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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889922/haloperidol-for-long-term-aggression-in-psychosis
#1
REVIEW
Abha Khushu, Melanie J Powney
BACKGROUND: Psychotic disorders can lead some people to become agitated. Characterised by restlessness, excitability and irritability, this can result in verbal and physically aggressive behaviour - and both can be prolonged. Aggression within the psychiatric setting imposes a significant challenge to clinicians and risk to service users; it is a frequent cause for admission to inpatient facilities. If people continue to be aggressive it can lengthen hospitalisation. Haloperidol is used to treat people with long-term aggression...
November 27, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869465/association-of-peritraumatic-dissociation-with-symptoms-of-depression-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#2
Erin C McCanlies, Khachatur Sarkisian, Michael E Andrew, Cecil M Burchfiel, John M Violanti
Aim: In this study, we evaluated whether peritraumatic dissociation (PD) was associated with symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and whether this association was modified by trauma prior to police work. Method: Symptoms of depression, PTSD, peritraumatic dissociative experience (PDE), and trauma prior to police work were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, PTSD Checklist-Civilian, PDE questionnaire, and the Brief Trauma questionnaire, respectively, in 328 police officers...
November 21, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762571/how-suspect-race-affects-police-use-of-force-in-an-interaction-over-time
#3
Kimberly Barsamian Kahn, Joel S Steele, Jean M McMahon, Greg Stewart
Although studies often find racial disparities in policing outcomes, less is known about how suspect race biases police interactions as they unfold. This study examines what is differentially occurring during police-suspect interactions for White, Black, and Latino suspects across time. It is hypothesized that racial bias may be more evident earlier in interactions, when less information about the situation is available. One hundred thirty-nine (62 White, 42 Black, and 35 Latino) use-of-force case files and associated written narratives from a medium to large size urban police department in the United States were analyzed...
October 20, 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736159/risk-factors-affecting-injury-severity-determined-by-the-mais-score
#4
Sara Ferreira, Marco Amorim, Antonio Couto
OBJECTIVE: Traffic crashes result in a loss of life but also impact the quality of life and productivity of crash survivors. Given the importance of traffic crash outcomes, the issue has received attention from researchers and practitioners as well as government institutions, such as the European Commission (EC). Thus, to obtain detailed information on the injury type and severity of crash victims, hospital data have been proposed for use alongside police crash records. A new injury severity classification based on hospital data, named the maximum abbreviated injury scale (MAIS), was developed and recently adopted by the EC...
October 13, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678553/dementia-and-traffic-accidents-a-danish-register-based-cohort-study
#5
Jindong Ding Petersen, Volkert Siersma, Connie Thurøe Nielsen, Mikkel Vass, Frans Boch Waldorff
BACKGROUND: As a consequence of a rapid growth of an ageing population, more people with dementia are expected on the roads. Little is known about whether these people are at increased risk of road traffic-related accidents. OBJECTIVE: Our study aims to investigate the risk of road traffic-related accidents for people aged 65 years or older with a diagnosis of dementia in Denmark. METHODS: We will conduct a nationwide population-based cohort study consisting of Danish people aged 65 or older living in Denmark as of January 1, 2008...
September 27, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27517092/peer-review-and-surgical-innovation-robotic-surgery-and-its-hurdles
#6
Dinesh Vyas, Sean Cronin
The peer review processes as outlined in the Health Care Quality Improvement Act (HCQIA) is meant ensure quality standard of care through a self-policing mechanism by the medical community. This process grants immunity for people filing a peer review, which is meant to protect whistleblowers. However, it also creates a loophole that can be used maliciously to hinder competition. This is accentuated when surgeons are integrating new technologies, such as robotic surgery, into their practice. With more than 2000 da Vinci robots in use and more than 300 new units being shipped each year, robotic surgery has become a mainstay in the surgical field...
December 2015: American Journal of Robotic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27460569/the-effectiveness-of-mental-health-courts-in-reducing-recidivism-and-police-contact-a-systematic-review-protocol
#7
Desmond Loong, Sarah Bonato, Carolyn S Dewa
BACKGROUND: Mental health courts were created to help criminal defendants who have a mental illness that significantly contributes to their criminal offense. Despite the increasing number of mental health courts around the world, data about their effectiveness have only begun to emerge in the past decade. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to assess the current evidence on the effectiveness of mental health courts. Specifically, this review will address the question, "How effective are mental health courts in reducing recidivism and police contact?" METHODS/DESIGN: Eight electronic databases will be searched, specifically PsycINFO, Medline, Medline In-Process, Embase, Web of Science, CINAHL, Social Work Abstracts, and Criminal Justice Abstracts...
2016: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27277567/towards-best-practice-in-physical-and-physiological-employment-standards
#8
Stewart R Petersen, Gregory S Anderson, Michael J Tipton, David Docherty, Terry E Graham, Brian J Sharkey, Nigel A S Taylor
While the scope of the term physical employment standards is wide, the principal focus of this paper is on standards related to physiological evaluation of readiness for work. Common applications of such employment standards for work are in public safety and emergency response occupations (e.g., police, firefighting, military), and there is an ever-present need to maximize the scientific quality of this research. Historically, most of these occupations are male-dominated, which leads to potential sex bias during physical demands analysis and determining performance thresholds...
June 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27243362/adversarial-allegiance-the-devil-is-in-the-evidence-details-not-just-on-the-witness-stand
#9
Bradley D McAuliff, Jeana L Arter
This study examined the potential influence of adversarial allegiance on expert testimony in a simulated child sexual abuse case. A national sample of 100 witness suggestibility experts reviewed a police interview of an alleged 5-year-old female victim. Retaining party (prosecution, defense) and interview suggestibility (low, high) varied across experts. Experts were very willing to testify, but more so for the prosecution than the defense when interview suggestibility was low and vice versa when interview suggestibility was high...
October 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27149288/the-perfect-match-do-criminal-stereotypes-bias-forensic-evidence-analysis
#10
Laura Smalarz, Stephanie Madon, Yueran Yang, Max Guyll, Sarah Buck
This research provided the first empirical test of the hypothesis that stereotypes bias evaluations of forensic evidence. A pilot study (N = 107) assessed the content and consensus of 20 criminal stereotypes by identifying perpetrator characteristics (e.g., sex, race, age, religion) that are stereotypically associated with specific crimes. In the main experiment (N = 225), participants read a mock police incident report involving either a stereotyped crime (child molestation) or a nonstereotyped crime (identity theft) and judged whether a suspect's fingerprint matched a fingerprint recovered at the crime scene...
August 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27131074/validation-of-objective-records-and-misreporting-of-personal-radio-use-in-a-cohort-of-british-police-forces-the-airwave-health-monitoring-study
#11
Anne-Claire Vergnaud, Maria Aresu, Dennis McRobie, Deepa Singh, Jeanette Spear, Andy Heard, Paul Elliott
BACKGROUND: Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) is a digital communication system progressively adopted by Police Forces in Great Britain since 2001. In 2000, the UK Independent Expert Group on Mobile Phones suggested that exposure to TETRA-like signal modulation might have adverse effects on health. The Airwave Health Monitoring Study was established to investigate possible long-term effects of TETRA use on health. This requires estimation of TETRA use among Police Force employees participating in the study...
July 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27129793/blacks-face-higher-risk-of-drug-arrests-in-white-neighborhoods
#12
Rebecca Fielding-Miller, Peter Davidson, Anita Raj
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27042881/black-and-blue-exploring-racial-bias-and-law-enforcement-in-the-killings-of-unarmed-black-male-civilians
#13
Alison V Hall, Erika V Hall, Jamie L Perry
In late 2014, a series of highly publicized police killings of unarmed Black male civilians in the United States prompted large-scale social turmoil. In the current review, we dissect the psychological antecedents of these killings and explain how the nature of police work may attract officers with distinct characteristics that may make them especially well-primed for negative interactions with Black male civilians. We use media reports to contextualize the precipitating events of the social unrest as we ground our explanations in theory and empirical research from social psychology and industrial and organizational (I/O) psychology...
April 2016: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26979299/perceived-racial-discrimination-heavy-episodic-drinking-and-alcohol-abstinence-among-african-american-and-white-college-students
#14
Jeannette Wade, Robert L Peralta
Previous research has demonstrated that White college students are more likely to drink alcohol at a greater frequency and quantity compared to their African American counterparts. Examining race-related factors that structure alcohol use among college students remains an important area of research. In this study, we specifically examine perceived discrimination and its association with both heavy episodic drinking (HED) and alcohol abstinence among college students. Items that measured perceived racial discrimination in alcohol use contexts and demographic characteristics were used as independent and control variables...
March 15, 2016: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26922213/single-incision-laparoscopic-surgery-as-a-teaching-procedure-a-single-center-experience-of-more-than-2100-procedures
#15
Masaki Wakasugi, Mitsuyoshi Tei, Takeshi Omori, Kana Anno, Tsubasa Mikami, Ryo Tsukada, Masahiro Koh, Atsushi Gakuhara, Kenta Furukawa, Yozo Suzuki, Toru Masuzawa, Kentaro Kishi, Masahiro Tanemura, Hiroki Akamatsu
PURPOSE: To confirm the safety and feasibility of single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) and to compare the patient outcomes of single-incision laparoscopic surgery for laparoscopic appendectomy (SILS-LA) performed by resident doctors vs. staff surgeons. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent SILS between May, 2009 and May, 2015 at Osaka Police Hospital. RESULTS: We analyzed 2172 patients. The operations performed consisted of cholecystectomy (n = 598), appendectomy (n = 202), inguinal hernia repair (n = 301), colorectal surgery (n = 673), and gastrectomy (n = 398)...
November 2016: Surgery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26844912/experienced-and-novice-officers-generalized-communication-suspicion-and-veracity-judgments
#16
Jaume Masip, Hernán Alonso, Carmen Herrero, Eugenio Garrido
Deception detection research has shown that police officers are less truth-biased and make their veracity judgments with greater confidence than do nonofficers. Here we examined nonofficers, novice officers, and experienced officers' response bias, confidence, and generalized communicative suspicion. In Experiment 1, novice officers aligned with nonofficers in terms of both generalized communicative suspicion scores and confidence, with both these groups scoring lower than experienced officers. Generalized communicative suspicion scores and veracity judgments were not significantly related for either sample...
April 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26841722/international-trends-in-alcohol-and-drug-use-among-vehicle-drivers
#17
REVIEW
A S Christophersen, J Mørland, K Stewart, H Gjerde
Trends in the use of alcohol and drugs among motor vehicle drivers in Australia, Brazil, Norway, Spain, and the United States have been reviewed. Laws, regulations, enforcement, and studies on alcohol and drugs in biological samples from motor vehicle drivers in general road traffic and fatal road traffic crashes (RTCs) are discussed. Roadside surveys showed a reduction of drunk driving over time in the studied countries; however, the pattern varied within and between different countries. The reduction of alcohol use may be related to changes in road traffic laws, public information campaigns, and enforcement, including implementation of random breath testing or sobriety checkpoints...
January 2016: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26831870/violence-at-work-forensic-medical-examination-of-police-officers-assaulted-while-on-duty-comparisons-with-other-groups-of-workers-in-two-centres-of-the-paris-area-2010-2012
#18
Catherine Dang, Céline Denis, Sophie Gahide, Patrick Chariot, Thomas Lefèvre
PURPOSE: To test for differences in somatic, psychic and functioning outcomes associated with assaults across four groups of workers, of which three are structurally at high risk of occupational violence. To report and compare job characteristics, characteristics of the assault and medical findings in police officers and other workers at the time of a forensic examination performed shortly after they complained for being assaulted while working. METHODS: A two-centre prospective study recruiting adult survivors of workplace violence who lodged a complaint to the judicial authorities and were examined by forensic physicians in the Paris area, between 2010 and 2012 over a 27-month period, was conducted...
July 2016: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26771169/improving-outcomes-for-people-in-mental-health-crisis-a-rapid-synthesis-of-the-evidence-for-available-models-of-care
#19
REVIEW
Fiona Paton, Kath Wright, Nigel Ayre, Ceri Dare, Sonia Johnson, Brynmor Lloyd-Evans, Alan Simpson, Martin Webber, Nick Meader
BACKGROUND: Crisis Concordat was established to improve outcomes for people experiencing a mental health crisis. The Crisis Concordat sets out four stages of the crisis care pathway: (1) access to support before crisis point; (2) urgent and emergency access to crisis care; (3) quality treatment and care in crisis; and (4) promoting recovery. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the models of care for improving outcomes at each stage of the care pathway...
January 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26540313/the-verbal-facilitation-effect-re-reading-person-descriptions-as-a-system-variable-to-improve-identification-performance
#20
Siegfried L Sporer, Kristina S Kaminski, Maike C Davids, Dawn McQuiston
When witnesses report a crime, police usually ask for a description of the perpetrator. Several studies suggested that verbalising faces leads to a detriment in identification performance (verbal overshadowing effect [VOE]) but the effect has been difficult to replicate. Here, we sought to reverse the VOE by inducing context reinstatement as a system variable through re-reading one's own description before an identification task. Participants (N = 208) watched a video film and were then dismissed (control group), only described the perpetrator, or described and later re-read their own descriptions before identification in either target-present or target-absent lineups after a 2-day or a 5-week delay...
November 2016: Memory
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