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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351644/the-role-of-skeletal-muscle-in-the-pathophysiology-and-management-of-knee-osteoarthritis
#1
Priathashini Krishnasamy, Michelle Hall, Sarah R Robbins
The role of skeletal muscle in the pathophysiology of knee OA is poorly understood. To date, the majority of literature has focused on the association of muscle strength with OA symptoms, disease onset and progression. However, deficits or improvements in skeletal muscle strength do not fully explain the mechanisms behind outcome measures in knee OA, such as pain, function and structural disease. This review aims to summarize components of skeletal muscle, providing a holistic view of skeletal muscle mechanisms that includes muscle function, quality and composition and their interactions...
January 16, 2018: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350403/influence-of-contrast-administration-on-computed-tomography-based-analysis-of-visceral-adipose-and-skeletal-muscle-tissue-in-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#2
Michael T Paris, Helena F Furberg, Stacey Petruzella, Oguz Akin, Andreas M Hötker, Marina Mourtzakis
BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) scans are being utilized to examine the influence of skeletal muscle and visceral adipose quantity and quality on health-related outcomes in clinical populations. However, little is known about the influence of contrast administration on these parameters. METHODS: Precontrast, arterial, and 3-minute postcontrast CT images of 45 patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma were downloaded from The Cancer Imaging Archive and retrospectively analyzed for visceral adipose cross-sectional area (CSA) and density, and muscle CSA and density at the third lumbar vertebrae...
January 19, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345251/cancer-associated-cachexia
#3
REVIEW
Vickie E Baracos, Lisa Martin, Murray Korc, Denis C Guttridge, Kenneth C H Fearon
Cancer-associated cachexia is a disorder characterized by loss of body weight with specific losses of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Cachexia is driven by a variable combination of reduced food intake and metabolic changes, including elevated energy expenditure, excess catabolism and inflammation. Cachexia is highly associated with cancers of the pancreas, oesophagus, stomach, lung, liver and bowel; this group of malignancies is responsible for half of all cancer deaths worldwide. Cachexia involves diverse mediators derived from the cancer cells and cells within the tumour microenvironment, including inflammatory and immune cells...
January 18, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344967/predictive-neuromechanical-simulations-indicate-why-walking-performance-declines-with-aging
#4
Seungmoon Song, Hartmut Geyer
Healthy elderly people walk slower and energetically less efficiently than young adults. This decline in walking performance lowers the quality of life for a growing aging population, and understanding its physiological origin is critical for devising interventions that can delay or revert it. However, the origin of the decline in walking performance remains unknown, as aging produces a range of physiological changes whose individual effects on gait are difficult to separate in experiments with human subjects...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344250/prevention-of-body-weight-loss-and-sarcopenia-by-a-novel-selective-androgen-receptor-modulator-in-cancer-cachexia-models
#5
Megumi Morimoto, Katsuji Aikawa, Takahito Hara, Masuo Yamaoka
Cancer cachexia is a syndrome that impairs the quality of life and overall survival of patients, and thus the effectiveness of anticancer agents. There are no effective therapies for cancer cachexia due to the complexity of the syndrome, and insufficient knowledge of its pathogenesis results in difficulty establishing appropriate animal models. Previously, promising results have been obtained in clinical trials using novel agents including the ghrelin receptor agonist anamorelin, and the selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) enobosarm to treat cachexia in patients with cancer...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343219/the-preliminary-effect-of-whole-body-vibration-intervention-on-improving-the-skeletal-muscle-mass-index-physical-fitness-and-quality-of-life-among-older-people-with-sarcopenia
#6
Shu-Fang Chang, Pei-Chen Lin, Rong-Sen Yang, Rea-Jeng Yang
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that sarcopenia easily leads to difficulty moving, disability, and poor quality of life. However, researches on the use of whole-body vibration for older adults with sarcopenia living in institutions have been lacking. Therefore, the main objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of whole-body vibration intervention on improving the skeletal muscle mass index, physical fitness, and quality of life of older adults with sarcopenia living in institutions...
January 17, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331050/exercise-counteracts-lipotoxicity-by-improving-lipid-turnover-and-lipid-droplet-quality
#7
Evelyn Zacharewicz, Matthijs K C Hesselink, Patrick Schrauwen
The incidence of obesity and metabolic disease, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), are rising globally. Dietary lipid over-supply leads to lipid accumulation at ectopic sites, such as skeletal muscle. Ectopic lipid storage is highly correlated with insulin resistance and T2D, likely due to a loss of metabolic flexibility - the capacity to switch between fat and glucose oxidation upon insulin stimulation - and cellular dysfunction because of lipotoxicity. However, muscle lipid levels are also elevated in endurance trained athletes, presenting a paradoxical phenotype of increased intramuscular lipids along with high insulin sensitivity - the "athletes' paradox"...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326089/associations-between-markers-of-oxidative-stress-skeletal-muscle-mass-and-function-and-to-the-influence-of-resistance-exercise-training-in-older-adults
#8
Ciriaco Carru, Mariasole Da Boit, Panagiotis Paliogiannis, Angelo Zinellu, Salvatore Sotgia, Rachael Sibson, Judith R Meakin, Richard M Aspden, Arduino A Mangoni, Stuart R Gray
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress (OS) negatively affects skeletal muscle homeostasis in experimental models of ageing. However, little is known about the associations between circulating OS markers and parameters of muscle mass and function, and their responses to exercise training, in humans. METHODS: Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC, primary outcome) and isokinetic torque of the knee extensors at 30° s-1 (MIT), muscle cross-sectional area (MCSA) and quality (MQ, secondary outcomes), and plasma concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA, pro-OS), homocysteine (HCY, pro-OS), taurine (TAU, anti-OS), and protein sulphydryl groups (PSH, anti-OS) were measured in 27 healthy older males and 23 females at baseline and after an 18-week resistance exercise program, with or without a nutritional intervention (fish oil vs...
January 8, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320759/identification-of-key-micrornas-affecting-drip-loss-in-porcine-longissimus-dorsi-by-rna-seq
#9
Wei Wei, Bojiang Li, Kaiqing Liu, Aiwen Jiang, Chao Dong, Chao Jia, Jie Chen, Honglin Liu, Wangjun Wu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of ~22-nt non-coding small RNA that play an important role in various metabolic processes, mainly through suppressing the expression of protein coding genes at post-transcriptional level. Drip loss (DL) is one of the most important meat quality traits affecting the end product yield and quality of pork. To date, the underlying regulatory factors involved in DL trait are still incompletely understood. In the present study, we constructed two small RNA libraries with longissimus dorsi muscles from the higher (WJJ-H group) and the lower DL (WJJ-L group) individuals, and applied RNA-Seq technology to identify the differentially expressed miRNAs between the two extreme phenotypes of DL groups...
January 7, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315892/effects-of-fasted-vs-fed-state-exercise-on-performance-and-post-exercise-metabolism-a-systematic-review-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Tom P Aird, Robert W Davies, Brian P Carson
The effects of nutrition on exercise metabolism and performance remains an important topic among sports scientists, clinical, and athletic populations. Recently, fasted exercise has garnered interest as a beneficial stimulus which induces superior metabolic adaptations to fed exercise in key peripheral tissues. Conversely, pre-exercise feeding augments exercise performance compared with fasting conditions. Given these seemingly divergent effects on performance and metabolism, an appraisal of the literature is warranted...
January 6, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306638/rectus-abdominis-detrusor-myoplasty-radm-for-acontractile-hypocontractile-bladder-in-spinal-cord-injury-patients-preliminary-report
#11
Pawan Agarwal, Shabbir Husain, Sudesh Wankhede, D Sharma
BACKGROUND: Urinary bladder dysfunction in the form of acontractile/hypocontractile bladder is very common after spinal cord injury and it may lead to recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI), stones formation, and deteriorating renal function. Conventionally, these patients evacuate their bladders by life-long clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) or an indwelling catheter (IC). For these patients, another option is to use innervated skeletal muscle wrap around the bladder to augment detrusor function and voluntary evacuation of bladder...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304744/a-randomised-controlled-intervention-study-investigating-the-efficacy-of-carotenoid-rich-fruits-and-vegetables-and-extra-virgin-olive-oil-on-attenuating-sarcopenic-symptomology-in-overweight-and-obese-older-adults-during-energy-intake-restriction-protocol-paper
#12
Anthony Villani, Hattie Wright, Gary Slater, Jonathan Buckley
BACKGROUND: Weight loss interventions have not been advocated for overweight/obese older adults due to potential loss of skeletal muscle and strength impacting on physical function with potential loss of independence. Carotenoids and polyphenols are inversely associated with sarcopenic symptomology. This paper reports the protocol of a study evaluating the efficacy of a high-protein, energy restricted diet rich in carotenoids and polyphenols on body composition, muscle strength, physical performance and quality of life in overweight and obese older adults...
January 5, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301558/leucine-and-ace-inhibitors-as-therapies-for-sarcopenia-lace-trial-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#13
Margaret M Band, Deepa Sumukadas, Allan D Struthers, Alison Avenell, Peter T Donnan, Paul R Kemp, Karen T Smith, Cheryl L Hume, Adrian Hapca, Miles D Witham
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia (the age-related loss of muscle mass and function) is a major contributor to loss of mobility, falls, loss of independence, morbidity and mortality in older people. Although resistance training is effective in preventing and reversing sarcopenia, many older people are sedentary and either cannot or do not want to exercise. This trial examines the efficacy of supplementation with the amino acid leucine and/or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition to potentially improve muscle mass and function in people with sarcopenia...
January 4, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287693/ultrasonography-to-measure-swallowing-muscle-mass-and-quality-in-older-patients-with-sarcopenic-dysphagia
#14
Nami Ogawa, Takashi Mori, Ichiro Fujishima, Hidetaka Wakabayashi, Masataka Itoda, Kenjiro Kunieda, Takashi Shigematsu, Shinta Nishioka, Haruka Tohara, Minoru Yamada, Sumito Ogawa
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenic dysphagia is characterized by difficulty swallowing due to a loss of whole-body skeletal and swallowing muscle mass and function. However, no study has reported on swallowing muscle mass and quality in patients with sarcopenic dysphagia. OBJECTIVE: To compare the differences in swallowing muscle mass and quality between sarcopenic and nonsarcopenic dysphagia. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was performed in 55 older patients, who had been recommended to undergo dysphagia assessment and/or rehabilitation...
December 26, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273087/comparison-of-multiple-transcriptomes-exposes-unified-and-divergent-features-of-quiescent-and-activated-skeletal-muscle-stem-cells
#15
Natalia Pietrosemoli, Sébastien Mella, Siham Yennek, Meryem B Baghdadi, Hiroshi Sakai, Ramkumar Sambasivan, Francesca Pala, Daniela Di Girolamo, Shahragim Tajbakhsh
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle satellite (stem) cells are quiescent in adult mice and can undergo multiple rounds of proliferation and self-renewal following muscle injury. Several labs have profiled transcripts of myogenic cells during the developmental and adult myogenesis with the aim of identifying quiescent markers. Here, we focused on the quiescent cell state and generated new transcriptome profiles that include subfractionations of adult satellite cell populations, and an artificially induced prenatal quiescent state, to identify core signatures for quiescent and proliferating...
December 22, 2017: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249977/response-of-turkey-muscle-satellite-cells-to-thermal-challenge-ii-transcriptome-effects-in-differentiating-cells
#16
Kent M Reed, Kristelle M Mendoza, Gale M Strasburg, Sandra G Velleman
Background: Exposure of poultry to extreme temperatures during the critical period of post-hatch growth can seriously affect muscle development and thus compromise subsequent meat quality. This study was designed to characterize transcriptional changes induced in turkey muscle satellite cells by thermal challenge during differentiation. Our goal is to better define how thermal stress alters breast muscle ultrastructure and subsequent development. Results: Skeletal muscle satellite cells previously isolated from the Pectoralis major muscle of 7-wk-old male turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) from two breeding lines: the F-line (16 wk body weight-selected) and RBC2 (randombred control line) were used in this study...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240672/amount-distribution-and-quality-of-protein-intake-are-not-associated-with-muscle-mass-strength-and-power-in-healthy-older-adults-without-functional-limitations-an-enable-study
#17
Anne Gingrich, Alexandra Spiegel, Robert Kob, Daniel Schoene, Thomas Skurk, Hans Hauner, Cornel C Sieber, Dorothee Volkert, Eva Kiesswetter
To maintain muscle mass in older age, several aspects regarding the amount and distribution of protein intake have been suggested. Our objective was to investigate single and combined associations of daily protein intake, evenness of protein distribution across the three main meals, number of meals providing ≥0.4 g protein/kg body weight (BW), and number of meals providing ≥2.5 g leucine, with muscle mass, strength, and power in successful agers. In this cross-sectional study in 97 healthy community-dwelling adults without functional limitations aged 75-85 years, protein intake was assessed using 7-day food records...
December 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239490/proteomic-changes-of-the-porcine-skeletal-muscle-in-response-to-chronic-heat-stress
#18
Yanjun Cui, Yue Hao, Jielei Li, Yanli Gao, Xianhong Gu
BACKGROUND: Heat stress (HS) has an adverse effect on meat quality; yet, the underlying molecular mechanisms altering meat quality due to muscle responses to stress remain unclear. Sixteen castrated male crossbreeds between Landrace × Yorkshire sows and Duroc boars (79.00 ± 1.50 kg body weight) were exposed to either thermal neutral (22 °C, n=8) or heat stress (30 °C, n=8) conditions for 3 weeks. Subsequently, the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of all pigs was assayed for meat quality parameters and proteome analysis...
December 14, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234200/nutrition-and-muscle-in-cirrhosis
#19
REVIEW
Anil C Anand
As the cirrhosis progresses, development of complication like ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, variceal bleeding, kidney dysfunction, and hepatocellular carcinoma signify increasing risk of short term mortality. Malnutrition and muscle wasting (sarcopenia) is yet other complications that negatively impact survival, quality of life, and response to stressors, such as infection and surgery in patients with cirrhosis. Conventionally, these are not routinely looked for, because nutritional assessment can be a difficult especially if there is associated fluid retention and/or obesity...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231963/body-composition-in-long-term-survivors-of-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-diagnosed-in-childhood-and-adolescence-a-focus-on-sarcopenic-obesity
#20
Christopher J C Marriott, Lesley F Beaumont, Troy H Farncombe, Amy N Cranston, Uma H Athale, Valerie N Yakemchuk, Colin E Webber, Ronald D Barr
BACKGROUND: The late effects of treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) include disordered body composition, especially obesity. Less attention has been focused on the loss of skeletal muscle mass (SMM) and the combined morbidity of sarcopenic obesity. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of body composition was undertaken via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in 75 long-term survivors of ALL (more than 10 years after the diagnosis). Measures were obtained of the fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (equivalent to the lean body mass [LBM]), and whole-body bone mineral content...
December 12, 2017: Cancer
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