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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764774/-sly-grog-and-homebrew-a-qualitative-examination-of-illicit-alcohol-and-some-of-its-impacts-on-indigenous-communities-with-alcohol-restrictions-in-regional-and-remote-queensland-australia
#1
Michelle S Fitts, Jan Robertson, Simon Towle, Chris M Doran, Robyn McDermott, Adrian Miller, Stephen Margolis, Valmae Ypinazar, Alan R Clough
BACKGROUND: Indigenous communities in Queensland (Australia) have been subject to Alcohol Management Plans since 2002/03, with significant penalties for breaching restrictions. 'Sly grog' and 'homebrew' provide access to alcohol despite restrictions. This paper describes how this alcohol is made available and the risks and impacts involved. In affected towns and communities across a large area of rural and remote Queensland, interviews and focus groups documented experiences and views of 255 long-standing community members and service providers...
August 1, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764681/a-brief-trauma-informed-intervention-increases-safety-behavior-and-reduces-hiv-risk-for-drug-involved-women-who-trade-sex
#2
Michele R Decker, Catherine Tomko, Erin Wingo, Anne Sawyer, Sarah Peitzmeier, Nancy Glass, Susan G Sherman
BACKGROUND: Female sex workers (FSWs) are an important population for HIV acquisition and transmission. Their risks are shaped by behavioral, sexual network, and structural level factors. Violence is pervasive and associated with HIV risk behavior and infection, yet interventions to address the dual epidemics of violence and HIV among FSWs are limited. METHODS: We used participatory methods to develop a brief, trauma-informed intervention, INSPIRE (Integrating Safety Promotion with HIV Risk Reduction), to improve safety and reduce HIV risk for FSWs...
August 1, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760099/the-utility-of-outpatient-commitment-ii-mortality-risk-and-protecting-health-safety-and-quality-of-life
#3
Steven P Segal, Stephania L Hayes, Lachlan Rimes
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the contribution of a form of outpatient commitment-community treatment orders (CTOs)-to mortality risk and quality of life of patients with severe mental illness. METHODS: Data (2000--2012) were obtained from the Australian National Death Index, Victoria Department of Health, Victoria police records, and National Outcomes and CaseMix Collection quality-of-life records for patients in the Victorian Psychiatric Case Register/RAPID with a history of psychiatric hospitalization: CTO cohort, N=11,424; non-CTO cohort, N=16,161...
August 1, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739027/undiagonsed-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-among-unionized-drivers-in-ghana-public-health-and-policy-implications
#4
Thaddeus P Ulzen, John C Higginbotham, Gordon Donnir, Laurence Jerome, Al Segal
Road traffic accidents (RTA) are among the leading causes of mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Many males that drop out of school in Ghana, a population at risk for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), find employment by joining driver's unions. Moreover, the vehicles of Ghanaian unionized drivers are over-represented in fatal road accidents. Untreated ADHD has been linked with higher rates of RTAs. The objectives of this cross-sectional analysis is to determine the following among unionized drivers in Ghana: 1) the prevalence of ADHD, and 2) the association between self-reported ADHD risk and driving behavior...
July 21, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738789/the-impact-of-indigenous-cultural-identity-and-cultural-engagement-on-violent-offending
#5
Stephane M Shepherd, Rosa Hazel Delgado, Juanita Sherwood, Yin Paradies
BACKGROUND: Possessing a strong cultural identity has been shown to protect against mental health symptoms and buffer distress prompted by discrimination. However, no research to date has explored the protective influences of cultural identity and cultural engagement on violent offending. This paper investigates the relationships between cultural identity/engagement and violent recidivism for a cohort of Australian Indigenous people in custody. METHODS: A total of 122 adults from 11 prisons in the state of Victoria completed a semi-structured interview comprising cultural identification and cultural engagement material in custody...
July 24, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727535/civil-unrest-in-the-context-of-chronic-community-violence-impact-on-maternal-depressive-symptoms
#6
Doris P Yimgang, Yan Wang, Grace Paik, Erin R Hager, Maureen M Black
OBJECTIVES: To examine changes in maternal-child health surrounding the April 2015 civil unrest in Baltimore, Maryland, following Freddie Gray's death while in police custody. METHODS: We conducted cross-sectional Children's HealthWatch surveys January 2014 through December 2015 in pediatric emergency departments and primary care clinics on maternal-child health and June 2015 through October 2015 on daily and community routines. We used trend analysis and piecewise logistic regression to examine effects of time, residential proximity moderation, and mediation analysis to assess proximity and maternal-child health relations via maternal concerns...
September 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716395/-it-ruined-my-life-the-effects-of-the-war-on-drugs-on-people-who-inject-drugs-pwid-in-rural-puerto-rico
#7
R Abadie, C Gelpi-Acosta, C Davila, A Rivera, M Welch-Lazoritz, K Dombrowski
BACKGROUND: The War on Drugs has raised the incarceration rates of racial minorities for non-violent drug-related crimes, profoundly stigmatized drug users, and redirected resources from drug prevention and treatment to militarizing federal and local law enforcement. Yet, while some states consider shifting their punitive approach to drug use, to one based on drug treatment and rehabilitation, nothing suggests that these policy shifts are being replicated in Puerto Rico. METHODS: This paper utilizes data from 360 PWID residing in four rural towns in the mountainous area of central Puerto Rico...
July 14, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715984/cost-of-an-integrated-care-program-to-reduce-ed-visits-during-diabetic-prisoner-court-hearings
#8
Tim Pauley, Joy Matienzo, Joseph Ventura, Josie Barbita
Diabetic events occurring during court hearings previously required emergency medical services (EMS) transport to the emergency department (ED). A new process was implemented whereby the provincial court (PC) was notified by the detention center of diabetes status of prisoners scheduled for court later that day, enabling a community nursing services provider to provide on-site diabetes assessment and treatment at the PC. During the 13-month pre-implementation phase, there were 10 incidents of diabetic distress resulting in an ED visit at a total cost of $797...
July 2017: Journal of Correctional Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715674/the-presence-of-licit-and-illicit-drugs-in-police-stations-and-their-implications-for-workplace-drug-testing
#9
Gregory S Doran, Ralph Deans, Carlo De Filippis, Chris Kostakis, Julia A Howitt
The presence of licit and illicit drug residues on surfaces was studied in 10 police stations and a central drug evidence store in New South Wales, Australia, with the results compared to similar surfaces in four public buildings (to establish a community baseline). The results of almost 850 workplace surface swabs were also compared to the outcome of drug analysis in urine and hair samples volunteered by police officers. Surfaces were swabbed with alcohol and the swabs were extracted and analysed by LC-MS/MS...
July 5, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703259/-evaluation-of-referral-and-intervention-patterns-at-the-psychiatric-emergency-service-utrecht-2009-2015
#10
M H Hoek, A W Braam
Emergency psychiatric care in the Netherlands is provided mainly by community mental health services. Although these emergency services vary in their approach per region, they show many similarities: they tend to receive referrals from the same type of agencies and they practice similar techniques of crisis management.<br/> AIM: To identify some of the patterns that appear in the type of psychiatric problems encountered, the type of referral agencies involved and in the intervention strategies practiced by the psychiatric emergency service in Utrecht...
2017: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687709/the-effects-of-public-access-defibrillation-on-survival-after-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-a-systematic-review-of-observational-studies
#11
Josefine Bækgaard, Søren Viereck, Thea Møller, Annette Ersbøll, Freddy Lippert, Fredrik Folke
Background -Despite recent advances, the average survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) remains below 10%. Early defibrillation by an automated external defibrillator (AED) is the most important intervention for OHCA patients, showing survival proportions above 50%. Accordingly, placement of AEDs in the community as part of a public access defibrillation program (PAD) is recommended by international guidelines. However, different strategies have been proposed on how exactly to increase and make use of public available AEDs...
July 7, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682194/interpersonal-and-structural-contexts-of-intimate-partner-violence-among-female-sex-workers-in-conflict-affected-northern-uganda
#12
Margaret Erickson, Shira M Goldenberg, Aditi Master, Godfrey Muzaaya, Monica Akello, Melissa Braschel, Josephine Birungi, Kate Shannon
BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is the most prevalent form of violence against women, yet remains under-researched among sex workers in Sub-Saharan Africa. We explored interpersonal and structural determinants of recent IPV among female sex workers in northern Uganda. METHODS: This analysis drew on data from a community-based cross-sectional study (conducted May 2011-January 2012), involving 379 female sex workers in Gulu, northern Uganda. Using logistic regression and multivariable modeling, we examined correlates of recent male-perpetrated physical or sexual IPV...
July 6, 2017: Women & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666204/assessing-support-for-supervised-injection-services-among-community-stakeholders-in-london-canada
#13
Geoff Bardwell, Ayden Scheim, Sanjana Mitra, Thomas Kerr
OBJECTIVES: Few qualitative studies have examined support for supervised injection services (SIS), and these have been restricted to large cities. This study aimed to assess support for SIS among a diverse representation of community stakeholders in London, a mid-sized city in southwestern Ontario, Canada. METHODS: This qualitative study was undertaken as part of the Ontario Integrated Supervised Injection Services Feasibility Study. We used purposive sampling methods to recruit a diversity of key informants (n=20) from five sectors: healthcare; social services; government and municipal services; police and emergency services; and the business and community sector...
June 27, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657501/profiles-of-law-enforcement-agency-body-armor-policies-a-latent-class-analysis-of-the-lemas-2013-data
#14
Weiwei Liu, Bruce Taylor
The life-saving benefits of body armor have been well-documented, and law enforcement agency (LEA) body armor wear requirements have been cited by police officers as one of the most important reasons for them to wear body armor. However, research on LEAs' policies and practices regarding body armor is scarce. This study examined whether there are different agency-level profiles of various body armor related policies, and related these body armor policy profiles to agency characteristics, size, location, etc...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612513/the-sequential-intercept-model-and-juvenile-justice-review-and-prospectus
#15
Kirk Heilbrun, Naomi E S Goldstein, David DeMatteo, Rebecca Newsham, Elizabeth Gale-Bentz, Lindsay Cole, Shelby Arnold
Behavioral health needs in justice-involved adolescents are an increasing concern, as it has been estimated that two-thirds of youths in the juvenile justice system now meet the criteria for one or more psychological disorders. This article describes the application of the Sequential Intercept Model (SIM), developed to describe five "points of interception" from standard prosecution into rehabilitation-oriented alternatives for adults (Munetz & Griffin, 2006), to juvenile justice. The five SIM intercepts are: (1) first contact with law enforcement or emergency services; (2) initial hearings and detention following arrest; (3) jails and courts (including problem-solving courts); (4) re-entry from jails, prisons and forensic hospitals; and (5) community corrections and community support, including probation and parole...
June 14, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597858/policy-and-governance-to-address-depression-and-suicide-in-bhutan-the-national-suicide-prevention-strategy
#16
Gampo Dorji, Sonam Choki, Kinga Jamphel, Yeshi Wangdi, Tandin Chogyel, Chencho Dorji, Damber Kumar Nirola
Suicide and mental disorders are a growing public health issue in Bhutan, due in part to a rapidly transitioning society. The burden of suicide has been recognized by the Royal Government of Bhutan and, as a result, it introduced the country's first ever national suicide-prevention plan in 2015. The 3-year action plan takes a holistic approach to making suicide-prevention services a top social priority, through strengthening suicide-prevention policies, promoting socially protective measures, mitigating risk factors and reaching out to individuals who are at risk of suicide or affected by incidents of suicide...
April 2017: WHO South-East Asia Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584085/language-from-police-body-camera-footage-shows-racial-disparities-in-officer-respect
#17
Rob Voigt, Nicholas P Camp, Vinodkumar Prabhakaran, William L Hamilton, Rebecca C Hetey, Camilla M Griffiths, David Jurgens, Dan Jurafsky, Jennifer L Eberhardt
Using footage from body-worn cameras, we analyze the respectfulness of police officer language toward white and black community members during routine traffic stops. We develop computational linguistic methods that extract levels of respect automatically from transcripts, informed by a thin-slicing study of participant ratings of officer utterances. We find that officers speak with consistently less respect toward black versus white community members, even after controlling for the race of the officer, the severity of the infraction, the location of the stop, and the outcome of the stop...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573662/offenders-with-intellectual-disabilities-in-prison-what-happens-when-they-leave
#18
G H Murphy, P Chiu, P Triantafyllopoulou, M Barnoux, E Blake, J Cooke, R V E Forrester-Jones, N J Gore, J K Beecham
BACKGROUND: People with intellectual disabilities, if convicted of offences, may be sentenced to prison, but little is known about their life when they are released. METHOD: This study followed up men with intellectual disabilities who were leaving prisons in England. RESULTS: The men were hard to contact, but 38 men were interviewed, on average 10 weeks after leaving prison. The men were living in a variety of situations and often were very under-occupied, with limited social networks...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552292/a-safe-haven-for-the-injured-urban-trauma-care-at-the-intersection-of-healthcare-law-enforcement-and-race
#19
Sara F Jacoby, Therese S Richmond, Daniel N Holena, Elinore J Kaufman
Patients with traumatic injuries often interact with police before and during hospitalization, particularly when their injuries are due to violence. People of color are at highest risk for violent injuries and have the poorest outcomes after injury. The purpose of this study was to describe how injured, Black patients perceived their interactions with police and what these perceptions reveal about police involvement within trauma care systems. We combined data from two qualitative studies to achieve this aim...
May 18, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549179/relationships-between-smoking-behaviors-and-cotinine-levels-among-two-american-indian-populations-with-distinct-smoking-patterns
#20
Julie-Anne Tanner, Jeffrey A Henderson, Dedra Buchwald, Barbara V Howard, Patricia Nez Henderson, Rachel F Tyndale
Introduction: Smoking prevalence, cigarettes per day (CPD), and lung cancer incidence differ between Northern Plains (NP) and Southwestern (SW) American Indian populations. We used cotinine as a biomarker of tobacco smoke exposure to biochemically characterize NP and SW smokers and non-smokers, and to investigate factors associated with variation in tobacco exposure. Methods: American Indians (N=636) were recruited from two different tribal populations (NP and SW) as part of a study conducted as part of the Collaborative to Improve Native Cancer Outcomes P50 project...
May 26, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
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