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Community Policing

Dennis H Li, Shruta Rawat, Jayson Rhoton, Pallav Patankar, Maria L Ekstrand, B R Simon Rosser, J Michael Wilkerson
On December 11, 2013, the Indian Supreme Court recriminalized non-peno-vaginal sex under Sec. 377 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC), overturning a 2009 ruling that deemed IPC Sec. 377 unconstitutional. Similar "sodomy laws" in other countries have been associated with increased violence, harassment, and other discrimination against men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women. However, few studies have looked at the effects of such a law in an Indian context. This study examined experiences of victimization among MSM and hijra/transgender women (MSM-H) in the State of Maharashtra using a mixed-method approach...
September 2017: Sexuality Research & Social Policy
Helen Elsey, Tracey Farragher, Sandy Tubeuf, Rachel Bragg, Marjolein Elings, Cathy Brennan, Rochelle Gold, Darren Shickle, Nyantara Wickramasekera, Zoe Richardson, Janet Cade, Jenni Murray
OBJECTIVES: To assess the feasibility of conducting a cost-effectiveness study of using care farms (CFs) to improve quality of life and reduce reoffending among offenders undertaking community orders (COs). To pilot questionnaires to assess quality of life, connection to nature, lifestyle behaviours, health and social-care use. To assess recruitment and retention at 6 months and feasibility of data linkage to Police National Computer (PNC) reconvictions data and data held by probation services...
March 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Jane H Brice, Matthew A Psioda, Renee Johnson, Amy Oakley, Julianne M Cyr, Christopher S Cowden, Richard Uribe
BACKGROUND: Accessing the emergency medical services system via 9-1-1 operators is an effective way for patients to seek urgent health care; however, technological advances and telecommunication practices inundate the 9-1-1 and emergency services infrastructure with unintentional calls that delay response efforts to legitimate medical emergencies. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the change in university-wide dial-out prefix from "9" to "7" reduced unnecessary calls to a 9-1-1 call center...
March 9, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
Eva Frazer, Roger A Mitchell, LaQuandra S Nesbitt, Mallory Williams, Edith P Mitchell, Richard Allen Williams, Doris Browne
While much progress has occurred since the civil rights act of 1964, minorities have continued to suffer disparate and discriminatory access to economic opportunities, education, housing, health care and criminal justice. The latest challenge faced by the physicians and public health providers who serve the African American community is the detrimental, and seemingly insurmountable, causes and effects of violence in impoverished communities of color. According to statistics from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), the number one killer of black males ages 10-35 is homicide, indicating a higher rate of violence than any other group...
February 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
Kathryn R Search, Susan L Tolle, Gayle B McCombs, Aaron Arndt
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to survey entry-level dental hygiene program directors in the United States (U.S.) to assess their perceptions of dental hygienists with visible tattoos as well as to determine current policies related to dress codes in U.S. dental hygiene programs. Methods: Data was collected with an online survey emailed to 340 dental hygiene program directors yielding a 43% (n=141) response rate. Participants indicated their opinions of visible tattoos on the basis of professionalism and school policy satisfaction...
February 2018: Journal of Dental Hygiene: JDH
Marcos Antonio Ferreira do Nascimento, Anna Paula Uziel, Jimena de Garay Hernández
This article presents results for young men's health based on an intervention-study on gender, sexuality, and health of adolescents and young men in conflict with the law, deprived of their freedom, and subject to socio-educational confinement in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The themes addressed included questions on overall health, mental health, and sexual and reproductive health, analyzed from a relational gender perspective and social construction of masculinities. The majority of these young men are black, from low-income communities, with low schooling levels, and ranging in age from 14 to 21 years of age; some of them are fathers...
February 19, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Jeremy W Coid, Constantinos Kallis, Mike Doyle, Jenny Shaw, Simone Ullrich
BACKGROUND: Changes in positive and negative symptom profiles during acute psychotic episodes may be key drivers in the pathway to violence. Acute episodes are often preceded by fluctuations in affect before psychotic symptoms appear and affective symptoms may play a more important role in the pathway than previously recognised. METHODS: We carried out a prospective cohort study of 409 male and female patients discharged from medium secure services in England and Wales to the community...
February 27, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Simon Peplow
When violence erupted on the streets of England in 1981, it undoubtedly shocked the country in its scope and severity. However, such disorder had been foreshadowed when the St Pauls area of Bristol saw anti-police disturbances on 2 April 1980. This article focusses on the responses to this, from the local community and organizations as well as local and national government, which in the historiography has often been relegated to passing mentions prior to detailed discussion of the 1981 events. Utilizing recently released and understudied local records, it argues that appeals for a public inquiry from sections of the local community demonstrates the value awarded to them by this politically marginalized group, and the failings of other democratic forms of registering complaints...
March 1, 2018: 20 Century British History
Scott W Formica, Robert Apsler, Lindsay Wilkins, Sarah Ruiz, Brittni Reilly, Alexander Y Walley
BACKGROUND: Opioid overdose is a significant public health problem. Collaborative programs between local public health and public safety agencies have emerged to connect overdose survivors and their personal networks with harm reduction and addiction treatment services following a non-fatal overdose event. This study explored the prevalence of these programs in Massachusetts and the different ways they have been structured and function. METHODS: We sent an online screening questionnaire to police and fire departments in all 351 communities in Massachusetts to find instances in which they collaborated with a community-based public health agency to implement a post-overdose outreach and support program...
January 23, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Jeffrey Curran, Stephen D Ritchie, Jackson Beardy, David VanderBurgh, Karen Born, John Lewko, Aaron M Orkin
(1) Background: Remote communities in Canada lack an equitable emergency medical response capacity compared to other communities. Community-based emergency care (CBEC) training for laypeople is a model that has the potential to enhance the medical emergency response capacity in isolated and resource-limited contexts. The purpose of this study was to understand the characteristics of medical emergencies and to conceptualize and present a framework for what a medical emergency is for one remote Indigenous community in northwestern Ontario, in order to inform the development of CBEC training...
February 4, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Hope M Tiesman, Melody Gwilliam, Srinivas Konda, Jeff Rojek, Suzanne Marsh
INTRODUCTION: Limited studies exist that describe nonfatal work-related injuries to law enforcement officers. The aim of this study is to provide national estimates and trends of nonfatal injuries to law enforcement officers from 2003 through 2014. METHODS: Nonfatal injuries were obtained from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-Occupational Supplement. Data were obtained for injuries treated in U.S. emergency departments from 2003 to 2014. Nonfatal injury rates were calculated using denominators from the Current Population Survey...
January 26, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Anne Krayer, Catherine A Robinson, Rob Poole
Although the police play an important role for people with mental health problems in the community, little is known about joint working practices between mental health, social care and police services. There is potential for tensions and negative outcomes for people with mental health problems, in particular when the focus is on behaviours that could be interpreted as anti-social. This study explores perceptions about joint working between mental health, social care and police services with regard to anti-social behaviour...
January 18, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
Saul M Kassin, Allison D Redlich, Fabiana Alceste, Timothy J Luke
Eighty-seven experts on the psychology of confessions-many of whom were highly published, many with courtroom experience-were surveyed online about their opinions on 30 propositions of relevance to deception detection, police interrogations, confessions, and relevant general principles of psychology. As indicated by an agreement rate of at least 80%, there was a strong consensus that several findings are sufficiently reliable to present in court. This list includes but is not limited to the proposition that the risk of false confessions is increased not only by explicit threats and promises but by 2 common interrogation tactics-namely, the false evidence ploy and minimization tactics that imply leniency by offering sympathy and moral justification...
January 2018: American Psychologist
Stacy M Sechrist, John D Weil
The Offender Focused Domestic Violence Initiative (OFDVI) represents for the first time anywhere the application of the evidence-based focused deterrence policing approach to combat intimate partner domestic violence (IPDV). Through holding offenders accountable, the strategy has resulted in 20% reductions each in IPDV-related calls for police service and arrests. Victim injuries have been significantly reduced and the 1-year IPDV offender recidivism rate is about 16-17%. The backbone of the OFDVI strategy is the multidisciplinary collaboration of law enforcement and community partners which has resulted in identification and resolving system issues which have historically allowed offenders to repeat IPDV without consequence...
February 1, 2017: Violence Against Women
Stephanie L Mayne, Lindsay R Pool, William A Grobman, Kiarri N Kershaw
BACKGROUND: Adverse pregnancy outcomes are associated with higher cardiovascular disease risk among mothers and future health problems of offspring. Neighbourhood crime may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes by increasing chronic stress, yet the association has been relatively understudied. METHODS: Electronic health records from 34 383 singleton births at a single hospital in Chicago (2009-2013) were geocoded and linked to 1-year rates of police-recorded crime at the neighbourhood (Chicago community area) level...
March 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Melissa A Smigelsky, Robert A Neimeyer
Restorative retelling (RR) is an evidence-based procedure for facilitating adaptation following traumatic bereavement. In this paper, we introduce performative retelling (PR), a variation on RR, which fosters healing from personal losses and portrays personal reactions to collective tragedy. We describe our collaboration with an ex-offender reentry program, the Memphis Police Department, and Playback Theatre to use improvisational community theatre to bridge the gap between law enforcement and the citizens they serve...
January 4, 2018: Death Studies
Lawrence O Gostin
BACKGROUND: The detection of wild poliovirus in Israeli sewage in May 2013 led the health authorities to vaccinate children with OPV (Oral Polio Vaccine). Shelly Kamin-Friedman explored the legal and ethical dimensions of this policy. This commentary makes three claims: (1) Mandatory vaccination is a valid exercise of the state's police powers to protect the common good. (2) A disease eradication campaign is a sufficient ground for the exercise of those powers. (3) The state is obliged to use the least restrictive/invasive measure to achieve community-wide vaccine coverage, but need not use less effective measures; further, determining which measure is most effective is a fact-specific determination...
January 3, 2018: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
Victoria Sit, Lana Stermac
Despite the extensive and often long-lasting sequelae of sexual assault, a significant majority of survivors do not seek assistance from formal support sources, such as police, medical or mental health professionals, and community-based agencies. While growing attention has been directed toward understanding the help-seeking barriers faced by sexual assault survivors, few studies have explored the experiences of survivors living in poverty and how help-seeking can be improved for this marginalized population...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Ada L Sinacore, Samir Durrani, Sarah Khayutin
Using Multicultural and Gender Case Conceptualization (MGCC) epistemology, the aim of this phenomenological study was to explore adult male victims' perceptions of gender and reflections on their experiences of gender-based violence (GBV). Data were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Results indicated that, regardless of sexual orientation, participants experienced verbal and physical abuse due to their feminine gender expression, beginning in primary school and continuing through university and into the workplace...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Amy Peirone, Betty Jo Barrett, Chi Ho Cheung, Nazim Habibov
Using data from the 2009 General Social Survey (GSS Cycle 23: Victimization main file), this study assessed the relationship between individual and neighborhood-level factors and police response to spousal violence in Canada. A total of 890 participants in the GSS reported experiences of spousal violence within the previous 5 years, with approximately 22% of these victims reporting direct contact with the police because of the violence. Among this subsample of victims who had police contact, we evaluated the extent to which individual-level factors (sociodemographic and violence characteristics) and neighborhood-level factors (perceptions of social disorder and the presence of police facilities in one's community) were related to distinct types of police response to reported spousal violence...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
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