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Racial Profiling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320718/adiposity-and-family-history-of-type-2-diabetes-in-an-admixed-population-of-adolescents-associations-with-insulin-sensitivity-beta-cell-function-and-hepatic-insulin-extraction-in-brams-study
#1
Daniella F Camilo, Ana Carolina J Vasques, Keila Hayashi, Andrea Tura, Cleliani de Cassia da Silva, Mariana P Zambon, Maria Ângela R de G Monteiro Antônio, Bruno Geloneze
AIMS: Insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction manifest differently across racial/ethnic groups, and there is a lack of knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) for ethnically admixed adolescents. This study aimed to investigate the influence of adiposity and family history (FH) of T2DM on aspects of insulin sensitivity, beta-cell function, and hepatic insulin extraction in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS: A total of 82 normoglycemic adolescents were assessed...
January 7, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320344/a-profile-of-individuals-with-anti-tobacco-message-fatigue
#2
Jiyeon So, Lucy Popova
OBJECTIVES: Message fatigue, a phenomenon of being tired of repeated exposure to messages promoting the same health behavior, may reduce the effectiveness of anti-tobacco messages, such as warning labels. As an initial step towards understanding the phenomenon, we examined predictors of anti-tobacco message fatigue. METHODS: An online study (N = 1838) involving a non-probability sample of nonsmokers and smokers in the United States assessed anti-tobacco message fatigue and individual-level factors including demographic variables and smoking status...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304027/socio-demographic-and-mental-health-profile-of-admitted-cases-of-self-inflicted-harm-in-the-us-population
#3
Chris Hanuscin, Golara Zahmatkesh, Anaheed Shirazi, Deyu Pan, Senait Teklehaimanot, Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi
Self-inflicted harm (SIH) has a substantial lifetime prevalence, it is associated with tremendous costs, and its rate is increasing on a national scale. To examine the characteristics of those admitted for SIH in the US and to investigate the factors that potentially modify the methods used for SIH. This was a retrospective analysis of admitted cases of SIH including suicide attempts between 2007 and 2012 using the National Trauma Data Bank. We included a total of 204,633 cases admitted for SIH. Our participants were 75...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294711/distinct-and-overlapping-correlates-of-psychological-and-physical-partner-violence-perpetration
#4
Michele Cascardi, Ernest N Jouriles, Jeff R Temple
Despite its high prevalence, adverse impact, and potential significance in understanding the onset of physical partner violence (PV), there has been surprisingly scant research on psychological PV perpetration. The present research, guided by social learning and attachment theories, addresses this gap in the literature by examining overlapping and distinct correlates for psychological and physical PV perpetration in emerging adults. Undergraduates ( N = 504) with current or recent dating experience were recruited to complete a self-report survey...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282872/psychotic-spectrum-symptoms-cumulative-adversity-exposure-and-substance-use-among-high-risk-girls
#5
Amy E Lansing, Wendy Y Plante, Christine Fennema-Notestine, Shahrokh Golshan, Audrey N Beck
AIM: Psychotic-spectrum symptoms are linked to trauma, substance/alcohol use (SAU), criminality/violence and poor functional outcomes, supporting the need for early detection in vulnerable populations. To better understand high-risk girls' mental health, we assessed: (1) psychotic-spectrum symptoms; (2) cumulative trauma, adversity and loss exposures (C-TALE) and adversity-indicators (symptoms, maladaptive coping, stressor-reactivity); and SAU risk-factors; and (3) relationships among psychotic-spectrum symptoms, adversity-indicators and SAU risk-factors...
December 28, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241916/etiology-and-management-of-primary-amenorrhoea-a-study-of-102-cases-at-tertiary-centre
#6
Alka Kriplani, Manu Goyal, Garima Kachhawa, Reeta Mahey, Vidushi Kulshrestha
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of etiologic causes of primary amenorrhea in Indian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was performed using 102 complete medical records of women with primary amenorrhea who attended the Gynaecologic Endocrinology Clinic, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, AIIMS, New Delhi from September 2012 to September 2015. Cases were analysed according to clinical profile, development of secondary sexual characteristics, physical examination, pelvic and rectal examination, X-ray of chest and lumbo-sacral spine, hormone profile, pelvic USG, MRI, and cytogenetic study including karyotype...
December 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238603/early-proteinuria-response-a-valid-real-life-situation-predictor-of-long-term-lupus-renal-outcome-in-an-ethnically-diverse-group-with-severe-biopsy-proven-nephritis
#7
Michelle R Ugolini-Lopes, Luciana Parente C Seguro, Maitê Xavier F Castro, Danielle Daffre, Alex C Lopes, Eduardo F Borba, Eloisa Bonfá
Objective: Two recent important lupus nephritis trials reported that proteinuria was a good predictor of renal outcome in Caucasians, but data on real-life situation, other races and severe nephritis are lacking to substantiate this finding as a simple test to guide clinical practice. The aim of this study was to validate proteinuria as a predictor of long-term renal outcome in real-life situation in a racially diverse group of patients with severe nephritis. Methods: Proteinuria, serum creatinine (SCr) and urine red blood cells were assessed at baseline and after 3, 6 and 12 months, as early predictors of long-term renal outcome (SCr <1...
2017: Lupus Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224673/understanding-the-role-of-environmental-factors-in-the-development-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#8
REVIEW
Christine G Parks, Aline de Souza Espindola Santos, Medha Barbhaiya, Karen H Costenbader
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem disease with a complex etiology. Its risk is higher among women, racial and ethnic minorities, and individuals with a family history of SLE or related autoimmune diseases. It is believed that genetic factors interact with environmental exposures throughout the lifespan to influence susceptibility to developing SLE. The strongest epidemiologic evidence exists for increased risk of SLE associated with exposure to crystalline silica, current cigarette smoking, use of oral contraceptives, and postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy, while there is an inverse association with alcohol use...
June 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196495/comparative-transcriptome-profiling-reveals-coding-and-noncoding-rna-differences-in-nsclc-from-african-americans-and-european-americans
#9
Khadijah A Mitchell, Adriana Zingone, Leila Toulabi, Jacob Boeckelman, Bríd M Ryan
Purpose: To determine whether racial differences in gene and miRNA expression translates to differences in lung tumor biology with clinical relevance in African Americans (AAs) and European Americans (EAs).Experimental Design: The NCI-Maryland Case Control Study includes seven Baltimore City hospitals and is overrepresented with AA patients (∼40%). Patients that underwent curative NSCLC surgery between 1998 and 2014 were enrolled. Comparative molecular profiling used mRNA (n = 22 AAs and 19 EAs) and miRNA (n = 42 AAs and 55 EAs) expression arrays to track differences in paired fresh frozen normal tissues and lung tumor specimens from AAs and EAs...
December 1, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196251/effectiveness-of-ipsilateral-stroke-prevention-between-conservative-management-and-indirect-revascularization-for-moyamoya-disease-mmd-in-a-north-american-cohort
#10
Jose L Porras, Wuyang Yang, Risheng Xu, Tomas Garzon-Muvdi, Justin M Caplan, Geoffrey P Colby, Alexander L Coon, Edward S Ahn, Rafael J Tamargo, Judy Huang
BACKGROUND: Few reports compare surgical intervention with conservative treatment for moyamoya disease (MMD) in non-Asian cohorts. This study describes the effectiveness of follow-up stroke prevention by indirect revascularization relative to conservative management in a Northeast United States study population. METHOD: We retrospectively reviewed records of patients with MMD at our institution from 1990-2014. Baseline characteristics and follow-up results including subsequent ipsilateral strokes were collected, and compared between an indirect revascularization group and a conservatively managed group on a per-hemisphere basis...
November 28, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172573/profiles-of-culturally-salient-positive-parenting-practices-among-urban-residing-black-head-start-families
#11
Christine M McWayne, Jacqueline S Mattis, Sunah Hyun
OBJECTIVES: To better understand within-group variability in positive parenting practices among low-income Black families, the present study, grounded in a multidimensional comparative framework, examined (a) patterns of positive parenting practices among U.S.-born African American parents and Black Caribbean immigrant parents and (b) the extent to which these patterns related to parents' daily family social support, parents' social sensitivities, and children's social-emotional outcomes...
November 27, 2017: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169532/barrios-ghettos-and-residential-racial-composition-examining-the-racial-makeup-of-neighborhood-profiles-and-their-relationship-to-self-rated-health
#12
Jaime M Booth, Samantha Teixeira, Anita Zuberi, John M Wallace
Racial/ethnic disparities in self-rated health persist and according to the social determinants of health framework, may be partially explained by residential context. The relationship between neighborhood factors and self-rated health has been examined in isolation but a more holistic approach is needed to understand how these factors may cluster together and how these neighborhood typologies relate to health. To address this gap, we conducted a latent profile analysis using data from the Chicago Community Adult Health Study (CCAHS; N = 2969 respondents in 342 neighborhood clusters) to identify neighborhood profiles, examined differences in neighborhood characteristics among the identified typologies and tested their relationship to self-rated health...
January 2018: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154560/racial-discrimination-experiences-and-african-american-youth-adjustment-the-role-of-parenting-profiles-based-on-racial-socialization-and-involved-vigilant-parenting
#13
Fatima A Varner, Yang Hou, Tajma Hodzic, Noelle M Hurd, Sheretta T Butler-Barnes, Stephanie J Rowley
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to test whether parenting profiles based on racial socialization and involved-vigilant parenting would compensate for or moderate associations between racial discrimination experiences and academic outcomes and psychological well-being among African American adolescents. METHOD: Participants were 1,363 African American adolescents (Mage = 14.19; 52.3% female) from 3 Midwestern suburban school districts. Latent profile analysis was used to examine whether there were distinct combinations of parenting...
November 20, 2017: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152863/using-an-acculturation-stress-resilience-framework-to-explore-latent-profiles-of-latina-o-language-brokers
#14
Jennifer A Kam, Katerina M Marcoulides, Andy J Merolla
With survey data from 243 Latina/o early adolescent language brokers, latent profile analyses were conducted to identify different types (i.e., profiles) of brokers. Profiles were based on how often Latina/o early adolescents brokered for family members, as well as their levels of family-based acculturation stress, negative brokering beliefs, parentification, and positive brokering beliefs. Three brokering profiles emerged: (1) infrequent-ambivalents, (2) occasional-moderates, and (3) parentified-endorsers...
December 2017: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136232/trayvon-martin-racial-profiling-black-male-stigma-and-social-work-practice
#15
Martell Lee Teasley, Jerome H Schiele, Charles Adams, Nathern S Okilwa
To address a critical gap in the social work literature, this article examines the deleterious effects of racial profiling as it pertains to police targeting of male African Americans. The authors use the Trayvon Martin court case to exemplify how racial profiling and black male stigma help perpetuate social inequality and injustice for black men. A racism-centered perspective is examined historically and contemporarily as a theoretical approach to understanding the role that race plays in social injustice through racial profiling...
November 9, 2017: Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098934/white-look-alikes-mainstream-culture-adoption-makes-immigrants-look-phenotypically-white
#16
Jonas R Kunst, John F Dovidio, Ron Dotsch
White Americans generally equate "being American" with "being White." In six studies, we demonstrate that White Americans perceive immigrants who adopt American mainstream culture as racially White and, reciprocally, perceive White-looking immigrants as assimilating more. In Studies 1 and 2, participants visually represented immigrants who adopted U.S. culture by acculturating to mainstream American culture or by holding a common or dual identity as more phenotypically White and less stereotypic in appearance...
November 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053377/substance-use-among-bi-multiracial-youth-in-the-united-states-profiles-of-psychosocial-risk-and-protection
#17
Trenette Clark Goings, Christopher P Salas-Wright, Matthew O Howard, Michael G Vaughn
BACKGROUND: Bi/multiracial youth face higher risk of engaging in substance use than most monoracial youth. OBJECTIVES: This study contrasts the prevalence of substance use among bi/multiracial youth with that of youth from other racial/ethnic groups, and identifies distinct profiles of bi/multiracial youth by examining their substance use risk. METHODS: Using data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (collected between 2002 and 2014), we analyze data for 9,339 bi/multiracial youth ages 12-17 living in the United States...
October 20, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026378/contextual-determinants-of-adolescent-mortality-in-south-africa
#18
Nicole De Wet, Clifford Odimegwu
OBJECTIVES: South Africa has a large adolescent population (approximately 20% of the total population). The survival and development of these individuals are a priority among parents and the government. In an effort to better understand the factors contributing to adolescent mortality in South Africa, this study examined the effect of household and community factors on adolescent death. METHODS: The study used data from Census 2001. Multilevel modelling was used to study the impact of community and household factors on adolescent mortality...
March 2017: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922093/safer-sexual-practices-among-african-american-women-intersectional-socialisation-and-sexual-assertiveness
#19
Danice L Brown, Sha'Kema Blackmon, Alexandra Shiflett
Scholars have posited that childhood socialisation experiences may play a key role in influencing behaviours and attitudes that contribute to the acquisition of HIV. This study examined the links between past ethnic-racial and gender socialisation, sexual assertiveness and the safe sexual practices of African American college women utilising a cluster analytic approach. After identifying separate racial-gender and ethnic-gender socialisation profiles, results indicated that ethnic-gender socialisation cluster profiles were directly associated with sexual assertiveness and safer sex behaviour...
September 18, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876640/gene-and-protein-expression-profiling-of-pancreatic-tumours-reveal-dysregulated-pathways-and-novel-potential-biomarker
#20
E N Nweke, M N Ntwasa, M B Brand, J D Devar, M D Smith, G P Candy
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer (PDAC) is a deadly type of cancer with almost an equal amount of new cases and deaths observed yearly. It accounts for about 7% of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In many multi-racial societies including South Africa, the black population has the highest incidence rate. Less than 5% of PDAC patients live up to 5 years. The lack of specific and sensitive diagnostic PDAC biomarkers is strongly responsible for this poor statistic. The discovery of differentially expressed genes and proteins associated with PDAC is crucial to elucidating this condition and may lead to biomarker finding and further understanding of the disease...
June 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
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