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Police Bias

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220086/students-wearing-police-uniforms-exhibit-biased-attention-toward-individuals-wearing-hoodies
#1
Ciro Civile, Sukhvinder S Obhi
Police provide an essential public service and they often operate in difficult circumstances, requiring high-speed cognition. Recent incidents involving apparent profiling and aggressive behavior have led to accusations that the police are sometimes biased. Given that previous research has shown a link between clothing and cognition, we investigated the question of whether the police uniform itself might induce a bias in social attention. To address this question, and using a Canadian university student sample, we assessed whether wearing a police uniform biases attention toward black faces compared to white faces, and low-status individuals compared to high-status individuals...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116658/vehicle-related-injuries-in-and-around-a-medium-sized-swedish-city-bicyclist-injuries-caused-the-heaviest-burden-on-the-medical-sector
#2
Johanna Björnstig, Per-Olof Bylund, Ulf Björnstig
BACKGROUND: A data acquisition from the medical sector may give one important view of the burden on the society caused by vehicle related injuries. The official police-reported statistics may only reflect a part of all vehicle-related injured seeking medical attention. The aim is to provide a comprehensive picture of the burden of vehicle related injuries on the medical sector (2013), and to compare with official police-reported statistics and the development year 2000-2013. METHODS: The data set includes 1085 injured from the Injury Data Base at Umeå University Hospital's catchment area with 148,500 inhabitants in 2013...
December 2017: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080104/measuring-black-men-s-police-based-discrimination-experiences-development-and-validation-of-the-police-and-law-enforcement-ple-scale
#3
Devin English, Lisa Bowleg, Ana Maria Del Río-González, Jeanne M Tschann, Robert P Agans, David J Malebranche
OBJECTIVES: Although social science research has examined police and law enforcement-perpetrated discrimination against Black men using policing statistics and implicit bias studies, there is little quantitative evidence detailing this phenomenon from the perspective of Black men. Consequently, there is a dearth of research detailing how Black men's perspectives on police and law enforcement-related stress predict negative physiological and psychological health outcomes. This study addresses these gaps with the qualitative development and quantitative test of the Police and Law Enforcement (PLE) Scale...
January 12, 2017: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889922/haloperidol-for-long-term-aggression-in-psychosis
#4
REVIEW
Abha Khushu, Melanie J Powney
BACKGROUND: Psychotic disorders can lead some people to become agitated. Characterised by restlessness, excitability and irritability, this can result in verbal and physically aggressive behaviour - and both can be prolonged. Aggression within the psychiatric setting imposes a significant challenge to clinicians and risk to service users; it is a frequent cause for admission to inpatient facilities. If people continue to be aggressive it can lengthen hospitalisation. Haloperidol is used to treat people with long-term aggression...
27, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869465/association-of-peritraumatic-dissociation-with-symptoms-of-depression-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#5
Erin C McCanlies, Khachatur Sarkisian, Michael E Andrew, Cecil M Burchfiel, John M Violanti
Aim: In this study, we evaluated whether peritraumatic dissociation (PD) was associated with symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and whether this association was modified by trauma prior to police work. Method: Symptoms of depression, PTSD, peritraumatic dissociative experience (PDE), and trauma prior to police work were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, PTSD Checklist-Civilian, PDE questionnaire, and the Brief Trauma questionnaire, respectively, in 328 police officers...
November 21, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762571/how-suspect-race-affects-police-use-of-force-in-an-interaction-over-time
#6
Kimberly Barsamian Kahn, Joel S Steele, Jean M McMahon, Greg Stewart
Although studies often find racial disparities in policing outcomes, less is known about how suspect race biases police interactions as they unfold. This study examines what is differentially occurring during police-suspect interactions for White, Black, and Latino suspects across time. It is hypothesized that racial bias may be more evident earlier in interactions, when less information about the situation is available. One hundred thirty-nine (62 White, 42 Black, and 35 Latino) use-of-force case files and associated written narratives from a medium to large size urban police department in the United States were analyzed...
October 20, 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736159/risk-factors-affecting-injury-severity-determined-by-the-mais-score
#7
Sara Ferreira, Marco Amorim, Antonio Couto
OBJECTIVE: Traffic crashes result in a loss of life but also impact the quality of life and productivity of crash survivors. Given the importance of traffic crash outcomes, the issue has received attention from researchers and practitioners as well as government institutions, such as the European Commission (EC). Thus, to obtain detailed information on the injury type and severity of crash victims, hospital data have been proposed for use alongside police crash records. A new injury severity classification based on hospital data, called the maximum abbreviated injury scale (MAIS), was developed and recently adopted by the EC...
October 13, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678553/dementia-and-traffic-accidents-a-danish-register-based-cohort-study
#8
Jindong Ding Petersen, Volkert Siersma, Connie Thurøe Nielsen, Mikkel Vass, Frans Boch Waldorff
BACKGROUND: As a consequence of a rapid growth of an ageing population, more people with dementia are expected on the roads. Little is known about whether these people are at increased risk of road traffic-related accidents. OBJECTIVE: Our study aims to investigate the risk of road traffic-related accidents for people aged 65 years or older with a diagnosis of dementia in Denmark. METHODS: We will conduct a nationwide population-based cohort study consisting of Danish people aged 65 or older living in Denmark as of January 1, 2008...
September 27, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27517092/peer-review-and-surgical-innovation-robotic-surgery-and-its-hurdles
#9
Dinesh Vyas, Sean Cronin
The peer review processes as outlined in the Health Care Quality Improvement Act (HCQIA) is meant ensure quality standard of care through a self-policing mechanism by the medical community. This process grants immunity for people filing a peer review, which is meant to protect whistleblowers. However, it also creates a loophole that can be used maliciously to hinder competition. This is accentuated when surgeons are integrating new technologies, such as robotic surgery, into their practice. With more than 2000 da Vinci robots in use and more than 300 new units being shipped each year, robotic surgery has become a mainstay in the surgical field...
December 2015: American Journal of Robotic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27460569/the-effectiveness-of-mental-health-courts-in-reducing-recidivism-and-police-contact-a-systematic-review-protocol
#10
Desmond Loong, Sarah Bonato, Carolyn S Dewa
BACKGROUND: Mental health courts were created to help criminal defendants who have a mental illness that significantly contributes to their criminal offense. Despite the increasing number of mental health courts around the world, data about their effectiveness have only begun to emerge in the past decade. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to assess the current evidence on the effectiveness of mental health courts. Specifically, this review will address the question, "How effective are mental health courts in reducing recidivism and police contact?" METHODS/DESIGN: Eight electronic databases will be searched, specifically PsycINFO, Medline, Medline In-Process, Embase, Web of Science, CINAHL, Social Work Abstracts, and Criminal Justice Abstracts...
2016: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27277567/towards-best-practice-in-physical-and-physiological-employment-standards
#11
REVIEW
Stewart R Petersen, Gregory S Anderson, Michael J Tipton, David Docherty, Terry E Graham, Brian J Sharkey, Nigel A S Taylor
While the scope of the term physical employment standards is wide, the principal focus of this paper is on standards related to physiological evaluation of readiness for work. Common applications of such employment standards for work are in public safety and emergency response occupations (e.g., police, firefighting, military), and there is an ever-present need to maximize the scientific quality of this research. Historically, most of these occupations are male-dominated, which leads to potential sex bias during physical demands analysis and determining performance thresholds...
June 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27243362/adversarial-allegiance-the-devil-is-in-the-evidence-details-not-just-on-the-witness-stand
#12
Bradley D McAuliff, Jeana L Arter
This study examined the potential influence of adversarial allegiance on expert testimony in a simulated child sexual abuse case. A national sample of 100 witness suggestibility experts reviewed a police interview of an alleged 5-year-old female victim. Retaining party (prosecution, defense) and interview suggestibility (low, high) varied across experts. Experts were very willing to testify, but more so for the prosecution than the defense when interview suggestibility was low and vice versa when interview suggestibility was high...
October 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27149288/the-perfect-match-do-criminal-stereotypes-bias-forensic-evidence-analysis
#13
Laura Smalarz, Stephanie Madon, Yueran Yang, Max Guyll, Sarah Buck
This research provided the first empirical test of the hypothesis that stereotypes bias evaluations of forensic evidence. A pilot study (N = 107) assessed the content and consensus of 20 criminal stereotypes by identifying perpetrator characteristics (e.g., sex, race, age, religion) that are stereotypically associated with specific crimes. In the main experiment (N = 225), participants read a mock police incident report involving either a stereotyped crime (child molestation) or a nonstereotyped crime (identity theft) and judged whether a suspect's fingerprint matched a fingerprint recovered at the crime scene...
August 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27131074/validation-of-objective-records-and-misreporting-of-personal-radio-use-in-a-cohort-of-british-police-forces-the-airwave-health-monitoring-study
#14
Anne-Claire Vergnaud, Maria Aresu, Dennis McRobie, Deepa Singh, Jeanette Spear, Andy Heard, Paul Elliott
BACKGROUND: Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) is a digital communication system progressively adopted by Police Forces in Great Britain since 2001. In 2000, the UK Independent Expert Group on Mobile Phones suggested that exposure to TETRA-like signal modulation might have adverse effects on health. The Airwave Health Monitoring Study was established to investigate possible long-term effects of TETRA use on health. This requires estimation of TETRA use among Police Force employees participating in the study...
July 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27129793/blacks-face-higher-risk-of-drug-arrests-in-white-neighborhoods
#15
Rebecca Fielding-Miller, Peter Davidson, Anita Raj
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27042881/black-and-blue-exploring-racial-bias-and-law-enforcement-in-the-killings-of-unarmed-black-male-civilians
#16
Alison V Hall, Erika V Hall, Jamie L Perry
In late 2014, a series of highly publicized police killings of unarmed Black male civilians in the United States prompted large-scale social turmoil. In the current review, we dissect the psychological antecedents of these killings and explain how the nature of police work may attract officers with distinct characteristics that may make them especially well-primed for negative interactions with Black male civilians. We use media reports to contextualize the precipitating events of the social unrest as we ground our explanations in theory and empirical research from social psychology and industrial and organizational (I/O) psychology...
April 2016: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26979299/perceived-racial-discrimination-heavy-episodic-drinking-and-alcohol-abstinence-among-african-american-and-white-college-students
#17
Jeannette Wade, Robert L Peralta
Previous research has demonstrated that White college students are more likely to drink alcohol at a greater frequency and quantity compared to their African American counterparts. Examining race-related factors that structure alcohol use among college students remains an important area of research. In this study, we specifically examine perceived discrimination and its association with both heavy episodic drinking (HED) and alcohol abstinence among college students. Items that measured perceived racial discrimination in alcohol use contexts and demographic characteristics were used as independent and control variables...
March 15, 2016: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26922213/single-incision-laparoscopic-surgery-as-a-teaching-procedure-a-single-center-experience-of-more-than-2100-procedures
#18
Masaki Wakasugi, Mitsuyoshi Tei, Takeshi Omori, Kana Anno, Tsubasa Mikami, Ryo Tsukada, Masahiro Koh, Atsushi Gakuhara, Kenta Furukawa, Yozo Suzuki, Toru Masuzawa, Kentaro Kishi, Masahiro Tanemura, Hiroki Akamatsu
PURPOSE: To confirm the safety and feasibility of single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) and to compare the patient outcomes of single-incision laparoscopic surgery for laparoscopic appendectomy (SILS-LA) performed by resident doctors vs. staff surgeons. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent SILS between May, 2009 and May, 2015 at Osaka Police Hospital. RESULTS: We analyzed 2172 patients. The operations performed consisted of cholecystectomy (n = 598), appendectomy (n = 202), inguinal hernia repair (n = 301), colorectal surgery (n = 673), and gastrectomy (n = 398)...
November 2016: Surgery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26844912/experienced-and-novice-officers-generalized-communication-suspicion-and-veracity-judgments
#19
Jaume Masip, Hernán Alonso, Carmen Herrero, Eugenio Garrido
Deception detection research has shown that police officers are less truth-biased and make their veracity judgments with greater confidence than do nonofficers. Here we examined nonofficers, novice officers, and experienced officers' response bias, confidence, and generalized communicative suspicion. In Experiment 1, novice officers aligned with nonofficers in terms of both generalized communicative suspicion scores and confidence, with both these groups scoring lower than experienced officers. Generalized communicative suspicion scores and veracity judgments were not significantly related for either sample...
April 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26841722/international-trends-in-alcohol-and-drug-use-among-vehicle-drivers
#20
REVIEW
A S Christophersen, J Mørland, K Stewart, H Gjerde
Trends in the use of alcohol and drugs among motor vehicle drivers in Australia, Brazil, Norway, Spain, and the United States have been reviewed. Laws, regulations, enforcement, and studies on alcohol and drugs in biological samples from motor vehicle drivers in general road traffic and fatal road traffic crashes (RTCs) are discussed. Roadside surveys showed a reduction of drunk driving over time in the studied countries; however, the pattern varied within and between different countries. The reduction of alcohol use may be related to changes in road traffic laws, public information campaigns, and enforcement, including implementation of random breath testing or sobriety checkpoints...
January 2016: Forensic Science Review
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