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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198928/biotypology-regionalism-and-the-construction-of-a-plural-brazilian-bodily-identity-1930s
#1
Ana Carolina Vimieiro-Gomes
This article investigates regional biotypological studies and the construction of biological deterministic discourses about the Brazilian identity in the 1930s. Biotypological research was undertaken to determine the normal body type of the Brazilian man, using its peculiar classificatory lexicon. Studies into the bodily profile of specific regions, like the northeast and São Paulo state, featured in this research. In the context of the contemporary debates about race, miscegenation, and national identity, these investigations were geared towards biological determinism and the influence of the environment and social and cultural aspects on the bodily development of Brazilians...
December 2016: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181157/comprehensive-neighborhood-portraits-and-child-asthma-disparities
#2
Ashley W Kranjac, Rachel T Kimbro, Justin T Denney, Kristin M Osiecki, Brady S Moffett, Keila N Lopez
Objectives Previous research has established links between child, family, and neighborhood disadvantages and child asthma. We add to this literature by first characterizing neighborhoods in Houston, TX by demographic, economic, and air quality characteristics to establish differences in pediatric asthma diagnoses across neighborhoods. Second, we identify the relative risk of social, economic, and environmental risk factors for child asthma diagnoses. Methods We geocoded and linked electronic pediatric medical records to neighborhood-level social and economic indicators...
February 8, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165056/risk-profile-and-hiv-testing-outcomes-of-women-undergoing-community-based-testing-in-san-diego-2008-2014
#3
Susannah K Graves, Susan J Little, Martin Hoenigl
Women comprised 19% of new HIV diagnoses in the United States in 2014, with significant racial and ethnic disparities in infection rates. This cross-sectional analysis of women enrolled in a cohort study compares demographics, risk behaviour, and sexually transmitted infections (STI) in those undergoing HIV testing in San Diego County. Data from the most recent screening visit of women undergoing voluntary HIV screening April 2008 -July 2014 was used. HIV diagnosis, risk behaviour and self-reported STIs were compared among women aged ≤24, 25-49, and ≥50, as well as between HIV-infected and uninfected women and between Hispanic and non-Hispanic women...
February 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159800/a-revised-framingham-stroke-risk-profile-to-reflect-temporal-trends
#4
Carole Dufouil, Alexa S Beiser, Leslie A McClure, Philip A Wolf, Christophe Tzourio, Virginia J Howard, Andrew J Westwood, Jayandra J Himali, Lisa M Sullivan, Hugo J Aparicio, Margaret Kelly-Hayes, Karen Ritchie, Carlos S Kase, Aleksandra Pikula, Jose R Romero, Ralph B D'Agostino, Cécilia Samieri, Ramachandran S Vasan, Genevieve Chêne, George Howard, Sudha Seshadri
BACKGROUND: -Age-adjusted stroke incidence has decreased over the past 50 years, likely due to changes in the prevalence and impact of various stroke risk factors. An updated version of the Framingham Stroke Risk Profile (FSRP) might better predict current risks in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) and other cohorts. We compared the accuracy of the standard (Old), and of a revised (New) version of the FSRP in predicting the risk of all-stroke and ischemic stroke, and validated this new FSRP in two external cohorts, the 3 Cities (3C) and REGARDS studies...
February 3, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156528/evaluation-of-patient-s-versus-hematologist-oncologist-s-office-visit-agenda
#5
Kaitlin McIntyre, Rakesh Singal, Damien Mikael Hansra
: 125 Background: Few studies have been reported in oncology regarding elements of physician agenda. We aim to compare elements of a doctor office visit agenda between hem/onc physicians (MD) and patients (pts). METHODS: Pts and MDs were enrolled to completed a five question survey. Pts were asked: "My doctor" Focuses more on quantity of life and less on quality of life, spends enough time with me, addresses symptoms, addresses chemo side effects, and addresses prognosis...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120509/profile-of-hospital-admissions-due-to-self-inflicted-harm-in-los-angeles-county-from-2001-to-2010
#6
Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi, Alireza Ahmadi, Mohsen Bazargan, Elham Rahmani, Deyu Pan, Golara Zahmatkesh, Stacey Teruya
We aimed to describe the demographic profile of self-inflicted harm (SIH) in Los Angeles County between 2001 and 2010 and to investigate trends over this 10-year period. We used the California Hospital Discharge Data to investigate all cases of hospital admission due to SIH, including suicide attempts and if they had a concurrent psychiatric diagnosis based on ICD-9 codes. African-Americans (AA) had the highest 10-year SIH admission rates. SIH admission rates remained steady throughout the 10-year study period...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114446/comparison-of-prevalence-and-types-of-mutations-in-lung-cancers-among-black-and-white-populations
#7
Joshua D Campbell, Christopher Lathan, Lynette Sholl, Matthew Ducar, Mikenah Vega, Ashwini Sunkavalli, Ling Lin, Megan Hanna, Laura Schubert, Aaron Thorner, Nicholas Faris, David R Williams, Raymond U Osarogiagbon, Paul van Hummelen, Matthew Meyerson, Laura MacConaill
Importance: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States in all ethnic and racial groups. The overall death rate from lung cancer is higher in black patients than in white patients. Objective: To compare the prevalence and types of somatic alterations between lung cancers from black patients and white patients. Differences in mutational frequencies could illuminate differences in prognosis and lead to the reduction of outcome disparities by more precisely targeting patients' treatment...
January 19, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062273/sexual-orientation-and-sleep-in-the-u-s-a-national-profile
#8
Jen-Hao Chen, Cheng-Shi Shiu
INTRODUCTION: Sexual minorities often experience poorer health than non-sexual minorities. However, extant knowledge remains limited regarding the sleep characteristics, a risk factor for chronic diseases and excess mortality, of sexual minorities compared with non-sexual minorities at the population level. METHODS: This study analyzed the 2013-2014 National Health Interview Survey, Adult Sample (n=68,960) to examine the reported sleep duration and sleep disturbances (i...
January 3, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045435/maternal-circulating-lipid-profile-during-early-pregnancy-racial-ethnic-differences-and-association-with-spontaneous-preterm-delivery
#9
Xinhua Chen, Theresa O Scholl, Thomas P Stein, Robert A Steer, Keith P Williams
Prior reports on the association between altered maternal serum lipid levels with preterm delivery are inconsistent. Ethnic differences in serum lipids during pregnancy and their relation to preterm delivery have not been studied. We examined the relationships of six maternal lipids during early pregnancy with the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (SPTD). The design represents a case-control study nested within a large prospective, multiethnic cohort of young, generally healthy pregnant women. SPTD cases (n = 183) and controls who delivered at term (n = 376) were included...
January 1, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039579/discordance-of-somatic-mutations-between-asian-and-caucasian-patient-populations-with-gastric-cancer
#10
Feifei Jia, Jamie K Teer, Todd C Knepper, Jae K Lee, Hong-Hao Zhou, Yi-Jing He, Howard L McLeod
BACKGROUND: Differences in response to cancer treatments have been observed among racially and ethnically diverse gastric cancer (GC) patient populations. In the era of targeted therapy, mutation profiling of cancer is a crucial aspect of making therapeutic decisions. Mapping driver gene mutations for the GC patient population as a whole has significant potential to advance precision therapy. METHODS: GC patients with sequencing data (N = 473) were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA; n = 295), Moffitt Cancer Center Total Cancer Care™ (TCC; n = 33), and three published studies (n = 145)...
December 30, 2016: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988942/young-healthy-south-asians-have-enhanced-lipogenic-sensitivity-to-dietary-sugar
#11
Lisa C Hudgins, Jonathan L Hugo, Samim Enayat, Thomas S Parker, Amanda S Artis, Daniel M Levine
OBJECTIVE: South Asians have higher rates of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease compared to most other racial/ethnic groups. Increased hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) in response to dietary sugar may accelerate the development of these chronic diseases in this population. STUDY DESIGN: Hepatic DNL in response to a calorically sweetened beverage was measured in an outpatient setting in 15 South Asians and 15 Caucasians with similar and normal body mass indexes, waist circumferences, glucose tolerance and lipid profiles...
March 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981233/temporal-and-racial-differences-associated-with-atopic-dermatitis-staphylococcusaureus-and-encoded-virulence-factors
#12
Joseph A Merriman, Elizabeth A Mueller, Michael P Cahill, Lisa A Beck, Amy S Paller, Jon M Hanifin, Peck Y Ong, Lynda Schneider, Denise C Babineau, Gloria David, Alexandre Lockhart, Keli Artis, Donald Y M Leung, Patrick M Schlievert
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory skin condition strongly associated with Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection. S. aureus strains shift in populations in ~10-year intervals depending on virulence factors. Shifts in S. aureus virulence factors may in part explain the racial differences observed in the levels of prevalence and severity of AD. AD S. aureus isolates collected from 2011 to 2014 (103 isolates) and in 2008 (100 isolates) were examined for the prevalence of genes encoding superantigens (SAgs)...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957339/gender-and-racial-differences-in-the-cardiovascular-risk-factors-among-overweight-and-obese-rural-adults-kuching-and-samarahan-division-sarawak-malaysia
#13
Whye Lian Cheah, Ching Thon Chang, Helmy Hazmi, Wan Manan Wan Muda
Objective. This study aimed to determine whether gender and ethnic differences had an effect on cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese rural adults in Sarawak. Design and Setting. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in rural communities in Kuching and Samarahan division, Malaysia. Data was obtained using a set of questionnaire (sociodemographic data and physical activity), measurement of blood pressure, height, weight (body mass index, BMI), body fat percentage, fasting blood sugar, and lipid profile from three ethnic groups-Iban, Malay, and Bidayuh...
2016: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926807/evaluation-of-a-national-e-mentoring-program-for-ethnically-diverse-student-nurse-midwives-and-student-midwives
#14
Maria Valentin-Welch
INTRODUCTION: The US racial profile is changing rapidly, yet the nursing and midwifery professions are not evolving accordingly. The lack of racial and ethnic diversity within these health professions negatively affects efforts to eliminate persistent health disparities. To address this issue, the Midwives of Color Committee (MOCC) of the American College of Nurse-Midwives (ACNM) created a national online mentoring program in 2011 to support midwifery students of color. An evaluation of the program is reported here...
November 2016: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919353/dyslipidemia-according-to-gender-and-race-the-brazilian-longitudinal-study-of-adult-health-elsa-brasil
#15
Raul D Santos, Isabela M Bensenor, Alexandre C Pereira, Paulo A Lotufo
BACKGROUND: There is little information regarding lipid profiles of racially mixed populations. Differently from other Latin American countries, the proportion of African ancestry is much higher in Brazil. OBJECTIVE: Verify whether there are differences in the lipid profile between black and white subjects and if people with mixed ancestry have a pattern more closely resembling whites or blacks. METHODS: A total of 15,105 civil servants aged 35-74 years from the ELSA-Brasil study had their fasting lipid profile determined...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915434/differences-in-the-mutational-landscape-of-triple-negative-breast-cancer-in-african-americans-and-caucasians
#16
Foluso O Ademuyiwa, Yu Tao, Jingqin Luo, Katherine Weilbaecher, Cynthia X Ma
BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) occurs at higher frequency in African Americans compared with Caucasians. It is unclear if the biology of TNBC is different in African American versus Caucasians. In this study, we sought to evaluate racial differences in the molecular pathology of TNBC. METHODS: Using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas, we identified TNBC patients with information on race. We analyzed differences in clinical characteristics, tumor somatic mutations, and gene expression patterns by race from whole exome and microarray data...
February 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865977/racial-ethnic-differences-in-preterm-perinatal-outcomes
#17
Maeve E Wallace, Pauline Mendola, Sung Soo Kim, Nikira Epps, Zhen Chen, Melissa Smarr, Stefanie N Hinkle, Yeyi Zhu, Katherine L Grantz
BACKGROUND: Racial disparities in preterm birth and infant death have been well documented. Less is known about racial disparities in neonatal morbidities among infants who are born at <37 weeks of gestation. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the risk for morbidity and death among infants who are born preterm differs by maternal race. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort design included medical records from preterm deliveries of 19,325 black, Hispanic, and white women in the Consortium on Safe Labor...
November 16, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833104/analysis-of-zinc-exporters-expression-in-prostate-cancer
#18
Chandra K Singh, Kareem M Malas, Caitlin Tydrick, Imtiaz A Siddiqui, Kenneth A Iczkowski, Nihal Ahmad
Maintaining optimal intracellular zinc (Zn) concentration is crucial for critical cellular functions. Depleted Zn has been associated with prostate cancer (PCa) progression. Solute carrier family 30 (SLC30A) proteins maintain cytoplasmic Zn balance by exporting Zn out to the extracellular space or by sequestering cytoplasmic Zn into intracellular compartments. In this study, we determined the involvement of Zn-exporters, SLC30A 1-10 in PCa, in the context of racial health disparity in human PCa samples obtained from European-American (EA) and African-American (AA) populations...
November 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815639/dna-methylation-based-variation-between-human-populations
#19
REVIEW
Farzeen Kader, Meenu Ghai
Several studies have proved that DNA methylation affects regulation of gene expression and development. Epigenome-wide studies have reported variation in methylation patterns between populations, including Caucasians, non-Caucasians (Blacks), Hispanics, Arabs, and numerous populations of the African continent. Not only has DNA methylation differences shown to impact externally visible characteristics, but is also a potential biomarker for underlying racial health disparities between human populations. Ethnicity-related methylation differences set their mark during early embryonic development...
February 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801916/preventing-foodborne-and-enteric-illnesses-among-at-risk-populations-in-the-united-states-and-rhode-island
#20
Jonathan Barkley, Ernest Julian, Brendalee Viveiros, Michael Gosciminski, Utpala Bandy
One out of every six people in the United States is estimated to become sick each year from pathogens that can cause foodborne illness. The groups at greatest risk for serious illness, hospitalization, or death include young children, older adults, people with chronic conditions, and pregnant women. Such health disparities must be considered along with those disparities that may exist among racial and ethnic groups and among groups of varying socioeconomic status. We analyzed risk profiles for enteric disease using data from Rhode Island and the nation as a whole, exploring disparities among groups defined by demographic and health characteristics...
November 1, 2016: Rhode Island Medical Journal
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