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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437200/effects-of-dietary-macronutrient-composition-on-fndc5-and-irisin-in-mice-skeletal-muscle
#1
Simone Moreira de Macêdo, Deborah de Farias Lelis, Keila Lopes Mendes, Carlos Alberto de Carvalho Fraga, Igor V Brandi, Jonh David Feltenberger, Lucyana Conceição Farias, André Luiz Sena Guimarães, Alfredo Maurício Batista de Paula, Sérgio Henrique de Sousa Santos
BACKGROUND: Fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5) and its protein product Irisin are therapeutic targets for obesity-associated disorders. Irisin plays an important role in energy regulation, inducing browning of white adipocytes, and improving obesity. We aimed to investigate the association between muscle Irisin expression and dietary quality. METHODS: Twenty-eight female mice were divided into four groups and fed the following experimental diets for 60 days: standard diet (SD), high-carbohydrate diet (HCD), high-fat diet (HFD), and high-protein diet (HPD)...
February 23, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434032/diabetes-bone-and-glucose-lowering-agents-basic-biology
#2
REVIEW
Beata Lecka-Czernik
Skeletal fragility often accompanies diabetes and does not appear to correlate with low bone mass or trauma severity in individuals with diabetes. Instead (and in contrast to those with osteoporotic bone disease), bone remodelling and bone turnover are compromised in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, contributing to defective bone material quality. This review is one of a pair discussing the relationship between diabetes, bone and glucose-lowering agents; an accompanying review is provided in this issue of Diabetologia by Ann Schwartz (DOI: 10...
April 22, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432755/mitochondria-and-ageing-role-in-heart-skeletal-muscle-and-adipose-tissue
#3
REVIEW
Kerstin Boengler, Maik Kosiol, Manuel Mayr, Rainer Schulz, Susanne Rohrbach
Age is the most important risk factor for most diseases. Mitochondria play a central role in bioenergetics and metabolism. In addition, several lines of evidence indicate the impact of mitochondria in lifespan determination and ageing. The best-known hypothesis to explain ageing is the free radical theory, which proposes that cells, organs, and organisms age because they accumulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage over time. Mitochondria play a central role as the principle source of intracellular ROS, which are mainly formed at the level of complex I and III of the respiratory chain...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426898/improving-myoblast-differentiation-on-electrospun-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-scaffolds
#4
Phammela N Abarzúa-Illanes, Cristina Padilla, Andrea Ramos, Mauricio Isaacs, Jorge Ramos-Grez, Hugo C Olguín, Loreto M Valenzuela
Polymer scaffolds are used as an alternative to support tissue regeneration when it does not occur on its own. Cell response on polymer scaffolds is determined by factors such as polymer composition, topology, and the presence of other molecules. We evaluated the cellular response of murine skeletal muscle myoblasts on aligned or unaligned fibers obtained by electrospinning poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), and blends with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) or decorin, a proteoglycan known to regulate myogenesis...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421788/factors-associated-with-sarcopenia-in-institutionalized-elderly
#5
Alice Ferreira Mesquita, Emanuelle Cruz da Silva, Michaela Eickemberg, Anna Karla Carneiro Roriz, Jairza Maria Barreto-Medeiros, Lílian Barbosa Ramos
INTRODUCTION: The sarcopenia is a negative aspect for the health of the elderly, increased the risk for disease and mortality. Additionally can contributes greatly to functional reducing capacity and quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence and factors associated with sarcopenia in institutionalized elderly. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study, conducted with 216 elderly people, aged ≥ 60 years, of both sexes, residents in long-term care facilities in Salvador-Bahia, Brazil...
March 30, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421264/epidemiology-of-sarcopenia-determinants-throughout-the-lifecourse
#6
S C Shaw, E M Dennison, C Cooper
Sarcopenia is an age-related syndrome characterised by progressive and generalised loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength; it is a major contributor to the risk of physical frailty, functional impairment in older people, poor health-related quality of life and premature death. Many different definitions have been used to describe sarcopenia and have resulted in varying estimates of prevalence of the condition. The most recent attempts of definitions have tried to integrate information on muscle mass, strength and physical function and provide a definition that is useful in both research and clinical settings...
April 18, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407698/spermidine-coupled-with-exercise-rescues-skeletal-muscle-atrophy-from-d-gal-induced-aging-rats-through-enhanced-autophagy-and-reduced-apoptosis-via-ampk-foxo3a-signal-pathway
#7
Jingjing Fan, Xiaoqi Yang, Jie Li, Ziyang Shu, Jun Dai, Xingran Liu, Biao Li, Shaohui Jia, Xianjuan Kou, Yi Yang, Ning Chen
The quality control of skeletal muscle is a continuous requirement throughout the lifetime, although its functions and quality present as a declining trend during aging process. Dysfunctional or deficient autophagy and excessive apoptosis may contribute to the atrophy of senescent skeletal muscle. Spermidine, as a natural polyamine, can be involved in important cellular functions for lifespan extension and stress resistance in several model organisms through activating autophagy. Similarly, cellular autophagic responses to exercise have also been extensively investigated...
March 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404879/developmental-transcriptome-profiling-of-bovine-muscle-tissue-reveals-an-abundant-gosb-that-regulates-myoblast-proliferation-and-apoptosis
#8
Hui Li, Xuefeng Wei, Jiameng Yang, Dong Dong, Yongzhen Huang, Xianyong Lan, Martin Plath, Chuzhao Lei, Xinglei Qi, Yueyu Bai, Hong Chen
The formation of bovine skeletal muscle involves complex developmental and physiological processes that play a vital role in determining the quality of beef; however, the regulatory mechanisms underlying differences in meat quality are largely unknown. We conducted transcriptome analysis of bovine muscle tissues to compare gene expression profiles between embryonic and adult stages. Total RNAs from skeletal muscle of Qinchuan cattle at fetal and adult stages were used to construct libraries for Illumina next-generation sequencing using the Ribo-Zero RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) method...
March 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400270/differential-expression-profile-of-mirnas-in-porcine-muscle-and-adipose-tissue-during-development
#9
Qi Wang, Renli Qi, Jing Wang, Wenming Huang, Yongjiang Wu, Huang Xiaofeng, Feiyun Yang, Jinxiu Huang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs that play a crucial regulatory role in many biological processes. Previous studies have reported miRNAs that are associated with the growth, differentiation, and proliferation of myocytes and adipocytes in pigs. However, differences in the miRNA expression profiles between muscle and adipose tissues during porcine development are unknown. Muscle and adipose tissues are the two major organs that are crucial for dynamic energy balance in the development and metabolism...
April 8, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390073/thoracic-muscle-cross-sectional-area-is-associated-with-hospital-length-of-stay-post-lung-transplantation-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#10
Dmitry Rozenberg, Sunita Mathur, Margaret Herridge, Roger Goldstein, Heidi Schmidt, Noori A Chowdhury, Polyana Mendes, Lianne G Singer
Low muscle mass is common in lung transplant (LTx) candidates, however, the clinical implications have not been well described. The study aims were to compare skeletal muscle mass in LTx candidates with controls using thoracic muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) from computed tomography and assess the association with pre- and post-transplant clinical outcomes. This was a retrospective, single centre cohort study of 527 LTx candidates (median age: 55 IQR [42-62] years; 54% male). Thoracic muscle CSA was compared to an age-and sex-matched control group...
April 8, 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383778/the-effect-of-noise-and-lipid-signals-on-determination-of-gaussian-and-non-gaussian-diffusion-parameters-in-skeletal-muscle
#11
Donnie Cameron, Mustapha Bouhrara, David A Reiter, Kenneth W Fishbein, Seongjin Choi, Christopher M Bergeron, Luigi Ferrucci, Richard G Spencer
This work characterizes the effect of lipid and noise signals on muscle diffusion parameter estimation in several conventional and non-Gaussian models, the ultimate objectives being to characterize popular fat suppression approaches for human muscle diffusion studies, to provide simulations to inform experimental work and to report normative non-Gaussian parameter values. The models investigated in this work were the Gaussian monoexponential and intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) models, and the non-Gaussian kurtosis and stretched exponential models...
April 6, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380304/cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing-in-heart-failure-patients-with-specific-comorbidities
#12
Massimo F Piepoli, Ugo Corrà, Piergiuseppe Agostoni
Exercise capacity is one of the most powerful predicting factors of life expectancy, both in patients with and without cardiac disease. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing provides a global assessment of the integrative exercise responses involving the pulmonary, cardiovascular, hematopoietic, neuropsychological, and skeletal muscle systems, which are not adequately reflected through the measurement of individual organ system function. This relatively noninvasive, dynamic, physiologic overview allows the evaluation of both submaximal and peak exercise responses, providing the physician with relevant information for clinical decision making...
April 5, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378745/genome-wide-dna-methylation-profiles-reveal-novel-candidate-genes-associated-with-meat-quality-at-different-age-stages-in-hens
#13
Meng Zhang, Feng-Bin Yan, Fang Li, Ke-Ren Jiang, Dong-Hua Li, Rui-Li Han, Zhuan-Jan Li, Rui-Rui Jiang, Xiao-Jun Liu, Xiang-Tao Kang, Gui-Rong Sun
Poultry meat quality is associated with breed, age, tissue and other factors. Many previous studies have focused on distinct breeds; however, little is known regarding the epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in different age stages, such as DNA methylation. Here, we compared the global DNA methylation profiles between juvenile (20 weeks old) and later laying-period (55 weeks old) hens and identified candidate genes related to the development and meat quality of breast muscle using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing...
April 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378095/measurement-of-muscle-health-in-aging
#14
Peter Francis, Mark Lyons, Mathew Piasecki, Jamie Mc Phee, Karen Hind, Philip Jakeman
Muscle health is a critical component in the struggle against physical frailty and the efforts to maintain metabolic health until the limit of chronological age. Consensus opinion is to evaluate muscle health in terms of muscle mass, strength and functional capability. There has been considerable variability in the components of muscle health which have been investigated in addition to variability in the tools of assessment and protocol for measurement. This is in stark contrast to the validated measurement of bone health across the adult life span...
April 4, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376036/evaluation-of-skeletal-muscle-function-in-lung-transplant-candidates
#15
Dmitry Rozenberg, Lianne G Singer, Margaret Herridge, Roger Goldstein, Lisa Wickerson, Noori A Chowdhury, Sunita Mathur
BACKGROUND: Lung transplantation (LTx) is offered to older and more complex patients who may be at higher risk of skeletal muscle dysfunction, but the clinical implications of this remain uncertain. The study aims were to characterize deficits in skeletal muscle mass, strength and physical performance and examine the associations of these deficits with clinical outcomes. METHODS: Fifty LTx candidates (58% male, 59 ± 9 years) were prospectively evaluated for skeletal muscle deficits: muscle mass using bio-electrical impedance, quadriceps, respiratory muscle and handgrip strength, and physical performance with the Short Physical Performance Battery...
April 3, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374000/effects-of-an-8-month-exercise-intervention-on-physical-capacity-nt-probnp-physical-activity-levels-and-quality-of-life-data-in-patients-with-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-by-nyha-class
#16
Alejandro Santos-Lozano, Paz Sanz-Ayan, Laura González-Saiz, Carlos A Quezada-Loaiza, Carmen Fiuza-Luces, Angela Flox-Camacho, Diego Munguía-Izquierdo, Alfredo Santalla, María Morán, Pilar Escribano-Subías, Alejandro Lucia
This article provides descriptive detailed (pre and post) values of physical capacity variables, NT-proBNP, physical activity levels and quality of life in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PH) (both, intervention and control group) by New York Heart Association (NYHA) class before and after an 8-month exercise intervention. The data are supplemental to our original Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) entitled "Benefits of skeletal-muscle exercise training in pulmonary arterial hypertension: The WHOLEi+12 trial" (L...
June 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357568/high-resolution-metal-artifact-reduction-mr-imaging-of-the-lumbosacral-plexus-in-patients-with-metallic-implants
#17
Shivani Ahlawat, Steven E Stern, Allan J Belzberg, Jan Fritz
OBJECTIVE: To assess the quality and accuracy of metal artifact reduction sequence (MARS) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis of lumbosacral neuropathies in patients with metallic implants in the pelvis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-two subjects with lumbosacral neuropathy following pelvic instrumentation underwent 1.5-T MARS MRI including optimized axial intermediate-weighted and STIR turbo spin echo sequences extending from L5 to the ischial tuberosity...
March 30, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351832/gonad-related-factors-promote-muscle-performance-gain-during-postnatal-development-in-male-and-female-mice
#18
Vanessa Ueberschlag-Pitiot, Amalia Stantzou, Julien Messéant, Megane Lemaitre, Daniel J Owens, Philippe Noirez, Pauline Roy, Onnik Agbulut, Daniel Metzger, Arnaud Ferry
In order to better define the role of male and female gonad-related factors (MGRF, presumably testosterone, and FGRF, presumably estradiol, respectively) on mouse hindlimb skeletal muscle contractile performance/function gain during postnatal development, we analysed the effect of castration initiated before puberty in male and female mice. We found that muscle absolute and specific (normalized to muscle weight) maximal forces were decreased in 6-month old male and female castrated mice, as compared to age- and sex-matched intact mice, without alteration in neuromuscular transmission...
March 28, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348531/mitochondrial-bioenergetics-in-the-metabolic-myopathy-accompanying-peripheral-artery-disease
#19
REVIEW
Victoria G Rontoyanni, Omar Nunez Lopez, Grant T Fankhauser, Zulfiqar F Cheema, Blake B Rasmussen, Craig Porter
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a serious but relatively underdiagnosed and undertreated clinical condition associated with a marked reduction in functional capacity and a heightened risk of morbidity and mortality. The pathophysiology of lower extremity PAD is complex, and extends beyond the atherosclerotic arterial occlusion and subsequent mismatch between oxygen demand and delivery to skeletal muscle mitochondria. In this review, we evaluate and summarize the available evidence implicating mitochondria in the metabolic myopathy that accompanies PAD...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348166/mfn2-is-critical-for-brown-adipose-tissue-thermogenic-function
#20
Marie Boutant, Sameer S Kulkarni, Magali Joffraud, Joanna Ratajczak, Miriam Valera-Alberni, Roy Combe, Antonio Zorzano, Carles Cantó
Mitochondrial fusion and fission events, collectively known as mitochondrial dynamics, act as quality control mechanisms to ensure mitochondrial function and fine-tune cellular bioenergetics. Defective mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) expression and enhanced mitochondrial fission in skeletal muscle are hallmarks of insulin-resistant states. Interestingly, Mfn2 is highly expressed in brown adipose tissue (BAT), yet its role remains unexplored. Using adipose-specific Mfn2 knockout (Mfn2-adKO) mice, we demonstrate that Mfn2, but not Mfn1, deficiency in BAT leads to a profound BAT dysfunction, associated with impaired respiratory capacity and a blunted response to adrenergic stimuli...
March 27, 2017: EMBO Journal
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