Read by QxMD icon Read

microvasculature mechanic ventilation

Lindell K Weaver
Despite established exposure limits and safety standards, and the availability of carbon monoxide (CO) alarms, each year 50,000 people in the United States visit emergency departments for CO poisoning. Carbon monoxide poisoning can occur from brief exposures to high levels of CO, or from longer exposures to lower levels. Common symptoms include headaches, nausea and vomiting, dizziness, general malaise, and altered mental status. Some patients may have chest pain, shortness of breath and myocardial ischemia, and may require mechanical ventilation and treatment of shock...
July 2014: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
Kenji Wakabayashi, Michael R Wilson, Kate C Tatham, Kieran P O'Dea, Masao Takata
OBJECTIVES: Ventilator-induced lung injury has substantive impact on mortality of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Although low tidal volume ventilation has been shown to reduce mortality, clinical benefits of open-lung strategy are controversial. In this study, we investigated the impact of two distinct forms of ventilator-induced lung injury, i.e., volutrauma and atelectrauma, on the progression of lung injury and inflammation, in particular alveolar and systemic cytokine production...
January 2014: Critical Care Medicine
Walter R J Taylor, Josh Hanson, Gareth D H Turner, Nicholas J White, Arjen M Dondorp
Respiratory distress develops in up to 25% of adults and 40% of children with severe falciparum malaria. Its diverse causes include respiratory compensation of metabolic acidosis, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, concomitant pneumonia, and severe anemia. Patients with severe falciparum, vivax, and knowlesi malaria may develop acute lung injury (ALI) and ARDS, often several days after antimalarial drug treatment. ARDS rates, best characterized for severe Plasmodium falciparum, are 5% to 25% in adults and up to 29% in pregnant women; ARDS is rare in young children...
August 2012: Chest
Peter Gassmann, Mi-Li Kang, Soeren T Mees, Joerg Haier
BACKGROUND: Metastasis formation is the leading cause of death among colon cancer patients. We established a new in-situ model of in vivo microscopy of the lung to analyse initiating events of metastatic tumor cell adhesion within this typical metastatic target of colon cancer. METHODS: Anaesthetized CD rats were mechanically ventilated and 106 human HT-29LMM and T84 colon cancer cells were injected intracardially as single cell suspensions. Quantitative in vivo microscopy of the lung was performed in 10 minute intervals for a total of 40 minutes beginning with the time of injection...
2010: BMC Cancer
Konstantin G Birukov
Blood vessels respond to changes in mechanical load from circulating blood in the form of shear stress and mechanical strain as the result of heart propulsions by changes in intracellular signaling leading to changes in vascular tone, production of vasoactive molecules, and changes in vascular permeability, gene regulation, and vascular remodeling. In addition to hemodynamic forces, microvasculature in the lung is also exposed to stretch resulting from respiratory cycles during autonomous breathing or mechanical ventilation...
July 2009: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Monique E De Paepe, Chintan Patel, Amy Tsai, Sravanthi Gundavarapu, Quanfu Mao
RATIONALE: Preterm infants exposed to mechanical ventilation and oxygen are at risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a multifactorial chronic lung disorder characterized by arrested alveolar development. Studies have described disruption of microvascular development in BPD, characterized by primitive angioarchitectural patterns reminiscent of the canalicular/saccular stages of lung development. The molecular regulation of this BPD-associated dysangiogenesis remains undetermined. OBJECTIVES: Endoglin (CD105), a hypoxia-inducible transforming growth factor-beta coreceptor, has been implicated as an important regulator of angiogenesis in various neoplastic and nonneoplastic conditions...
July 15, 2008: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Elizabeth M Wagner, John Jenkins
We have shown previously that excessive distention of the rat trachea during mechanical ventilation results in enhanced leukocyte recruitment to the airway (Lim LH and Wagner EM. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 168:1068-1074, 2003). The objectives of this study were to develop a mouse model of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP)-induced leukocyte recruitment to the airway and begin to pursue molecular mechanisms that may contribute to the in vivo observation of increased leukocyte adhesion after PEEP exposure...
April 2007: Journal of Applied Physiology
Dan Waisman, Amir Abramovich, Vera Brod, Ofir Lavon, Steven Nurkin, Faina Popovski, Avi Rotschild, Haim Bitterman
Changes in pulmonary microhemodynamics are important variables in a large variety of pathological processes. We used in vivo fluorescent videomicroscopy of the subpleural microvasculature in mechanically ventilated rats to directly monitor microvascular flow velocity (FV) and shear rate in pulmonary arterioles, capillaries, and venules in healthy rats and in septic rats 20 h after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Observations were made through a small thoracotomy after injection of fluorescent microspheres (D = 1 microm) into the systemic circulation...
July 2006: Shock
F-U Sack, R Dollner, B Reidenbach, A Koch, M M Gebhard, S Hagl
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary reperfusion injury is a significant risk factor following lung transplantation (LTx). Unfortunately, in vivo observations and quantitative analyses of the pulmonary microcirculation following LTx are technically demanding. METHODS: Pigs, weighing 18 to 22 kg, served as the laboratory animals. The left lung was harvested and preserved using donor aortic vessel segments, the pulmonary artery, and the cuff of the lung veins were extended. After 4 hours of ischemia, the lungs were transplanted by direct connection of the conduits to the left atrial appendage and the left pulmonary artery of the recipient...
April 2006: Transplantation Proceedings
Gregory Schears, Tatiana Zaitseva, Steven Schultz, William Greeley, Diego Antoni, David F Wilson, Anna Pastuszko
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible neuroprotective effects of selective cerebral perfusion (SCP) during deep hypothermic circulatory arrest on brain oxygenation and metabolism in newborn piglets. METHODS: Newborn piglets 2-4 days of age, anesthetized and mechanically ventilated, were used for the study. The animals were placed on cardiopulmonary bypass, cooled to 18 degrees C and put on SCP (20 ml/(kg min)) for 90 min. After rewarming, the animals were monitored through 2h of recovery...
February 2006: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Francis Tambunting, Kay D A Beharry, Joshua Waltzman, Houchang D Modanlou
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants exposed to O2 with mechanical ventilation often develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a form of chronic lung disease (CLD). The pathogenesis of BPD/CLD involves dysmorphic microvasculature and disrupted alveolarization. This may be due to impaired vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor expression. METHODS: To examine the ontogeny of VEGF and VEGF receptors in baboon lungs from 125 to 185 (term) days gestation and to determine whether exposure to O2 and mechanical ventilation alter these ontogenic profiles, we examined lung specimens from three O2-exposed groups: (1) animals delivered at 125 days gestation and exposed to O2 for 14 days as needed; (2) animals delivered at 140 days gestation and exposed to O2 for 10 days as needed; and (3) animals delivered at 140 days gestation and exposed to 100% O2 for 10 days...
July 2005: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
J J Marini
Clinicians managing acute lung injury must reconcile the competing objectives of ensuring adequate oxygen delivery and minimizing the adverse effects of ventilatory support. Judging from our experimental work, microvascular stresses appear to be a potent cofactor in the development of pulmonary edema as well as in the expression of lung damage resulting from an injurious pattern of ventilation. When the lung is ventilated with high pressure, raising pre-capillary pressure or reducing post capillary pressure are both undesirable...
April 2004: Minerva Anestesiologica
Tatiana Zaitseva, Gregory Schears, Jin Shen, Jennifer Creed, David F Wilson, Anna Pastuszko
This study investigated the effects of normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and circulatory arrest (DHCA) on expression of specific genes in neonatal piglet brain. CPB was performed through the chest at 100 ml/kg/min for 2 hrs at 37 degrees C. In the second group of animals, CPB was begun as described above and then animals were cooled to a nasopharyngeal/brain temperature of 18 degrees C. When the brain temperature reached 18 degrees C, the CPB circuit was turned off. After 60 min of circulatory arrest (DHCA), CPB was resumed at 100 ml/kg/min, and the piglets were rewarmed to a temperature of 36 degrees C...
2003: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
B Gellén, J Kovács, L Németh, P Németh, J Vágvölgyi, F Bari, P Megyeri, S Pintér, P Temesvári, M A Deli, M Vecsernyés, Z Szilvássy, M Koltai, C S Abrahám
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common acquired gastrointestinal emergency in neonates. We have developed an animal model of NEC in asphyxiated newborn pigs and investigated the effects of asphyxia on blood flow in superior mesenteric artery and abdominal aorta, cardiovascular data, arterial acid-base and blood gas parameters, and endothelial cytoskeletal structure in mesenteric microvasculature. Anesthetized, mechanically ventilated newborn pigs were included in two groups: piglets underwent severe asphyxia, and sham-operated control animals...
July 2003: Pediatric Surgery International
Dan Waisman, Vera Brod, Rafael Wolff, Edmond Sabo, Mark Chernin, Zalman Weintraub, Avi Rotschild, Haim Bitterman
Splanchnic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) causes tissue hypoxia that triggers local and systemic microcirculatory inflammatory responses. We evaluated the effects of hyperoxia in I/R induced by 40-min superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion and 120-min reperfusion in four groups of rats: 1) control (anesthesia only), 2) sham operated (all surgical procedures without vascular occlusion; air ventilation), 3) SMA I/R and air, 4) SMA I/R and 100% oxygen ventilation started 10 min before reperfusion. Leukocyte rolling and adhesion in mesenteric microvessels, pulmonary microvascular blood flow velocity (BFV), and macromolecular (FITC-albumin) flux into lungs were monitored by intravital videomicroscopy...
August 2003: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Abhijit Chandra, Jiro Katahira, Frank C Schmalstieg, Kazunori Murakami, Perenlei Enkhbaatar, Robert A Cox, Hal K Hawkins, Lillian D Traber, David N Herndon, Daniel L Traber
Accumulation of neutrophils in the lung contributes to the endothelial damage in the tissue associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. This initial recruitment of neutrophils within the pulmonary microvasculature may involve P-selectin. Thus we hypothesized that an antibody against P-selectin would reduce pulmonary damage. Sheep were chronically instrumented and prepared. The first group received 40% body surface area third-degree burns with 48 breaths of cotton smoke and 1 mg/kg of anti-(P-selectin) antibody (termed 3D4) 1 h post injury (n = 5)...
March 2003: Clinical Science (1979-)
Gregory Schears, Jin Shen, Jennifer Creed, Tatiana Zaitseva, David F Wilson, William J Greeley, Anna Pastuszko
Quantitative measurements of oxygen distribution in the microcirculation of the brain cortex of newborn piglets were made during different modes of cardiopulmonary bypass. Three groups of animals, anesthetized and mechanically ventilated, were studied. The first group of animals were maintained on normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) at a flow of 100 ml/kg/min, while the second and third groups underwent low flow hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (40 ml/kg/min at 18 degrees C) (LFCPB) and deep hypothermic (18 degrees C) circulatory arrest (DHCA), respectively...
2003: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Antoine Vieillard-Baron, François Jardin
Even a slight increase in pulmonary vascular resistance can overload a normal right ventricle, which ejects blood through a low-pressure circuit. In a clinical setting, a persistent increase in pulmonary vascular resistance produces acute cor pulmonale. From an echocardiographic point of view, may be defined as the combination of a paradoxical septal motion, reflecting systolic overload, with right ventricular enlargement, reflecting diastolic overload. In patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, this complication reflects the severity of the pulmonary disease involving the microvasculature but may also be caused or exacerbated by an aggressive ventilatory strategy...
February 2003: Current Opinion in Critical Care
William M Maniscalco, Richard H Watkins, Gloria S Pryhuber, Abhay Bhatt, Colleen Shea, Heidie Huyck
Proper formation of the pulmonary microvasculature is essential for normal lung development and gas exchange. Lung microvascular development may be disrupted by chronic injury of developing lungs in clinical diseases such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia. We examined microvascular development, angiogenic growth factors, and endothelial cell receptors in a fetal baboon model of chronic lung disease (CLD). In the last third of gestation, the endothelial cell marker platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1 increased 7...
April 2002: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
T Najarian, A M Marrache, I Dumont, P Hardy, M H Beauchamp, X Hou, K Peri, F Gobeil, D R Varma, S Chemtob
Mechanisms for secondary sustained increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF) during prolonged hypercapnia are unknown. We show that induction of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) by an increase in prostaglandins (PGs) contributes to the secondary CBF increase during hypercapnic acidosis. Ventilation of pigs with 6% CO(2) (PaCO(2 approximately)65 mm Hg; pH approximately 7.2) caused a approximately 2.5-fold increase in CBF at 30 minutes, which declined to basal values at 3 hours and gradually rose again at 6 and 8 hours; the latter increase was associated with PG elevation, nitrite formation, eNOS mRNA expression, and in situ NO synthase (NOS) reactivity (NADPH-diaphorase staining)...
December 8, 2000: Circulation Research
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"