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Racial Profiling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865977/racial-ethnic-differences-in-preterm-perinatal-outcomes
#1
Maeve E Wallace, Pauline Mendola, Sung Soo Kim, Nikira Epps, Zhen Chen, Melissa Smarr, Stefanie N Hinkle, Yeyi Zhu, Katherine L Grantz
BACKGROUND: Racial disparities in preterm birth and infant mortality have been well documented. Less is known about racial disparities in neonatal morbidities among infants born prior to 37 weeks. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine if risk for morbidity and mortality among infants born preterm differs by maternal race. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort design included medical records from preterm deliveries of 19,325 Black, Hispanic, and White women in the Consortium on Safe Labor...
November 16, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833104/analysis-of-zinc-exporters-expression-in-prostate-cancer
#2
Chandra K Singh, Kareem M Malas, Caitlin Tydrick, Imtiaz A Siddiqui, Kenneth A Iczkowski, Nihal Ahmad
Maintaining optimal intracellular zinc (Zn) concentration is crucial for critical cellular functions. Depleted Zn has been associated with prostate cancer (PCa) progression. Solute carrier family 30 (SLC30A) proteins maintain cytoplasmic Zn balance by exporting Zn out to the extracellular space or by sequestering cytoplasmic Zn into intracellular compartments. In this study, we determined the involvement of Zn-exporters, SLC30A 1-10 in PCa, in the context of racial health disparity in human PCa samples obtained from European-American (EA) and African-American (AA) populations...
November 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815639/dna-methylation-based-variation-between-human-populations
#3
REVIEW
Farzeen Kader, Meenu Ghai
Several studies have proved that DNA methylation affects regulation of gene expression and development. Epigenome-wide studies have reported variation in methylation patterns between populations, including Caucasians, non-Caucasians (Blacks), Hispanics, Arabs, and numerous populations of the African continent. Not only has DNA methylation differences shown to impact externally visible characteristics, but is also a potential biomarker for underlying racial health disparities between human populations. Ethnicity-related methylation differences set their mark during early embryonic development...
November 4, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801916/preventing-foodborne-and-enteric-illnesses-among-at-risk-populations-in-the-united-states-and-rhode-island
#4
Jonathan Barkley, Ernest Julian, Brendalee Viveiros, Michael Gosciminski, Utpala Bandy
One out of every six people in the United States is estimated to become sick each year from pathogens that can cause foodborne illness. The groups at greatest risk for serious illness, hospitalization, or death include young children, older adults, people with chronic conditions, and pregnant women. Such health disparities must be considered along with those disparities that may exist among racial and ethnic groups and among groups of varying socioeconomic status. We analyzed risk profiles for enteric disease using data from Rhode Island and the nation as a whole, exploring disparities among groups defined by demographic and health characteristics...
November 1, 2016: Rhode Island Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792810/effect-of-uveal-melanocytes-on-choroidal-morphology-in-rhesus-macaques-and-humans-on-enhanced-depth-imaging-optical-coherence-tomography
#5
Glenn Yiu, Vivian S Vuong, Sharon Oltjen, David Cunefare, Sina Farsiu, Laura Garzel, Jeffrey Roberts, Sara M Thomasy
Purpose: To compare cross-sectional choroidal morphology in rhesus macaque and human eyes using enhanced-depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) and histologic analysis. Methods: Enhanced-depth imaging-OCT images from 25 rhesus macaque and 30 human eyes were evaluated for choriocapillaris and choroidal-scleral junction (CSJ) visibility in the central macula based on OCT reflectivity profiles, and compared with age-matched histologic sections. Semiautomated segmentation of the choriocapillaris and CSJ was used to measure choriocapillary and choroidal thickness, respectively...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789200/maternal-pre-pregnancy-body-mass-index-and-circulating-micrornas-in-pregnancy
#6
Daniel A Enquobahrie, Pandora L Wander, Mahlet G Tadesse, Chunfang Qiu, Claudia Holzman, Michelle A Williams
BACKGROUND: Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obese status has been associated with a number of pregnancy complications and adverse offspring outcomes. Mechanisms for observed associations, however, are largely unknown. We investigated associations of pre-pregnancy body mass index with early-mid pregnancy epigenetic biomarkers, circulating microRNAs. METHODS: Peripheral blood was collected from participants (16-27 weeks gestation) of two multi-racial pregnancy cohorts, the Omega Study and the Pregnancy Outcomes and Community Health Study...
October 24, 2016: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779208/racial-differences-in-microrna-and-gene-expression-in-hypertensive-women
#7
Douglas F Dluzen, Nicole Noren Hooten, Yongqing Zhang, Yoonseo Kim, Frank E Glover, Salman M Tajuddin, Kimberly D Jacob, Alan B Zonderman, Michele K Evans
Systemic arterial hypertension is an important cause of cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. African Americans are disproportionately affected by hypertension, in fact the incidence, prevalence, and severity of hypertension is highest among African American (AA) women. Previous data suggests that differential gene expression influences individual susceptibility to selected diseases and we hypothesized that this phenomena may affect health disparities in hypertension. Transcriptional profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from AA or white, normotensive or hypertensive females identified thousands of mRNAs differentially-expressed by race and/or hypertension...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771748/pharmacogenetics-of-stimulant-abuse-liability-association-of-cdh13-variant-with-amphetamine-response-in-a-racially-heterogeneous-sample-of-healthy-young-adults
#8
Adam M Leventhal, Matthew G Kirkpatrick, Mollie S Pester, John E McGeary, Robert M Swift, Steve Sussman, Christopher W Kahler
RATIONALE: A previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) in a predominately Caucasian sample of healthy young adults linked greater amphetamine-induced rewarding effects with the rs3784943 G allele of the cadherin 13 (CDH13; i.e., a cell adhesion molecule implicated in neuronal connectivity) gene. This association has not been subsequently examined, nor has it been studied in Asian populations, which may have greater frequencies of the risk allele. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the association of rs3784943 with amphetamine response in a racially heterogeneous sample (37 % Asian) of healthy young adults...
October 22, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768979/cortisol-profiles-differ-by-race-ethnicity-among-young-sexual-minority-men
#9
Stephanie H Cook, Robert-Paul Juster, Benjamin J Calebs, Justin Heinze, Alison L Miller
Much of the extant scientific research examining hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis functioning is conducted among White heterosexuals. Very little research examines HPA-axis functioning between different minority groups. Individuals who identify as both sexual and racial minorities may experience increased stigma and discrimination that can affect HPA-axis functioning. In the current study, we examined diurnal cortisol rhythm in young White gay men (WGM) compared to young Black gay men (BGM). The sample consisted of 70 healthy gay men (mean [SD] age=22...
January 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760278/hazard-characteristics-and-patterns-of-environmental-injustice-household-level-determinants-of-environmental-risk-in-miami-florida
#10
Sara E Grineski, Timothy W Collins, Jayajit Chakraborty, Marilyn Montgomery
Limited systematic comparative knowledge exists about patterns of environmental injustices in exposure to varied natural and technological hazards. To address this gap, we examine how hazard characteristics (i.e., punctuated event/suddenness of onset, frequency/magnitude, and divisibility) influence relationships between race/ethnicity, nativity, socioeconomic status (SES), older age, housing tenure, and residential hazard exposure. Sociodemographic data come from a random sample survey of 602 residents of the tricounty Miami Metropolitan Statistical Area (Florida)...
October 19, 2016: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754278/hw-03-1-renal-sympathetic-denervation-for-resistant-hypertension-under-optimal-drug-therapy
#11
Byeong-Keuk Kim
Catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) has opened the new world in the treatment of resistant or refractory hypertension. However, SYMPLICITY HTN-3, 2:1 randomization, blinded and sham-controlled study did not show a significant reduction of systolic blood pressure (BP) in patients with resistant hypertension 6 months after RDN as compared with a sham control. After that, substudy investigating the predictors of BP responses in SYMPLICITY HTN-3 trial was reported; racial difference and optimal medical treatment were issued for the optimal denervation therapy...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753812/ssa-04-3-leptin-adiponectin-in-cardiometabolic-disease
#12
Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major causes of death and illness worldwide. In recent decades an increased prevalence of CVD mortality has been reported in low-medium income countries, which has been associated with changes in life styles, deficiencies in health systems and the persistence of social inequities.The metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, with insulin resistance and increased adiposity as its central features. Identifying individuals with metabolic syndrome is important due to its association with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748135/mortality-by-skin-color-race-and-urbanity-of-brazilian-cities
#13
Bruno Luciano Carneiro Alves de Oliveira, Ronir Raggio Luiz
OBJECTIVE: The skin color/race and urbanity are structural determinants of health. The relationship between these variables produces structure of social stratification that defines inequalities in the experiences of life and death. Thus, this study describes the characteristics of the mortality indicators by skin color/race according level of urbanity and aggregation to the metropolitan region (MR) of 5565 cities in Brazil, controlling for gender and age. DESIGN: Descriptive study which included the calculation of measures relating to 1,050,546 deaths in the year survey of 2010 by skin color/race White, Black, and Brown according to both sexes, for five age groups and three levels of urbanity of cities in Brazil that were aggregated or not to the MR in the year of study...
October 17, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742740/immunoseroproteomic-profiling-in-african-american-men-with-prostate-cancer-evidence-for-an-autoantibody-response-to-glycolysis-and-plasminogen-associated-proteins
#14
Tino W Sanchez, Guangyu Zhang, Jitian Li, Liping Dai, Saied Mirshahidi, Nathan R Wall, Clayton Yates, Colwick Wilson, Susanne Montgomery, Jian-Ying Zhang, Carlos A Casiano
African American (AA) men suffer from a disproportionately high incidence and mortality of prostate cancer (PCa) compared with other racial/ethnic groups. Despite these disparities, African American men are underrepresented in clinical trials and in studies on PCa biology and biomarker discovery. We used immunoseroproteomics to profile antitumor autoantibody responses in AA and European American (EA) men with PCa, and explored differences in these responses. This minimally invasive approach detects autoantibodies to tumor-associated antigens that could serve as clinical biomarkers and immunotherapeutic agents...
December 2016: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679747/diabetic-indicators-are-the-strongest-predictors-for-cardiovascular-disease-risk-in-african-american-adults
#15
Ashley N Carter, Penny A Ralston, Iris Young-Clark, Jasminka Z Ilich
African Americans have higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to other racial groups. Modifiable and non-modifiable factors play a role in the development of both diseases. This study assessed diabetes indicators in relation to other CVD risk factors taking into account confounders, among African American adults. This was a cross-sectional study in mid-life and older African Americans (≥45 years) who were recruited from the local churches. Fasting blood was collected and serum analyzed for diabetes indicators, apolipoproteins, adipokines, and lipid profile...
2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663428/gis-measured-walkability-transit-and-recreation-environments-in-relation-to-older-adults-physical-activity-a-latent-profile-analysis
#16
Michael Todd, Marc A Adams, Jonathan Kurka, Terry L Conway, Kelli L Cain, Matthew P Buman, Lawrence D Frank, James F Sallis, Abby C King
An infrequently studied question is how diverse combinations of built environment (BE) features relate to physical activity (PA) for older adults. We derived patterns of geographic information systems- (GIS) measured BE features and explored how they accounted for differences in objective and self-reported PA, sedentary time, and BMI in a sample of older adults. Senior Neighborhood Quality of Life Study participants (N=714, aged 66-97years, 52.1% women, 29.7% racial/ethnic minority) were sampled in 2005-2008 from the Seattle-King County, WA and Baltimore, MD-Washington, DC regions...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643352/ssa-04-3-leptin-adiponectin-in-cardiometabolic-disease
#17
Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major causes of death and illness worldwide. In recent decades an increased prevalence of CVD mortality has been reported in low-medium income countries, which has been associated with changes in life styles, deficiencies in health systems and the persistence of social inequities.The metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, with insulin resistance and increased adiposity as its central features. Identifying individuals with metabolic syndrome is important due to its association with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643275/hw-03-1-renal-sympathetic-denervation-for-resistant-hypertension-under-optimal-drug-therapy
#18
Byeong-Keuk Kim
Catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) has opened the new world in the treatment of resistant or refractory hypertension. However, SYMPLICITY HTN-3, 2:1 randomization, blinded and sham-controlled study did not show a significant reduction of systolic blood pressure (BP) in patients with resistant hypertension 6 months after RDN as compared with a sham control. After that, substudy investigating the predictors of BP responses in SYMPLICITY HTN-3 trial was reported; racial difference and optimal medical treatment were issued for the optimal denervation therapy...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634805/dsm-5-insomnia-and-short-sleep-comorbidity-landscape-and-racial-disparities
#19
David A Kalmbach, Vivek Pillai, J Todd Arnedt, Christopher L Drake
STUDY OBJECTIVES: We estimated rates of cardiometabolic disease, pain conditions, and psychiatric illness associated with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) insomnia disorder (current and in remission) and habitual short sleep (fewer than 6 h), and examined the roles of insomnia and short sleep in racial disparities in disease burden between black and non-Hispanic white Americans. METHODS: This epidemiological survey study was cross-sectional...
September 9, 2016: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27569428/a-nine-country-study-of-the-protein-content-and-amino-acid-composition-of-mature-human-milk
#20
Ping Feng, Ming Gao, Anita Burgher, Tian Hui Zhou, Kathryn Pramuk
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have evaluated protein and amino acid levels in human milk. However, research in this area has been limited by small sample sizes and study populations with little ethnic or racial diversity. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the protein and amino acid composition of mature (≥30 days) human milk samples collected from a large, multinational study using highly standardized methods for sample collection, storage, and analysis. DESIGN: Using a single, centralized laboratory, human milk samples from 220 women (30-188 days postpartum) from nine countries were analyzed for amino acid composition using Waters AccQ-Tag high-performance liquid chromatography and total nitrogen content using the LECO FP-528 nitrogen analyzer...
2016: Food & Nutrition Research
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