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Community Policing

Michael E Onah
A component of the 1965 Medicaid Act, the Institutions for Mental Diseases ("IMD") Exclusion was supposed to be a remedy for the brutal, dysfunctional mental healthcare system run through state hospitals. In the years since Medicaid was created, the IMD Exclusion has instead barred thousands of those in need of intensive, inpatient treatment from receiving it. As a result, many severely mentally ill individuals are left without adequate care and without a home. They struggle in the street where they are otherized by those in their community and are susceptible to confrontational episodes with law enforcement...
March 2018: American Journal of Law & Medicine
Peter Drew, Vivienne Tippett, Scott Devenish
The objective of this review is to develop an aggregated synthesis of qualitative and quantitative data on occupational violence (OV) mitigation interventions for Emergency Service Workers (ESW), to cultivate useful conclusions and recommendations for paramedic occupational safety and policy development. Emergency Service Worker is a broad term encompassing all elements of community-based emergency support and includes paramedics, firefighters, and police.The objective of the quantitative component of this review is to quantify the effectiveness of OV mitigation interventions for ESW...
May 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Andrea K Blanchard, Sapna G Nair, Sharon G Bruce, Satyanarayana Ramanaik, Raghavendra Thalinja, Srikanta Murthy, Prakash Javalkar, Priya Pillai, Martine Collumbien, Lori Heise, Shajy Isac, Parinita Bhattacharjee
BACKGROUND: Research has increasingly documented the important role that violence by clients and the police play in exacerbating HIV vulnerability for women in sex work. However few studies have examined violence in the intimate relationships of women in sex work, or drawn on community partnerships to explore the social dynamics involved. A community-based participatory research study was undertaken by community and academic partners leading intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV prevention programs in Bagalkot district, Karnataka state, India...
May 11, 2018: BMC Women's Health
Aaron J Diehr, Justin T McDaniel
Although black-white racial residential segregation in the US has continued to decline, blacks still experience greater levels of segregation than other racial groups. The present study examined whether a lack of community policing practices in 2012 mediated the relationship between racial segregation in 2010 and intraracial (i.e., "black-onblack") homicides in 2013. We collected incorporated-place-level secondary data from several sources and performed mediation analysis to test relationships among variables...
May 1, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Diana M Falkenbach, Justin Balash, Maria Tsoukalas, Stephanie Stern, Scott O Lilienfeld
The majority of psychopathy research has focused on negative outcomes in criminal populations. However, psychopathy encompasses a variety of traits, and recent research suggests that certain features of psychopathy, such as a fearless temperament, may be related to psychological resiliency, "successful" functioning, and even heroic behavior (Hall & Benning, 2006; Lykken, 1995). Despite anecdotal discussion, little is known about the possible "successful" or adaptive reflections of psychopathic personality traits in ostensible heroes...
May 3, 2018: Personality Disorders
Jenevieve Mannell, Iran Seyed-Raeisy, Rochelle Burgess, Catherine Campbell
Intimate partner violence (IPV) has significant impacts on mental health. Community-focused interventions have shown promising results for addressing IPV in low-income countries, however, little is known about the implications of these interventions for women's mental wellbeing. This paper analyses data from a community-focused policy intervention in Rwanda collected in 2013-14, including focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with community members (n = 59). Our findings point to three ways in which these community members responded to IPV: (1) reconciling couples experiencing violence, (2) engaging community support through raising cases of IPV during community discussions, (3) navigating resources for women experiencing IPV, including police, social services and legal support...
2018: PloS One
Sohyun Park, Stephen Onufrak, Cara Wilking, Angie Cradock
We examined community-level characteristics associated with free drinking water access policies in U.S. municipalities using data from a nationally representative survey of city managers/officials from 2,029 local governments in 2014. Outcomes were 4 free drinking water access policies. Explanatory measures were population size, rural/urban status, census region, poverty prevalence, education, and racial/ethnic composition. We used multivariable logistic regression to test differences and presented only significant findings...
April 2018: Clinical Nutrition Research
Catherine B Bull, Leigh Ann Von Hagen, Andrea Lubin, Gayathri Shivaraman, Daniel Chibbaro
This paper discusses the value of police officers as vital sources of information regarding pedestrian safety in their communities by presenting results from a survey of traffic safety police officers. The survey requested information on school crossings that the officers considered most challenging for pedestrians. Officers specified the intersections or mid-block locations with school crossings, and answered questions about elements of the locations, such as what makes the locations challenging, and what might be done to improve conditions at these locations...
April 26, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
B Rowland, C Abraham, R Carter, J Abimanyi-Ochom, A B Kelly, P Kremer, J W Williams, R Smith, J K Hall, D Wagner, H Renner, T Hosseini, A Osborn, M Mohebbi, J W Toumbourou
BACKGROUND: This cluster randomised control trial is designed to evaluate whether the Communities That Care intervention (CTC) is effective in reducing the proportion of secondary school age adolescents who use alcohol before the Australian legal purchasing age of 18 years. Secondary outcomes are other substance use and antisocial behaviours. Long term economic benefits of reduced alcohol use by adolescents for the community will also be assessed. METHODS: Fourteen communities and 14 other non-contiguous communities will be matched on socioeconomic status (SES), location, and size...
April 27, 2018: BMC Public Health
Suvarna V Menon, Nicole E Allen
Violence against women (VAW) has become an increasingly salient issue in India, with women at risk for different forms of gendered violence. While there may be universal elements in the international phenomenon of violence against women, it is a complex, multifaceted phenomenon that takes shape in a particular sociocultural context. The current study employs a narrative framework to systematically examine how culture is expressed in the formal systems response and women's help-seeking in two metropolitan cities in India...
April 25, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
Yaseen M Arabi, Abdulla A Al-Sayyari, Mohamed S Al Moamary
Policies addressing limitations of medical therapy in patients with advanced medical conditions are typically referred to as Code Status (No Code) policies or Do-Not-Resuscitate (DNR) status polices. Inconsistencies in implementation, understanding, decision-making, communication and management of No Code or DNR orders have led to delivery of poorer care to some patients. Several experts have called for a change in the current approach. The new approach, Goals of Care paradigm, aims to contextualize the decisions about resuscitation and advanced life support within the overall plan of care, focusing on choices of treatments to be given rather than specifically on treatments not to be given...
April 2018: Annals of Thoracic Medicine
Donalee Unal
The health disparities that are prevalent among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities are connected to the ideology of sovereignty and often ignored in social work and public health literature. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to examine the health outcomes of American Indians from the time of contact with European settlers to the present through the ideology of sovereignty and federal government AI health policy. The foundation for the health outcomes of AIs and the governmental policies affecting them lie in the ideology of tribal sovereignty...
April 19, 2018: Social Work in Public Health
Joshua J Reynolds, Victoria Estrada-Reynolds, Narina Nunez
Although there is a substantial body of work examining attitudes towards the police, no measure has been developed to consistently capture citizens' beliefs regarding police legitimacy. Given that police conduct has garnered a great deal of attention, particularly in the last few years, the current research sought to develop a scale measuring perceptions of police legitimacy. Across multiple studies, items were created and the scale's factor structure explored (Study 1 and Study 2), the factor structure was confirmed (Study 3a), and the predictive validity of the scale was tested (Studies 3b-3d)...
April 2018: Law and Human Behavior
Raymond Boon Tar Lim, Olive N Y Cheung, Dede Kam Tyng Tham, Hanh Hao La, Thein Than Win, Roy Chan, Mee Lian Wong
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing global movement of foreign female entertainment workers (FEWs), a hard-to-reach population vulnerable to HIV/STIs. This paper described the needs assessment phase before intervention implementation where the socio-organisation, sexual risk behaviours and access to health services of foreign FEWs in Singapore were explored. We also highlighted how qualitative inquiry, census enumeration technique and community-based engagement approaches were used to gain access and to develop a culturally appropriate STI prevention intervention...
April 16, 2018: Globalization and Health
Richard Bade, Benjamin J Tscharke, Marie Longo, Richard Cooke, Jason M White, Cobus Gerber
BACKGROUND: The societal impact of drug use is well known. An example is when drug-intoxicated drivers increase the burden on policing and healthcare services. METHODS: This work presents the correlation of wastewater analysis (using UHPLC-MS/MS) and positive roadside drug testing results for methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and cannabis from December 2011-December 2016 in South Australia. RESULTS: Methamphetamine and MDMA showed similar trends between the data sources with matching increases and decreases, respectively...
April 10, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Amanda M Stylianou, Elizabeth Ebright
Despite the known consequences associated with children's exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV), numerous children exposed to IPV never access victim services and/or mental health treatment. Informed by the Child Development-Community Policing Program (CD-CP), the Child Trauma Response Team (CTRT) is designed to provide a coordinated, immediate, trauma-informed, and interdisciplinary response to children, adolescents, and their impacted family members who are exposed to severe IPV. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of the CTRT from the perspective of the key stakeholders and to identify what facilitated and/or hindered the collaborative model...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Sandhira Wijayaratne
Many of us pursue medical careers for the direct impact we have on patients' lives. Complicating those ideals is a mosaic of extraclinical factors-economic, social, cultural, political, historical-that more immediately affect patient health than medical care, especially for countless communities of color. As a medical student witnessing the excessive rates of black lives lost to police brutality, I am reminded of the limits of medicine. (PsycINFO Database Record
March 2018: Families, Systems & Health: the Journal of Collaborative Family Healthcare
James C Fell, Erin Tanenbaum, Devi Chelluri
OBJECTIVES: In 2013, the community of Redlands, California, created an initiative using evidence-based strategies to deter driving under the influence (DUI), underage drinking and driving, public intoxication, and alcohol-related calls for service. The initiative, called "Responsible Redlands," included adopting a social host and a deemed approved local ordinance, using minor-decoy and shoulder-tap operations, increasing sobriety checkpoints and saturation patrols, conducting responsible beverage service (RBS) training, using identification (ID) scanners to spot false IDs, and a publicity campaign to urge neighbors to report loud drinking parties...
February 28, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Carrie Dooyema, Jan Jernigan, Amy Lowry Warnock, Nicola Dawkins-Lyn, Carole Harris, Tina Kauh, Laura Kettel Khan, Phyllis Ottley, Deborah Young-Hyman
BACKGROUND: State- and local-level policies can influence children's diet quality and physical activity (PA) behaviors. The goal of this article is to understand the enacted state and local policy landscape in four communities reporting declines in childhood obesity. METHODS AND RESULTS: State-level policies were searched within the CDC's online Chronic Disease State Policy Tracking System. Local level policies were captured during key informant interviews in each of the sites...
March 2018: Childhood Obesity
Dennis H Li, Shruta Rawat, Jayson Rhoton, Pallav Patankar, Maria L Ekstrand, B R Simon Rosser, J Michael Wilkerson
On December 11, 2013, the Indian Supreme Court recriminalized non-peno-vaginal sex under Sec. 377 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC), overturning a 2009 ruling that deemed IPC Sec. 377 unconstitutional. Similar "sodomy laws" in other countries have been associated with increased violence, harassment, and other discrimination against men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women. However, few studies have looked at the effects of such a law in an Indian context. This study examined experiences of victimization among MSM and hijra/transgender women (MSM-H) in the State of Maharashtra using a mixed-method approach...
September 2017: Sexuality Research & Social Policy
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