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skeletal muscle quality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906072/actrii-blockade-protects-mice-from-cancer-cachexia-and-prolongs-survival-in-the-presence-of-anti-cancer-treatments
#1
Shinji Hatakeyama, Serge Summermatter, Marie Jourdain, Stefan Melly, Giulia C Minetti, Estelle Lach-Trifilieff
BACKGROUND: Cachexia affects the majority of patients with advanced cancer and is associated with reduced treatment tolerance, response to therapy, quality of life, and life expectancy. Cachectic patients with advanced cancer often receive anti-cancer therapies against their specific cancer type as a standard of care, and whether specific ActRII inhibition is efficacious when combined with anti-cancer agents has not been elucidated yet. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated interactions between ActRII blockade and anti-cancer agents in CT-26 mouse colon cancer-induced cachexia model...
July 26, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903267/skeletal-muscle-quality-as-assessed-by-ct-derived-skeletal-muscle-density-is-associated-with-6-month-mortality-in-mechanically-ventilated-critically-ill-patients
#2
Wilhelmus G P M Looijaard, Ingeborg M Dekker, Sandra N Stapel, Armand R J Girbes, Jos W R Twisk, Heleen M Oudemans-van Straaten, Peter J M Weijs
BACKGROUND: Muscle quantity at intensive care unit (ICU) admission has been independently associated with mortality. In addition to quantity, muscle quality may be important for survival. Muscle quality is influenced by fatty infiltration or myosteatosis, which can be assessed on computed tomography (CT) scans by analysing skeletal muscle density (SMD) and the amount of intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT). We investigated whether CT-derived low skeletal muscle quality at ICU admission is independently associated with 6-month mortality and other clinical outcomes...
December 1, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898947/study-of-bovine-gene-the-temporal-spatial-expression-patterns-polymorphism-and-association-analysis-with-meat-production-traits
#3
E Juszczuk-Kubiak, K Bujko, M Grześ, M Cymer, K Wicińska, A Szostak, M Pierzchała
The gene () encodes a transcription factor belonging to the MEF2 family that plays an important role in myogenesis by transcriptional regulation of genes involved in skeletal muscle growth and development. Despite the established importance of the factors in the muscular growth and development, the temporal-spatial expression and biological function of have not been reported in cattle. The aim of this study was to analyze the level of expression in the developing longissimus dorsi muscle (LM) of 4 cattle breeds (Polish Holstein-Friesian [HF], Limousine [LIM], Hereford [HER], Polish Red [PR]), differing in terms of meat production and utility type, at 6, 9, and 12 mo of age...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898923/growth-and-development-symposium-adenosine-monophosphate-activated-protein-kinase-and-mitochondria-in-rendement-napole-pig-growth
#4
T L Scheffler, D E Gerrard
The Rendement Napole mutation (RN-), which is well known to influence pork quality, also has a profound impact on metabolic characteristics of muscle. Pigs with RN- possess a SNP in the γ3 subunit of adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK); AMPK, a key energy sensor in skeletal muscle, modulates energy producing and energy consuming pathways to maintain cellular homeostasis. Importantly, AMPK regulates not only acute response to energy stress but also facilitates long-term adaptation via changes in gene and protein expression...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893563/resistance-training-improves-muscle-function-and-cardiometabolic-risks-but-not-quality-of-life-in-older-people-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Ping-Lun Hsieh, Chin-Hsiao Tseng, Yufeng Jane Tseng, Wei-Shiung Yang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In older people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the effects of aging and T2DM may compromise the function of skeletal muscle, deteriorate metabolic status, and jeopardize physical performance, aerobic capacity, and quality of life (QoL). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 12 weeks of resistance training (RT) on muscle function, physical performance, cardiometabolic risks, and QoL in older people with T2DM. METHODS: This study was a randomized controlled trial that employed block randomization, assessor blinding, and the intention-to-treat principle...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891297/exercise-rehabilitation-following-intensive-care-unit-discharge-for-recovery-from-critical-illness-executive-summary-of-a-cochrane-collaboration-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Bronwen Connolly, Lisa Salisbury, Brenda O'Neill, Louise Geneen, Abdel Douiri, Michael P W Grocott, Nicholas Hart, Timothy S Walsh, Bronagh Blackwood
Skeletal muscle wasting and weakness are major complications of critical illness and underlie the profound physical and functional impairments experienced by survivors after discharge from the intensive care unit (ICU). Exercise-based rehabilitation has been shown to be beneficial when delivered during ICU admission. This review aimed to determine the effectiveness of exercise rehabilitation initiated after ICU discharge on primary outcomes of functional exercise capacity and health-related quality of life...
December 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886849/prevalence-and-burden-of-comorbidities-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#7
REVIEW
Alexandru Corlateanu, Serghei Covantev, Alexander G Mathioudakis, Victor Botnaru, Nikolaos Siafakas
The classical definition of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) as a lung condition characterized by irreversible airway obstruction is outdated. The systemic involvement in patients with COPD, as well as the interactions between COPD and its comorbidities, justify the description of chronic systemic inflammatory syndrome. The pathogenesis of COPD is closely linked with aging, as well as with cardiovascular, endocrine, musculoskeletal, renal, and gastrointestinal pathologies, decreasing the quality of life of patients with COPD and, furthermore, complicating the management of the disease...
November 2016: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886698/regional-rheumatic-disorders-and-rehabilitation-in-older-adults
#8
REVIEW
Ana T Acevedo, Adrienne Jackson, Katharine E Alter
Musculoskeletal problems are the most frequently reported complaints among older adults living in the community. The impact of the aging process on skeletal muscles and joints can have a profound effect on the ability of individuals with and without disabilities to function. This article reviews the rehabilitation medicine approach to the evaluation of older adults with regional rheumatic disorders, and the rehabilitation medicine considerations for clinical interventions. Future research considerations are encouraged in order to gain a greater understanding of the subject matter and its impact on the provision of care and patients' quality of life...
February 2017: Clinics in Geriatric Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885423/publication-trends-in-cachexia-and-sarcopenia-in-elderly-heart-failure-patients
#9
REVIEW
Jochen Springer, Stefan D Anker
The loss of skeletal mass - sarcopenia and cachexia - is considered to be a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in chronic heart failure (CHF). Unfortunately, sarcopenia is generally considered to be a geriatric syndrome, but not necessarily seen as a comorbidity in CHF, even though it has a wide range of adverse health outcomes. While there were 15,574 publication with the title word "heart failure" in PubMed in the 5‑year period from 1 June 2011 to 31 May 2016, only 22 or 71 publications were found with the search combination "sarcopenia" or "cachexia" (title word) and "heart failure" (all fields), respectively...
November 24, 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876411/disruption-of-mitochondrial-quality-control-in-peripheral-artery-disease-new-therapeutic-opportunities
#10
REVIEW
Cintia B Ueta, Katia S Gomes, Márcio A Ribeiro, Daria Mochly-Rosen, Julio C B Ferreira
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a multifactorial disease initially triggered by reduced blood supply to the lower extremities due to atherosclerotic obstructions. It is considered a major public health problem worldwide, affecting over 200 million people. Management of PAD includes smoking cessation, exercise, statin therapy, antiplatelet therapy, antihypertensive therapy and surgical intervention. Although these pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions usually increases blood flow to the ischemic limb, morbidity and mortality associated with PAD continue to increase...
November 19, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875962/the-beneficial-effects-of-taurine-to-counteract-sarcopenia
#11
Bianca M Scicchitano, Gigliola Sica
Aging is a multifactorial process characterized by several features including low-grade inflammation, increased oxidative stress and reduced regenerative capacity, which ultimately lead to alteration in morpho-functional properties of skeletal muscle, thus promoting sarcopenia. This condition is characterized by a gradual loss of muscle mass due to an unbalance between protein synthesis and degradation, finally conveying in functional decline and disability. The development of specific therapeutic approaches able to block or reverse this condition may represent an invaluable tool for the promotion of a healthy aging among elderly...
November 22, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875947/skeletal-muscle-insulin-resistance-as-a-precursor-to-diabetes-beyond-glucoregulation
#12
Nicholas P Greene, Jacob L Brown, Megan E Rosa-Caldwell, David E Lee, Thomas A Blackwell, Tyrone A Washington
Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) has reached pandemic levels in Western societies. T2DM begins with the development of peripheral insulin resistance which prior research suggests may commonly originate within skeletal muscle. A number of mechanisms have been proposed for the development of muscle insulin resistance including those of classical glucose handling, but also other cellular derangements observed in this disease which include mitochondrial degeneration, alterations in muscle protein turnover and early evidences for dysregulation of microRNAs...
November 22, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862034/homogeneity-of-echo-intensity-values-in-transverse-ultrasound-images
#13
Alyssa N Varanoske, David H Fukuda, Carleigh H Boone, Kyle S Beyer, Jeffrey R Stout, Jay R Hoffman
INTRODUCTION: Echo intensity of skeletal muscle measured via ultrasonography has been used to assess muscle quality, however the heterogeneity of echo intensity has not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, this study examined echo intensity in different sections of panoramic ultrasound images captured in the transverse plane. METHODS: Echo intensity of the vastus lateralis was assessed in 24 men (20.2±1.6 y) using panoramic ultrasonography. Echo intensity homogeneity was examined by dividing each image into 3 compartments of equal horizontal length (tertiles)...
November 11, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858548/cancer-cachexia-beyond-weight-loss
#14
Andrew R Bruggeman, Arif H Kamal, Thomas W LeBlanc, Joseph D Ma, Vickie E Baracos, Eric J Roeland
Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterized by skeletal muscle loss leading to progressive functional impairment. Despite the ubiquity of cachexia in clinical practice, prevention, early identification, and intervention remain challenging. The impact of cancer cachexia on quality of life, treatment-related toxicity, physical function, and mortality are well established; however, establishing a clinically meaningful definition has proven challenging because of the focus on weight loss alone. Attempts to more comprehensively define cachexia through body composition, physical functioning, and molecular biomarkers, while promising, are yet to be routinely incorporated into clinical practice...
November 2016: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856719/the-effect-of-obesity-on-the-contractile-performance-of-isolated-mouse-soleus-edl-and-diaphragm-muscles
#15
Jason Tallis, Cameron Hill, Rob S James, Val M Cox, Frank Seebacher
Obesity affects the major metabolic and cellular processes involved in skeletal muscle contractility. Surprisingly, the effect of obesity on isolated skeletal muscle performance remains unresolved. The present study is the first to examine the muscle specific changes in contractility following dietary induced obesity using an isolated muscle work-loop (WL) model that more closely represents in vivo muscle performance. Following 16-week high calorific feeding, soleus (SOL), extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and diaphragm (DIA) were isolated from female (CD-1) mice and contractile performance compared against a lean control group...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855725/review-of-ryr1-pathway-and-associated-pathomechanisms
#16
REVIEW
Jessica W Witherspoon, Katherine G Meilleur
Ryanodine receptor isoform-1 (RyR1) is a major calcium channel in skeletal muscle important for excitation-contraction coupling. Mutations in the RYR1 gene yield RyR1 protein dysfunction that manifests clinically as RYR1-related congenital myopathies (RYR1-RM) and/or malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS). Individuals with RYR1-RM and/or MHS exhibit varying symptoms and severity. The symptoms impair quality of life and put patients at risk for early mortality, yet the cause of varying severity is not well understood...
November 17, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847330/altered-mitochondrial-quality-control-signaling-in-muscle-of-old-gastric-cancer-patients-with-cachexia
#17
Emanuele Marzetti, Maria Lorenzi, Francesco Landi, Anna Picca, Fausto Rosa, Fabiana Tanganelli, Marco Galli, Giovanni Battista Doglietto, Fabio Pacelli, Matteo Cesari, Roberto Bernabei, Riccardo Calvani, Maurizio Bossola
Mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the loss of muscle featuring both aging and cancer cachexia (CC). Whether mitochondrial quality control (MQC) is altered in skeletal myocytes of old patients with CC is unclear. The present investigation therefore sought to preliminarily characterize MQC pathways in muscle of old gastric cancer patients with cachexia. The study followed a case-control cross-sectional design. Intraoperative biopsies of the rectus abdominis muscle were obtained from 18 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma (nine with CC and nine non-cachectic) and nine controls, and assayed for the expression of a set of MQC mediators...
November 12, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837297/impact-of-skeletal-muscle-mass-muscle-quality-and-visceral-adiposity-on-outcomes-following-resection-of-intrahepatic-cholangiocarcinoma
#18
Shinya Okumura, Toshimi Kaido, Yuhei Hamaguchi, Atsushi Kobayashi, Hisaya Shirai, Yasuhiro Fujimoto, Taku Iida, Shintaro Yagi, Kojiro Taura, Etsuro Hatano, Hideaki Okajima, Shinji Uemoto
BACKGROUND: Decrease in skeletal muscle mass and function, known as sarcopenia, is associated with poor prognosis. Visceral fat accumulation also is related to mortality. This study investigated the impact of preoperative skeletal muscle mass, muscle quality, and visceral adiposity on outcomes in patients undergoing resection of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed of 109 patients undergoing resections of ICC between January 2004 and April 2015...
November 11, 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826103/longer-hypoxia-ischemia-periods-to-neonatal-rats-causes-motor-impairments-and-muscular-changes
#19
L E Durán-Carabali, E F Sanches, M R Marques, D Aristimunha, A Pagnussat, C A Netto
Prematurity and hypoxia-ischemia (HI) can lead to movement disorders in infants. Considering that mild-moderate HI induced at postnatal day (PND) 3 has failed to produce motor disabilities similar to those seen in pre-term newborns, the main goal of the present study was to verify whether longer hypoxia periods would mimic motor function impairment, brain and muscle morphological alterations. Forty-nine Wistar rat pups of both sexes were randomly assigned to surgical control (CG) and HI groups. HI animals were submitted to the Levine-Rice model at PND 3, and exposed to 120 (HI-120'), 180 (HI-180') or 210 (HI-210') minutes of hypoxia (FiO2: 0...
November 5, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825155/muscle-injuries-and-repair-what-s-new-on-the-horizon
#20
Johnny Huard, Aiping Lu, Xiaodong Mu, Ping Guo, Yong Li
Although we recognize the many advantages of improved musculoskeletal health, we also note that our ability to sustain this health and to maintain quality of life in an aging population is currently deficient. However, global efforts have produced numerous advances in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine that will collectively serve to fill this deficiency in the near future. The purpose of this review is to highlight our current knowledge, to outline our recent advances, and to discuss the evolving paradigms in skeletal muscle injury and repair...
2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
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