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Police Bias

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655901/chronic-sleep-restriction-increases-negative-implicit-attitudes-toward-arab-muslims
#1
Anna Alkozei, William D S Killgore, Ryan Smith, Natalie S Dailey, Sahil Bajaj, Monika Haack
Chronic sleep restriction is a common experience; and while it has negative physiological effects, little is known about how it affects human behavior. To date, no study has investigated whether chronic sleep restriction can influence implicit attitudes (e.g., towards a race). Here, in a randomized, counterbalanced crossover design, we subjected participants to 3 weeks of chronic sleep restriction in the lab (i.e., 3 weekly cycles of 5 nights of 4 hours of sleep per night followed by 2 nights of 8 hours of sleep) and found evidence for an increased negative implicit bias towards Arab Muslims...
June 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377391/dietary-assessment-of-british-police-force-employees-a-description-of-diet-record-coding-procedures-and-cross-sectional-evaluation-of-dietary-energy-intake-reporting-the-airwave-health-monitoring-study
#2
Rachel Gibson, Rebeca Eriksen, Kathryn Lamb, Yvonne McMeel, Anne-Claire Vergnaud, Jeanette Spear, Maria Aresu, Queenie Chan, Paul Elliott, Gary Frost
OBJECTIVES: Dietary intake is a key aspect of occupational health. To capture the characteristics of dietary behaviour that is affected by occupational environment that may affect disease risk, a collection of prospective multiday dietary records is required. The aims of this paper are to: (1) collect multiday dietary data in the Airwave Health Monitoring Study, (2) describe the dietary coding procedures applied and (3) investigate the plausibility of dietary reporting in this occupational cohort...
April 4, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348019/should-research-ethics-committees-police-reporting-bias
#3
Simon E Kolstoe, Daniel R Shanahan, Janet Wisely
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 27, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287795/undermining-position-effects-in-choices-from-arrays-with-implications-for-police-lineups
#4
Matthew A Palmer, James D Sauer, Glenys A Holt
Choices from arrays are often characterized by position effects, such as edge-aversion. We investigated position effects when participants attempted to pick a suspect from an array similar to a police photo lineup. A reanalysis of data from 2 large-scale field studies showed that choices made under realistic conditions-closely matching eyewitness identification decisions in police investigations-displayed edge-aversion and bias to choose from the top row (Study 1). In a series of experiments (Studies 2a-2c and 3), participants guessing the location of a suspect exhibited edge-aversion regardless of whether the lineup was constructed to maximize the chances of the suspect being picked, to ensure the suspect did not stand out, or randomly...
March 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287752/racial-bias-in-judgments-of-physical-size-and-formidability-from-size-to-threat
#5
John Paul Wilson, Kurt Hugenberg, Nicholas O Rule
Black men tend to be stereotyped as threatening and, as a result, may be disproportionately targeted by police even when unarmed. Here, we found evidence that biased perceptions of young Black men's physical size may play a role in this process. The results of 7 studies showed that people have a bias to perceive young Black men as bigger (taller, heavier, more muscular) and more physically threatening (stronger, more capable of harm) than young White men. Both bottom-up cues of racial prototypicality and top-down information about race supported these misperceptions...
July 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259213/movement-advocacy-personal-relationships-and-ending-health-care-disparities
#6
Marshall H Chin
Deep-rooted structural problems drive health care disparities. Compounding the difficulty of attaining health equity, solutions in clinics and hospitals require the cooperation of clinicians, administrators, patients, and the community. Recent protests over police brutality and racism on campuses across America have opened fresh wounds over how best to end racism, with lessons for achieving health equity. Movement advocacy, the mobilizing of the people to raise awareness of an injustice and to advocate for reform, can break down ingrained structural barriers and policies that impede health equity...
April 2017: Journal of the National Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254631/impairment-in-active-navigation-from-trauma-and-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#7
Jessica K Miller, Siné McDougall, Sarah Thomas, Jan M Wiener
The study investigated the impact of trauma exposure and of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) on spatial processing and active navigation in a sample (n=138) comprising civilians (n=91), police officers (n=22) and veterans (n=27). Individuals with previous trauma exposure exhibited significantly poorer hippocampal-dependent (allocentric) navigation performance on active navigation in a virtual environment (the Alternative Route task) regardless of whether or not they had PTSD (scoring above 20 on the PTSD Diagnostic Scale)...
February 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220086/students-wearing-police-uniforms-exhibit-biased-attention-toward-individuals-wearing-hoodies
#8
Ciro Civile, Sukhvinder S Obhi
Police provide an essential public service and they often operate in difficult circumstances, requiring high-speed cognition. Recent incidents involving apparent profiling and aggressive behavior have led to accusations that the police are sometimes biased. Given that previous research has shown a link between clothing and cognition, we investigated the question of whether the police uniform itself might induce a bias in social attention. To address this question, and using a Canadian university student sample, we assessed whether wearing a police uniform biases attention toward black faces compared to white faces, and low-status individuals compared to high-status individuals...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116658/vehicle-related-injuries-in-and-around-a-medium-sized-swedish-city-bicyclist-injuries-caused-the-heaviest-burden-on-the-medical-sector
#9
Johanna Björnstig, Per-Olof Bylund, Ulf Björnstig
BACKGROUND: A data acquisition from the medical sector may give one important view of the burden on the society caused by vehicle related injuries. The official police-reported statistics may only reflect a part of all vehicle-related injured seeking medical attention. The aim is to provide a comprehensive picture of the burden of vehicle related injuries on the medical sector (2013), and to compare with official police-reported statistics and the development year 2000-2013. METHODS: The data set includes 1085 injured from the Injury Data Base at Umeå University Hospital's catchment area with 148,500 inhabitants in 2013...
December 2017: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080104/measuring-black-men-s-police-based-discrimination-experiences-development-and-validation-of-the-police-and-law-enforcement-ple-scale
#10
Devin English, Lisa Bowleg, Ana Maria Del Río-González, Jeanne M Tschann, Robert P Agans, David J Malebranche
OBJECTIVES: Although social science research has examined police and law enforcement-perpetrated discrimination against Black men using policing statistics and implicit bias studies, there is little quantitative evidence detailing this phenomenon from the perspective of Black men. Consequently, there is a dearth of research detailing how Black men's perspectives on police and law enforcement-related stress predict negative physiological and psychological health outcomes. This study addresses these gaps with the qualitative development and quantitative test of the Police and Law Enforcement (PLE) Scale...
April 2017: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889922/haloperidol-for-long-term-aggression-in-psychosis
#11
REVIEW
Abha Khushu, Melanie J Powney
BACKGROUND: Psychotic disorders can lead some people to become agitated. Characterised by restlessness, excitability and irritability, this can result in verbal and physically aggressive behaviour - and both can be prolonged. Aggression within the psychiatric setting imposes a significant challenge to clinicians and risk to service users; it is a frequent cause for admission to inpatient facilities. If people continue to be aggressive it can lengthen hospitalisation. Haloperidol is used to treat people with long-term aggression...
November 27, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869465/association-of-peritraumatic-dissociation-with-symptoms-of-depression-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#12
Erin C McCanlies, Khachatur Sarkisian, Michael E Andrew, Cecil M Burchfiel, John M Violanti
Aim: In this study, we evaluated whether peritraumatic dissociation (PD) was associated with symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and whether this association was modified by trauma prior to police work. Method: Symptoms of depression, PTSD, peritraumatic dissociative experience (PDE), and trauma prior to police work were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, PTSD Checklist-Civilian, PDE questionnaire, and the Brief Trauma questionnaire, respectively, in 328 police officers...
November 21, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762571/how-suspect-race-affects-police-use-of-force-in-an-interaction-over-time
#13
Kimberly Barsamian Kahn, Joel S Steele, Jean M McMahon, Greg Stewart
Although studies often find racial disparities in policing outcomes, less is known about how suspect race biases police interactions as they unfold. This study examines what is differentially occurring during police-suspect interactions for White, Black, and Latino suspects across time. It is hypothesized that racial bias may be more evident earlier in interactions, when less information about the situation is available. One hundred thirty-nine (62 White, 42 Black, and 35 Latino) use-of-force case files and associated written narratives from a medium to large size urban police department in the United States were analyzed...
April 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736159/risk-factors-affecting-injury-severity-determined-by-the-mais-score
#14
Sara Ferreira, Marco Amorim, Antonio Couto
OBJECTIVE: Traffic crashes result in a loss of life but also impact the quality of life and productivity of crash survivors. Given the importance of traffic crash outcomes, the issue has received attention from researchers and practitioners as well as government institutions, such as the European Commission (EC). Thus, to obtain detailed information on the injury type and severity of crash victims, hospital data have been proposed for use alongside police crash records. A new injury severity classification based on hospital data, called the maximum abbreviated injury scale (MAIS), was developed and recently adopted by the EC...
July 4, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678553/dementia-and-traffic-accidents-a-danish-register-based-cohort-study
#15
Jindong Ding Petersen, Volkert Siersma, Connie Thurøe Nielsen, Mikkel Vass, Frans Boch Waldorff
BACKGROUND: As a consequence of a rapid growth of an ageing population, more people with dementia are expected on the roads. Little is known about whether these people are at increased risk of road traffic-related accidents. OBJECTIVE: Our study aims to investigate the risk of road traffic-related accidents for people aged 65 years or older with a diagnosis of dementia in Denmark. METHODS: We will conduct a nationwide population-based cohort study consisting of Danish people aged 65 or older living in Denmark as of January 1, 2008...
September 27, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27517092/peer-review-and-surgical-innovation-robotic-surgery-and-its-hurdles
#16
Dinesh Vyas, Sean Cronin
The peer review processes as outlined in the Health Care Quality Improvement Act (HCQIA) is meant ensure quality standard of care through a self-policing mechanism by the medical community. This process grants immunity for people filing a peer review, which is meant to protect whistleblowers. However, it also creates a loophole that can be used maliciously to hinder competition. This is accentuated when surgeons are integrating new technologies, such as robotic surgery, into their practice. With more than 2000 da Vinci robots in use and more than 300 new units being shipped each year, robotic surgery has become a mainstay in the surgical field...
December 2015: American Journal of Robotic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27460569/the-effectiveness-of-mental-health-courts-in-reducing-recidivism-and-police-contact-a-systematic-review-protocol
#17
Desmond Loong, Sarah Bonato, Carolyn S Dewa
BACKGROUND: Mental health courts were created to help criminal defendants who have a mental illness that significantly contributes to their criminal offense. Despite the increasing number of mental health courts around the world, data about their effectiveness have only begun to emerge in the past decade. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to assess the current evidence on the effectiveness of mental health courts. Specifically, this review will address the question, "How effective are mental health courts in reducing recidivism and police contact?" METHODS/DESIGN: Eight electronic databases will be searched, specifically PsycINFO, Medline, Medline In-Process, Embase, Web of Science, CINAHL, Social Work Abstracts, and Criminal Justice Abstracts...
2016: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27277567/towards-best-practice-in-physical-and-physiological-employment-standards
#18
REVIEW
Stewart R Petersen, Gregory S Anderson, Michael J Tipton, David Docherty, Terry E Graham, Brian J Sharkey, Nigel A S Taylor
While the scope of the term physical employment standards is wide, the principal focus of this paper is on standards related to physiological evaluation of readiness for work. Common applications of such employment standards for work are in public safety and emergency response occupations (e.g., police, firefighting, military), and there is an ever-present need to maximize the scientific quality of this research. Historically, most of these occupations are male-dominated, which leads to potential sex bias during physical demands analysis and determining performance thresholds...
June 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27243362/adversarial-allegiance-the-devil-is-in-the-evidence-details-not-just-on-the-witness-stand
#19
Bradley D McAuliff, Jeana L Arter
This study examined the potential influence of adversarial allegiance on expert testimony in a simulated child sexual abuse case. A national sample of 100 witness suggestibility experts reviewed a police interview of an alleged 5-year-old female victim. Retaining party (prosecution, defense) and interview suggestibility (low, high) varied across experts. Experts were very willing to testify, but more so for the prosecution than the defense when interview suggestibility was low and vice versa when interview suggestibility was high...
October 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27149288/the-perfect-match-do-criminal-stereotypes-bias-forensic-evidence-analysis
#20
Laura Smalarz, Stephanie Madon, Yueran Yang, Max Guyll, Sarah Buck
This research provided the first empirical test of the hypothesis that stereotypes bias evaluations of forensic evidence. A pilot study (N = 107) assessed the content and consensus of 20 criminal stereotypes by identifying perpetrator characteristics (e.g., sex, race, age, religion) that are stereotypically associated with specific crimes. In the main experiment (N = 225), participants read a mock police incident report involving either a stereotyped crime (child molestation) or a nonstereotyped crime (identity theft) and judged whether a suspect's fingerprint matched a fingerprint recovered at the crime scene...
August 2016: Law and Human Behavior
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