Furthermore, increasing evidence suggests that women reporting intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual violence (SV) to police are often met with harmful or neglectful police responses and thus, women's exposures to police violence may be associated with experiences of IPV and SV; however, this has not yet been empirically tested. This study assesses lifetime prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of police violence among women and investigates potential associations between IPV, SV, and police violence...
November 8, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094623/problem-analysis-in-community-violence-assessment-revealing-early-childhood-trauma-as-a-driver-of-youth-and-gang-violence
#4
Laurie Ross, Samantha Arsenault
Problem analysis conducted by a university-based research partner can provide communities with data-driven options to address the local drivers of serious youth and gang violence. Situated in Worcester, Massachusetts, this article describes how subsequent to early childhood trauma being identified as a potential driver of adolescent and young adult violence; problem analysis using local data confirmed that being the victim or witness of a traumatic incident before the age of 12 years was significantly correlated with involvement in violence in adolescence or young adulthood...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044920/co-responding-police-mental-health-programmes-service-user-experiences-and-outcomes-in-a-large-urban-centre
#5
Denise Lamanna, Gilla K Shapiro, Maritt Kirst, Flora I Matheson, Arash Nakhost, Vicky Stergiopoulos
As police officers are often the first responders to mental health crises, a number of approaches have emerged to support skilled police crisis responses. One such approach is the police-mental health co-responding team model, whereby mental health nurses and police officers jointly respond to mental health crises in the community. In the present mixed-method study, we evaluated outcomes of co-responding team interactions at a large Canadian urban centre by analysing administrative data for 2743 such interactions, and where comparison data were available, compared them to 16 226 police-only team responses...
October 17, 2017: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037115/low-subjective-social-status-in-the-police-is-linked-to-health-relevant-changes-in-diurnal-salivary-alpha-amylase-activity-in-swiss-police-officers
#6
Stéphanie Habersaat, Sid Abdellaoui, Ashley M Geiger, Sébastien Urben, Jutta M Wolf
The objective of this study was to assess basal autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity as a pathway linking subjective social status to health in a high-demand work environment. It was hypothesized that officers with a lower status experienced more chronic stress (higher basal ANS activity) and that chronic stress was related to more health problems. Fifty-six male and female Swiss police officers self-reported on subjective social status (country, community, friends, police) and their health (depression, post-traumatic stress, physical symptoms) and collected 12 saliva samples over two days for basal α-amylase activation (sAA) assessment...
October 16, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982355/queensland-alcohol-related-violence-and-night-time-economy-monitoring-project-quantem-a-study-protocol
#7
Peter G Miller, Jason Ferris, Kerri Coomber, Renee Zahnow, Nicholas Carah, Heng Jiang, Kypros Kypri, Tanya Chikritzhs, Alan Clough, Michael Livingston, Dominique de Andrade, Robin Room, Sarah Callinan, Ashlee Curtis, Richelle Mayshak, Nicolas Droste, Belinda Lloyd, Sharon Matthews, Nicholas Taylor, Meredythe Crane, Michael Thorn, Jake Najman
BACKGROUND: Alcohol-related harm is a substantial burden on the community in Australia and internationally, particularly harm related to risky drinking practices of young people in the night-time economy. This protocol paper describes a study that will report on the changes in a wide range of health and justice outcome measures associated with major policy changes in the state of Queensland, Australia. A key element includes trading hours restrictions for licensed premises to 2 am for the state and 3 am in Safe Night Precincts (SNPs)...
October 5, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967324/fentanyl-and-the-evolving-opioid-epidemic-what-strategies-should-policy-makers-consider
#8
Colleen L Barry
Major policy efforts are being aimed at combating the epidemic of opioid addiction and overdose deaths. In response to the epidemic, the medical community and policy makers have attempted to intervene; to date, these varied approaches have done little to reverse the increase in mortality related to opioid overdose. One factor that has complicated efforts to control overdose deaths has been the emergence of a public health crisis related to illicit fentanyl. The rise in fentanyl-related overdose deaths means that new approaches are needed to combat the opioid epidemic, including adoption of harm reduction strategies...
October 2, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954180/an-interprofessional-approach-to-continuing-education-with-mass-casualty-simulation-planning-and-execution
#9
Deborah A Saber, Kelley Strout, Lisa Swanson Caruso, Charlene Ingwell-Spolan, Aiden Koplovsky
Many natural and man-made disasters require the assistance from teams of health care professionals. Knowing that continuing education about disaster simulation training is essential to nursing students, nurses, and emergency first responders (e.g., emergency medical technicians, firefighters, police officers), a university in the northeastern United States planned and implemented an interprofessional mass casualty incident (MCI) disaster simulation using the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) management framework...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931125/patients-with-mental-problems-the-most-defenseless-travellers
#10
Peter Felkai, Tamas Kurimay
Background: Severe mental illness occurring abroad is a difficult situation for patients, their families, and for the local medical community. Patients with mental problem are doublely stigmatized due to their mental illness and because they are foreigners in an unfamiliar country. The appropriate treatment is often delayed, while patients are often dealt with in a manner that violates their human rights. Moreover, repatriation - which is vital in this case - is often delayed due to the lack of international protocols for the transportation and treatment of mentally ill travelers...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926374/reducing-urban-violence-a-contrast-of-public-health-and-criminal-justice-approaches
#11
Magdalena Cerdá, Melissa Tracy, Katherine M Keyes
BACKGROUND: Cities are investing millions in Cure Violence, a public health approach to reduce urban violence by targeting at-risk youth and redirecting conflict to non-violent responses. The impact of such a program compared to criminal justice responses is unknown because experiments directly comparing criminal justice and public health approaches to violence prevention are infeasible with observational data. We simulated experiments to test the influence of two interventions on violence: a) Cure Violence; and b) directed police patrol in violence hot spots...
September 18, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914228/an-integrated-case-management-model-to-assist-pacific-youth-offenders-and-their-families-in-australia
#12
Jioji Ravulo
Pasifika Support Services (PSS) was a program managed by a nongovernment organization, Mission Australia, and funded by the New South Wales Premiers Office to meet the needs of young offenders from a Pacific background. PSS ran from June 2005 to June 2009 and implemented a cost-effective integrated case management model with the New South Wales Police Force adapted to address social risk factors specific to Pacific youth offenders and family support networks. Sixty young people were reviewed regarding the outcomes achieved through their participation, further supported by an evaluation carried out by an external evaluator who found that 65% of participants did not reoffend after 18 months of completing the program...
December 1, 2016: Care Management Journals: Journal of Case Management ; the Journal of Long Term Home Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914119/building-on-mental-health-training-for-law-enforcement-strengthening-community-partnerships
#13
Jorien Campbell, Cyrus Ahalt, Randall Hagar, William Arroyo
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe the current state of law enforcement training related to the high number of interactions with persons with mental illness, and to recommend next steps in preparing law enforcement to effectively meet this challenge. Design/methodology/approach The authors reviewed the current literature on relevant law enforcement training programs, focusing primarily on crisis intervention team (CIT) training, and used the case example of California to identify opportunities to improve and enhance law enforcement preparedness for the challenge of responding to persons with mental illness...
September 11, 2017: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911325/how-does-decentralisation-affect-health-sector-planning-and-financial-management-a-case-study-of-early-effects-of-devolution-in-kilifi-county-kenya
#14
Benjamin Tsofa, Sassy Molyneux, Lucy Gilson, Catherine Goodman
BACKGROUND: A common challenge for health sector planning and budgeting has been the misalignment between policies, technical planning and budgetary allocation; and inadequate community involvement in priority setting. Health system decentralisation has often been promoted to address health sector planning and budgeting challenges through promoting community participation, accountability, and technical efficiency in resource management. In 2010, Kenya passed a new constitution that introduced 47 semi-autonomous devolved county governments, and a substantial transfer of responsibility for healthcare from the central government to these counties...
September 15, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886395/individual-peer-and-family-factor-modification-of-neighborhood-level-effects-on-adolescent-alcohol-cigarette-e-cigarette-and-marijuana-use
#15
Regina A Shih, Layla Parast, Eric R Pedersen, Wendy M Troxel, Joan S Tucker, Jeremy N V Miles, Lisa Kraus, Elizabeth J D'Amico
BACKGROUND: Neighborhood factors reported subjectively by residents and measured objectively at the census tract are both associated with adolescent alcohol, tobacco (cigarette and electronic cigarette), and other drug (marijuana) (ATOD) use. Less clear is how these neighborhood factors are longitudinally associated with each substance. Equivocal findings may be due to lack of consideration of individual, peer, and family effect modifiers, which could help adolescents overcome exposure to stressful neighborhood environments...
August 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880109/how-adolescents-perceive-that-community-based-exercise-improves-their-well-being
#16
Kevin Rourke, Coralie J Wilson
OBJECTIVES: To determine if adolescents perceive community-based exercise as beneficial to their well-being and in what ways. METHODS: A New South Wales Police Citizens Youth Club ran a four-week fitness course. The classes involved: 1) sports including basketball and soccer, 2) non-contact boxing drills, and 3) games, both team games such as dodgeball and non-team games such as line tag. Parental consent to offer a survey at the completion of the course was requested during registration...
September 1, 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856706/the-crisis-intervention-team-cit-model-an-evidence-based-policing-practice
#17
Amy C Watson, Michael T Compton, Jeffrey N Draine
As academic researchers, we are often asked to opine on whether the Crisis Intervention Team model (CIT) is an evidence-based practice (EBP) or evidence-based policing. Our answer is that it depends on how you define evidence-based practice and what outcome you are interested in. In this commentary, we briefly describe the CIT model, examine definitions of evidence-based practice and evidence-based policing, and then summarize the existing research on what is known about the effectiveness of CIT to date. We conclude that CIT can be designated an EBP for officer-level cognitive and attitudinal outcomes, but more research is needed to determine if CIT can be designated an EBP for other outcomes...
August 30, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853813/police-community-safety-and-trust
#18
Rich Williams
(1)In 2017 alone, 46 states have enacted over 270 laws affecting policing. (2) At least six states have enacted laws to train the public on their rights and expectations during police interactions. (3) Police are increasingly partnering with health care professionals to more safely respond to mental health and substance use disorders.
August 2017: NCSL Legisbrief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852906/descriptive-epidemiology-for-community-wide-naloxone-administration-by-police-officers-and-firefighters-responding-to-opioid-overdose
#19
Sarah Cercone Heavey, Alan M Delmerico, Gale Burstein, Cheryll Moore, William F Wieczorek, R Lorraine Collins, Yu-Ping Chang, Gregory G Homish
Recently implemented New York State policy allows police and fire to administer intranasal naloxone when responding to opioid overdoses. This work describes the geographic distribution of naloxone administration (NlxnA) by police and fire when responding to opioid overdoses in Erie County, NY, an area of approximately 920,000 people including the City of Buffalo. Data are from opioid overdose reports (N = 800) filed with the Erie County Department of Health (July 2014-June 2016) by police/fire and include the overdose ZIP code, reported drug(s) used, and NlxnA...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844823/addressing-maternal-deaths-due-to-violence-the%C3%A2-illinois-experience
#20
Abigail R Koch, Stacie E Geller
Homicide, suicide, and substance abuse accounted for nearly one fourth of all pregnancy-associated deaths in Illinois from 2002 through 2013. Maternal mortality review in Illinois has been primarily focused on obstetric and medical causes and little is known about the circumstances surrounding deaths due to homicide, suicide, and substance abuse, if they are pregnancy related, and if the deaths are potentially preventable. To address this issue, we implemented a process to form a second statewide maternal mortality review committee for deaths due to violence in late 2014...
August 24, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
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