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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922093/safer-sexual-practices-among-african-american-women-intersectional-socialisation-and-sexual-assertiveness
#1
Danice L Brown, Sha'Kema Blackmon, Alexandra Shiflett
Scholars have posited that childhood socialisation experiences may play a key role in influencing behaviours and attitudes that contribute to the acquisition of HIV. This study examined the links between past ethnic-racial and gender socialisation, sexual assertiveness and the safe sexual practices of African American college women utilising a cluster analytic approach. After identifying separate racial-gender and ethnic-gender socialisation profiles, results indicated that ethnic-gender socialisation cluster profiles were directly associated with sexual assertiveness and safer sex behaviour...
September 18, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876640/gene-and-protein-expression-profiling-of-pancreatic-tumours-reveal-dysregulated-pathways-and-novel-potential-biomarker
#2
E N Nweke, M N Ntwasa, M B Brand, J D Devar, M D Smith, G P Candy
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer (PDAC) is a deadly type of cancer with almost an equal amount of new cases and deaths observed yearly. It accounts for about 7% of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In many multi-racial societies including South Africa, the black population has the highest incidence rate. Less than 5% of PDAC patients live up to 5 years. The lack of specific and sensitive diagnostic PDAC biomarkers is strongly responsible for this poor statistic. The discovery of differentially expressed genes and proteins associated with PDAC is crucial to elucidating this condition and may lead to biomarker finding and further understanding of the disease...
June 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836983/family-based-childhood-obesity-prevention-interventions-a-systematic-review-and-quantitative-content-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Tayla Ash, Alen Agaronov, Ta'Loria Young, Alyssa Aftosmes-Tobio, Kirsten K Davison
BACKGROUND: A wide range of interventions has been implemented and tested to prevent obesity in children. Given parents' influence and control over children's energy-balance behaviors, including diet, physical activity, media use, and sleep, family interventions are a key strategy in this effort. The objective of this study was to profile the field of recent family-based childhood obesity prevention interventions by employing systematic review and quantitative content analysis methods to identify gaps in the knowledge base...
August 24, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827481/breast-milk-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-is-associated-with-neonatal-gut-microbial-composition
#4
Alexandra R Sitarik, Kevin R Bobbitt, Suzanne L Havstad, Kei E Fujimura, Albert M Levin, Edward M Zoratti, Haejin Kim, Kimberley J Woodcroft, Ganesa Wegienka, Dennis R Ownby, Christine L M Joseph, Susan V Lynch, Christine C Johnson
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Breast milk is a complex bioactive fluid that varies across numerous maternal and environmental conditions. Although breast-feeding is known to affect neonatal gut microbiome, the milk components responsible for this effect are not well-characterized. Given the wide range of immunological activity breast milk cytokines engage in, we investigated 3 essential breast milk cytokines and their association with early life gut microbiota. METHODS: A total of 52 maternal-child pairs were drawn from a racially diverse birth cohort based in Detroit, Michigan...
September 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770420/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-delayed-release-dimethyl-fumarate-in-black-hispanic-and-asian-patients-with-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-post-hoc-integrated-analysis-of-define-and-confirm
#5
Robert J Fox, Ralf Gold, J Theodore Phillips, Macaulay Okwuokenye, Annie Zhang, Jing L Marantz
INTRODUCTION: Clinical course and treatment response may vary according to race/ethnicity in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Delayed-release dimethyl fumarate (DMF; also known as gastro-resistant DMF) demonstrated significant efficacy and a favorable benefit-risk profile in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients in the 2-year phase III DEFINE/CONFIRM studies. METHODS: In this post hoc analysis of integrated data from DEFINE/CONFIRM, we assessed clinical efficacy and safety/tolerability in black, Hispanic, and Asian patients treated with DMF 240 mg twice daily (approved dosage) or placebo...
August 2, 2017: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759007/generating-diversity-in-human-glucocorticoid-signaling-through-a-racially-diverse-polymorphism-in-the-beta-isoform-of-the-glucocorticoid-receptor
#6
Shannon D Whirledge, Christine M Jewell, Lisa M Barber, Xiaojiang Xu, Kevin S Katen, Stavros Garantziotis, John A Cidlowski
Alternative splicing of the human glucocorticoid receptor gene generates two isoforms, hGRα and hGRβ. hGRβ functions as a dominant-negative regulator of hGRα activity and but also has inherent transcriptional activity, collectively altering glucocorticoid sensitivity. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the 3' UTR of hGRβ have been associated with altered receptor protein expression, glucocorticoid sensitivity, and disease risk. Characterization of the hGRβ G3134T polymorphism has been limited to a relatively small, homogenous population...
July 31, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748570/lichen-planopilaris-in-a-latin-american-chilean-population-demographics-clinical-profile-and-treatment-experience
#7
F Mardones, J Shapiro
BACKGROUND: Lichen planopilaris (LPP) is characterized by lymphocytic infiltrate, fibrosis and potential destruction of the hair follicle. Demographic and clinical studies in LPP are limited, and racial differences have not been thoroughly investigated. AIM: To analyse epidemiological data and clinical profiles of Chilean adults with LPP, and report on the treatments used. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of medical records and clinical follow-up of Chilean adults with a clinical and histopathological diagnosis of LPP...
July 27, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736814/interactions-between-empathy-and-resting-heart-rate-in-early-adolescence-predict-violent-behavior-in-late-adolescence-and-early-adulthood
#8
Chardée A Galán, Daniel Ewon Choe, Erika E Forbes, Daniel S Shaw
BACKGROUND: Although resting heart rate (RHR) and empathy are independently and negatively associated with violent behavior, relatively little is known about the interplay between these psychophysiological and temperament-related risk factors. METHODS: Using a sample of 160 low-income, racially diverse men followed prospectively from infancy through early adulthood, this study examined whether RHR and empathy during early adolescence independently and interactively predict violent behavior and related correlates in late adolescence and early adulthood...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729079/the-indian-nose-an-anthropometric-analysis
#9
Nikhil Mehta, Rakesh K Srivastava
Anthropometric measurements of the nose are of great importance in planning aesthetic nasal surgery. Abundant literature is available on anthropometric analysis of Caucasians and Orientals, without similar references on the Indian nose and its regional differences. Thus, we conducted a descriptive cross-sectional epidemiological study of 1000 volunteers, with equal number of subjects derived from five geographic groups, namely North, Central, West, South, and the Himalayan region, to determine differences in nasal morphology of Indian population and among its various regions...
October 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710890/food-allergy-phenotypes-the-key-to-personalized-therapy
#10
Antoine Deschildre, Stéphanie Lejeune, Mélanie Cap, Sophie Flammarion, Line Jouannic, Flore Amat, Jocelyne Just
Food allergies (FAs) are of increasing public health concern and are characterized by a large spectrum of diseases. Their diversity is well known for immunologic pathways (IgE, non-IgE mediated FAs), and natural history. Many other factors and patient characteristics are involved including type of food, exposure route, allergic comorbidities, gender, racial and ethnic backgrounds, co-factors and health conditions. Food allergen components and sensitization profiles are also involved in FA phenotypes. A new approach to chronic disorders based on the identification of phenotypes through extensive knowledge of all the complex components is also applicable to FAs and could lead towards integrative care management...
July 15, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688640/clinical-phenotypes-of-us-level-i-trauma-centers-use-of-clustering-methodology
#11
Joseph D Forrester, Thomas G Weiser, Paul Maggio, Timothy Browder, Lakshika Tennakoon, David A Spain, Kristan Staudenmayer
BACKGROUND: American College of Surgeons Level I Trauma Centers (ACSL1TCs) meet the same personnel and structural requirements but serve different populations. We hypothesized that these nuanced differences may amenable to description through mathematical clustering methodology. METHODS: The National Trauma Data Bank 2014 was used to derive information on ACSL1TCs. Explorative cluster hypothesis generation was performed using Ward's linkage to determine expected number of clusters based on patient and injury characteristics...
July 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686777/treatment-response-with-once-daily-topical-dapsone-gel-7-5-for-acne-vulgaris-subgroup-analysis-of-pooled-data-from-two-randomized-double-blind-stu
#12
Zoe Diana Draelos, David A Rodriguez, Steven E Kempers, Suzanne Bruce, Marina I Peredo, Jeanine Downie, Joan-En Chang-Lin, David R Berk, Shiling Ruan, Alexandre Kaoukhov
<p>BACKGROUND: Acne vulgaris has varying physical and psychological effects in men and women of different ages, races, and ethnicities.</p> <p>OBJECTIVE: This analysis assessed the relationship of age, sex, and race to treatment response with once-daily topical dapsone gel, 7.5%.</p> <p>METHODS: We conducted a pooled subgroup analysis of 2 randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled clinical trials conducted in the US and Canada. The studies included patients with 20 to 50 inflammatory and 30 to 100 noninflammatory facial lesions, and a Global Acne Assessment Score (GAAS) of 3 (moderate)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674996/characteristics-of-adverse-drug-reactions-in-a-vemurafenib-early-post-marketing-phase-vigilance-study-in-japan
#13
H Uhara, Y Kiyohara, A Tsuda, M Takata, N Yamazaki
BACKGROUND: Post-approval research or monitoring is important to determine real-world safety of new products; however, evidence is scant for vemurafenib in Japanese patients. In Japan, a unique system is officially obligated to investigate post-approval safety. Here we report the first adverse drug reaction (ADR) data from vemurafenib-treated Japanese patients with metastatic melanoma. Data were collected in an early post-marketing phase vigilance (EPPV) study. METHODS: ADRs were events for which a causal relationship with vemurafenib could not be ruled out or was unknown...
July 3, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640116/distribution-of-somatic-mutations-of-cancer-related-genes-according-to-microsatellite-instability-status-in-korean-gastric-cancer
#14
Joonhong Park, Han Mo Yoo, Woori Jang, Soyoung Shin, Myungshin Kim, Yonggoo Kim, Seung-Woo Lee, Jeong Goo Kim
In studies of the molecular basis of gastric cancer (GC), microsatellite instability (MSI) is one of the key factors. Somatic mutations found in GC are expected to contribute to MSI-high (H) tumorigenesis. We estimated somatic mutation distribution according to MSI status in 52 matched pair GC samples using the Ion Torrent Ion S5 XL with the AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot panel.Seventy-five (9.8%) somatic variants consisting of 34 hotspot mutations and 41 other likely pathogenic variants were identified in 34 GC samples...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637266/family-caregivers-of-older-adults-1999-2015-trends-in-characteristics-circumstances-and-role-related-appraisal
#15
Jennifer L Wolff, John Mulcahy, Jin Huang, David L Roth, Kenneth Covinsky, Judith D Kasper
Purpose of Study: To assess trends in family caregiving between 1999 and 2015. Design and Methods: We construct nationally representative profiles of community-dwelling older adults receiving help with self-care or indoor mobility and their "primary" family or unpaid caregiver using the 1999 and 2004 National Long Term Care Survey, 2011 and 2015 National Health and Aging Trends Study, and linked caregiver surveys. Trends are examined. Results: Older adults receiving help were incrementally younger, more racially diverse, and better educated in 2015...
June 16, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609485/self-reported-racial-ethnic-discrimination-and-bronchodilator-response-in-african-american-youth-with-asthma
#16
Sonia Carlson, Luisa N Borrell, Celeste Eng, Myngoc Nguyen, Shannon Thyne, Michael A LeNoir, Nadine Burke-Harris, Esteban G Burchard, Neeta Thakur
IMPORTANCE: Asthma is a multifactorial disease composed of endotypes with varying risk profiles and outcomes. African Americans experience a high burden of asthma and of psychosocial stress, including racial discrimination. It is unknown which endotypes of asthma are vulnerable to racial/ethnic discrimination. OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between self-reported racial/ethnic discrimination and bronchodilator response (BDR) among African American youth with asthma ages 8 to 21 years (n = 576) and whether this association varies with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) level...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515047/centrosome-amplification-a-suspect-in-breast-cancer-and-racial-disparities
#17
Angela Ogden, Padmashree C G Rida, Ritu Aneja
The multifaceted involvement of centrosome amplification (CA) in tumorigenesis is coming into focus following years of meticulous experimentation, which have elucidated the powerful abilities of CA to promote cellular invasion, disrupt stem cell division, drive chromosomal instability (CIN), and perturb tissue architecture, activities that can accelerate tumor progression. Integration of the extant in vitro, in vivo, and clinical data suggests that in some tissues CA may be a tumor-initiating event, in others a consequential "hit" in multistep tumorigenesis, and in still others non-tumorigenic...
May 17, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513790/-sanitation-and-racial-inequality-conditions-in-urban-brazil-an-analysis-focused-on-the-indigenous-population-based-on-the-2010-population-census
#18
Ludimila Raupp, Thatiana Regina Fávaro, Geraldo Marcelo Cunha, Ricardo Ventura Santos
Objective: The aims of this study were to analyze and describe the presence and infrastructure of basic sanitation in the urban areas of Brazil, contrasting indigenous with non-indigenous households. Methods: A cross-sectional study based on microdata from the 2010 Census was conducted. The analyses were based on descriptive statistics (prevalence) and the construction of multiple logistic regression models (adjusted by socioeconomic and demographic covariates). The odds ratios were estimated for the association between the explanatory variables (covariates) and the outcome variables (water supply, sewage, garbage collection, and adequate sanitation)...
January 2017: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, Brazilian Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511680/cohort-profile-seek-test-treat-and-retain-united-states-criminal-justice-cohort
#19
Redonna Chandler, Michael S Gordon, Bridget Kruszka, Lauren N Strand, Frederick L Altice, Curt G Beckwith, Mary L Biggs, William Cunningham, J A Chris Delaney, Patrick M Flynn, Carol E Golin, Kevin Knight, Alex H Kral, Irene Kuo, Jennifer Lorvick, Robin M Nance, Lawrence J Ouellet, Josiah D Rich, Stanley Sacks, David Seal, Anne Spaulding, Sandra A Springer, Faye Taxman, David Wohl, Jeremy D Young, Rebekah Young, Heidi M Crane
BACKGROUND: The STTR treatment cascade provides a framework for research aimed at improving the delivery of services, care and outcomes of PLWH. The development of effective approaches to increase HIV diagnoses and engage PLWH in subsequent steps of the treatment cascade could lead to earlier and sustained ART treatment resulting in viral suppression. There is an unmet need for research applying the treatment cascade to improve outcomes for those with criminal justice involvement. METHODS: The Seek, Test, Treat, and Retain (STTR) criminal justice (CJ) cohort combines data from 11 studies across the HIV treatment cascade that focused on persons involved in the criminal justice system, often but not exclusively for reasons related to substance use...
May 16, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501022/sociodemographic-profile-of-an-olympic-team
#20
D W Lawrence
OBJECTIVES: To document the distribution of sociodemographic markers (race and relative access to wealth) in athletes participating at the summer and Winter Olympic Games (OGs). STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive epidemiological study. METHODS: Sociodemographic data were collected from publically available resources for all athletes representing four countries (Canada, United States of America, Great Britain and Australia) at the 2014 Sochi Winter OGs and 2016 Rio Summer OGs...
July 2017: Public Health
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