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Racial Profiling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154560/racial-discrimination-experiences-and-african-american-youth-adjustment-the-role-of-parenting-profiles-based-on-racial-socialization-and-involved-vigilant-parenting
#1
Fatima A Varner, Yang Hou, Tajma Hodzic, Noelle M Hurd, Sheretta T Butler-Barnes, Stephanie J Rowley
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to test whether parenting profiles based on racial socialization and involved-vigilant parenting would compensate for or moderate associations between racial discrimination experiences and academic outcomes and psychological well-being among African American adolescents. METHOD: Participants were 1,363 African American adolescents (Mage = 14.19; 52.3% female) from 3 Midwestern suburban school districts. Latent profile analysis was used to examine whether there were distinct combinations of parenting...
November 20, 2017: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152863/using-an-acculturation-stress-resilience-framework-to-explore-latent-profiles-of-latina-o-language-brokers
#2
Jennifer A Kam, Katerina M Marcoulides, Andy J Merolla
With survey data from 243 Latina/o early adolescent language brokers, latent profile analyses were conducted to identify different types (i.e., profiles) of brokers. Profiles were based on how often Latina/o early adolescents brokered for family members, as well as their levels of family-based acculturation stress, negative brokering beliefs, parentification, and positive brokering beliefs. Three brokering profiles emerged: (1) infrequent-ambivalents, (2) occasional-moderates, and (3) parentified-endorsers...
December 2017: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136232/trayvon-martin-racial-profiling-black-male-stigma-and-social-work-practice
#3
Martell Lee Teasley, Jerome H Schiele, Charles Adams, Nathern S Okilwa
To address a critical gap in the social work literature, this article examines the deleterious effects of racial profiling as it pertains to police targeting of male African Americans. The authors use the Trayvon Martin court case to exemplify how racial profiling and black male stigma help perpetuate social inequality and injustice for black men. A racism-centered perspective is examined historically and contemporarily as a theoretical approach to understanding the role that race plays in social injustice through racial profiling...
November 9, 2017: Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098934/white-look-alikes-mainstream-culture-adoption-makes-immigrants-look-phenotypically-white
#4
Jonas R Kunst, John F Dovidio, Ron Dotsch
White Americans generally equate "being American" with "being White." In six studies, we demonstrate that White Americans perceive immigrants who adopt American mainstream culture as racially White and, reciprocally, perceive White-looking immigrants as assimilating more. In Studies 1 and 2, participants visually represented immigrants who adopted U.S. culture by acculturating to mainstream American culture or by holding a common or dual identity as more phenotypically White and less stereotypic in appearance...
November 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053377/substance-use-among-bi-multiracial-youth-in-the-united-states-profiles-of-psychosocial-risk-and-protection
#5
Trenette Clark Goings, Christopher P Salas-Wright, Matthew O Howard, Michael G Vaughn
BACKGROUND: Bi/multiracial youth face higher risk of engaging in substance use than most monoracial youth. OBJECTIVES: This study contrasts the prevalence of substance use among bi/multiracial youth with that of youth from other racial/ethnic groups, and identifies distinct profiles of bi/multiracial youth by examining their substance use risk. METHODS: Using data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (collected between 2002 and 2014), we analyze data for 9,339 bi/multiracial youth ages 12-17 living in the United States...
October 20, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026378/contextual-determinants-of-adolescent-mortality-in-south-africa
#6
Nicole De Wet, Clifford Odimegwu
OBJECTIVES: South Africa has a large adolescent population (approximately 20% of the total population). The survival and development of these individuals are a priority among parents and the government. In an effort to better understand the factors contributing to adolescent mortality in South Africa, this study examined the effect of household and community factors on adolescent death. METHODS: The study used data from Census 2001. Multilevel modelling was used to study the impact of community and household factors on adolescent mortality...
March 2017: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922093/safer-sexual-practices-among-african-american-women-intersectional-socialisation-and-sexual-assertiveness
#7
Danice L Brown, Sha'Kema Blackmon, Alexandra Shiflett
Scholars have posited that childhood socialisation experiences may play a key role in influencing behaviours and attitudes that contribute to the acquisition of HIV. This study examined the links between past ethnic-racial and gender socialisation, sexual assertiveness and the safe sexual practices of African American college women utilising a cluster analytic approach. After identifying separate racial-gender and ethnic-gender socialisation profiles, results indicated that ethnic-gender socialisation cluster profiles were directly associated with sexual assertiveness and safer sex behaviour...
September 18, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876640/gene-and-protein-expression-profiling-of-pancreatic-tumours-reveal-dysregulated-pathways-and-novel-potential-biomarker
#8
E N Nweke, M N Ntwasa, M B Brand, J D Devar, M D Smith, G P Candy
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer (PDAC) is a deadly type of cancer with almost an equal amount of new cases and deaths observed yearly. It accounts for about 7% of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In many multi-racial societies including South Africa, the black population has the highest incidence rate. Less than 5% of PDAC patients live up to 5 years. The lack of specific and sensitive diagnostic PDAC biomarkers is strongly responsible for this poor statistic. The discovery of differentially expressed genes and proteins associated with PDAC is crucial to elucidating this condition and may lead to biomarker finding and further understanding of the disease...
June 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836983/family-based-childhood-obesity-prevention-interventions-a-systematic-review-and-quantitative-content-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Tayla Ash, Alen Agaronov, Ta'Loria Young, Alyssa Aftosmes-Tobio, Kirsten K Davison
BACKGROUND: A wide range of interventions has been implemented and tested to prevent obesity in children. Given parents' influence and control over children's energy-balance behaviors, including diet, physical activity, media use, and sleep, family interventions are a key strategy in this effort. The objective of this study was to profile the field of recent family-based childhood obesity prevention interventions by employing systematic review and quantitative content analysis methods to identify gaps in the knowledge base...
August 24, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827481/breast-milk-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-is-associated-with-neonatal-gut-microbial-composition
#10
Alexandra R Sitarik, Kevin R Bobbitt, Suzanne L Havstad, Kei E Fujimura, Albert M Levin, Edward M Zoratti, Haejin Kim, Kimberley J Woodcroft, Ganesa Wegienka, Dennis R Ownby, Christine L M Joseph, Susan V Lynch, Christine C Johnson
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Breast milk is a complex bioactive fluid that varies across numerous maternal and environmental conditions. Although breast-feeding is known to affect neonatal gut microbiome, the milk components responsible for this effect are not well-characterized. Given the wide range of immunological activity breast milk cytokines engage in, we investigated 3 essential breast milk cytokines and their association with early life gut microbiota. METHODS: A total of 52 maternal-child pairs were drawn from a racially diverse birth cohort based in Detroit, Michigan...
September 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770420/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-delayed-release-dimethyl-fumarate-in-black-hispanic-and-asian-patients-with-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-post-hoc-integrated-analysis-of-define-and-confirm
#11
Robert J Fox, Ralf Gold, J Theodore Phillips, Macaulay Okwuokenye, Annie Zhang, Jing L Marantz
INTRODUCTION: Clinical course and treatment response may vary according to race/ethnicity in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Delayed-release dimethyl fumarate (DMF; also known as gastro-resistant DMF) demonstrated significant efficacy and a favorable benefit-risk profile in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients in the 2-year phase III DEFINE/CONFIRM studies. METHODS: In this post hoc analysis of integrated data from DEFINE/CONFIRM, we assessed clinical efficacy and safety/tolerability in black, Hispanic, and Asian patients treated with DMF 240 mg twice daily (approved dosage) or placebo...
August 2, 2017: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759007/generating-diversity-in-human-glucocorticoid-signaling-through-a-racially-diverse-polymorphism-in-the-beta-isoform-of-the-glucocorticoid-receptor
#12
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Shannon D Whirledge, Christine M Jewell, Lisa M Barber, Xiaojiang Xu, Kevin S Katen, Stavros Garantziotis, John A Cidlowski
Alternative splicing of the human glucocorticoid receptor gene generates two isoforms, hGRα and hGRβ. hGRβ functions as a dominant-negative regulator of hGRα activity and but also has inherent transcriptional activity, collectively altering glucocorticoid sensitivity. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the 3' UTR of hGRβ have been associated with altered receptor protein expression, glucocorticoid sensitivity, and disease risk. Characterization of the hGRβ G3134T polymorphism has been limited to a relatively small, homogenous population...
November 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748570/lichen-planopilaris-in-a-latin-american-chilean-population-demographics-clinical-profile-and-treatment-experience
#13
F Mardones, J Shapiro
BACKGROUND: Lichen planopilaris (LPP) is characterized by lymphocytic infiltrate, fibrosis and potential destruction of the hair follicle. Demographic and clinical studies in LPP are limited, and racial differences have not been thoroughly investigated. AIM: To analyse epidemiological data and clinical profiles of Chilean adults with LPP, and report on the treatments used. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of medical records and clinical follow-up of Chilean adults with a clinical and histopathological diagnosis of LPP...
October 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736814/interactions-between-empathy-and-resting-heart-rate-in-early-adolescence-predict-violent-behavior-in-late-adolescence-and-early-adulthood
#14
Chardée A Galán, Daniel Ewon Choe, Erika E Forbes, Daniel S Shaw
BACKGROUND: Although resting heart rate (RHR) and empathy are independently and negatively associated with violent behavior, relatively little is known about the interplay between these psychophysiological and temperament-related risk factors. METHODS: Using a sample of 160 low-income, racially diverse men followed prospectively from infancy through early adulthood, this study examined whether RHR and empathy during early adolescence independently and interactively predict violent behavior and related correlates in late adolescence and early adulthood...
December 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729079/the-indian-nose-an-anthropometric-analysis
#15
Nikhil Mehta, Rakesh K Srivastava
Anthropometric measurements of the nose are of great importance in planning aesthetic nasal surgery. Abundant literature is available on anthropometric analysis of Caucasians and Orientals, without similar references on the Indian nose and its regional differences. Thus, we conducted a descriptive cross-sectional epidemiological study of 1000 volunteers, with equal number of subjects derived from five geographic groups, namely North, Central, West, South, and the Himalayan region, to determine differences in nasal morphology of Indian population and among its various regions...
October 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710890/food-allergy-phenotypes-the-key-to-personalized-therapy
#16
Antoine Deschildre, Stéphanie Lejeune, Mélanie Cap, Sophie Flammarion, Line Jouannic, Flore Amat, Jocelyne Just
Food allergies (FAs) are of increasing public health concern and are characterized by a large spectrum of diseases. Their diversity is well known for immunologic pathways (IgE, non-IgE mediated FAs), and natural history. Many other factors and patient characteristics are involved including type of food, exposure route, allergic comorbidities, gender, racial and ethnic backgrounds, co-factors and health conditions. Food allergen components and sensitization profiles are also involved in FA phenotypes. A new approach to chronic disorders based on the identification of phenotypes through extensive knowledge of all the complex components is also applicable to FAs and could lead towards integrative care management...
July 15, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688640/clinical-phenotypes-of-us-level-i-trauma-centers-use-of-clustering-methodology
#17
Joseph D Forrester, Thomas G Weiser, Paul Maggio, Timothy Browder, Lakshika Tennakoon, David A Spain, Kristan Staudenmayer
BACKGROUND: American College of Surgeons Level I Trauma Centers (ACSL1TCs) meet the same personnel and structural requirements but serve different populations. We hypothesized that these nuanced differences may amenable to description through mathematical clustering methodology. METHODS: The National Trauma Data Bank 2014 was used to derive information on ACSL1TCs. Explorative cluster hypothesis generation was performed using Ward's linkage to determine expected number of clusters based on patient and injury characteristics...
July 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686777/treatment-response-with-once-daily-topical-dapsone-gel-7-5-for-acne-vulgaris-subgroup-analysis-of-pooled-data-from-two-randomized-double-blind-stu
#18
Zoe Diana Draelos, David A Rodriguez, Steven E Kempers, Suzanne Bruce, Marina I Peredo, Jeanine Downie, Joan-En Chang-Lin, David R Berk, Shiling Ruan, Alexandre Kaoukhov
<p>BACKGROUND: Acne vulgaris has varying physical and psychological effects in men and women of different ages, races, and ethnicities.</p> <p>OBJECTIVE: This analysis assessed the relationship of age, sex, and race to treatment response with once-daily topical dapsone gel, 7.5%.</p> <p>METHODS: We conducted a pooled subgroup analysis of 2 randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled clinical trials conducted in the US and Canada. The studies included patients with 20 to 50 inflammatory and 30 to 100 noninflammatory facial lesions, and a Global Acne Assessment Score (GAAS) of 3 (moderate)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674996/characteristics-of-adverse-drug-reactions-in-a-vemurafenib-early-post-marketing-phase-vigilance-study-in-japan
#19
H Uhara, Y Kiyohara, A Tsuda, M Takata, N Yamazaki
BACKGROUND: Post-approval research or monitoring is important to determine real-world safety of new products; however, evidence is scant for vemurafenib in Japanese patients. In Japan, a unique system is officially obligated to investigate post-approval safety. Here we report the first adverse drug reaction (ADR) data from vemurafenib-treated Japanese patients with metastatic melanoma. Data were collected in an early post-marketing phase vigilance (EPPV) study. METHODS: ADRs were events for which a causal relationship with vemurafenib could not be ruled out or was unknown...
July 3, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640116/distribution-of-somatic-mutations-of-cancer-related-genes-according-to-microsatellite-instability-status-in-korean-gastric-cancer
#20
Joonhong Park, Han Mo Yoo, Woori Jang, Soyoung Shin, Myungshin Kim, Yonggoo Kim, Seung-Woo Lee, Jeong Goo Kim
In studies of the molecular basis of gastric cancer (GC), microsatellite instability (MSI) is one of the key factors. Somatic mutations found in GC are expected to contribute to MSI-high (H) tumorigenesis. We estimated somatic mutation distribution according to MSI status in 52 matched pair GC samples using the Ion Torrent Ion S5 XL with the AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot panel.Seventy-five (9.8%) somatic variants consisting of 34 hotspot mutations and 41 other likely pathogenic variants were identified in 34 GC samples...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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