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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817830/microrna-200a-inhibits-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1-induced-proximal-tubular-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-by-targeting-%C3%AE-catenin
#1
Yi Gong, Zhexue Qin, Baoshang Zhou, Hua Chen, Zhengmin Shi, Jing Zhang
BACKGROUND: The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial event in the development of renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF). A growing body of evidence indicates that β-catenin plays an important role in various types of fibrosis. Although members of the microRNA (miRNA)-200 family have been suggested to suppress EMT in cancer and fibrosis, the function of miRNA-200a in regulating the progression of RIF is unknown. We speculate that miRNA-200a may hinder this progression through the suppression of β-catenin...
August 18, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817816/exosomes-derived-from-human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promote-tumor-growth-through-hedgehog-signaling-pathway
#2
Jin Qi, Yali Zhou, Zuoyi Jiao, Xu Wang, Yang Zhao, Yangbin Li, Huijuan Chen, Luxi Yang, Hongwen Zhu, Yumin Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are known to home to sites of tumor microenvironments where they participate in the formation of the tumor microenvironment and to interplay with tumor cells. However, the potential functional effects of MSCs on tumor cell growth are controversial. Here, we, from the view of bone marrow MSC-derived exosomes, study the molecular mechanism of MSCs on the growth of human osteosarcoma and human gastric cancer cells. METHODS: MSCs derived from human bone marrow (hBMSCs) were isolated and cultured in complete DMEM/F12 supplemented with 10% exosome-depleted fetal bovine serum and 1% penicillin-streptomycin, cell culture supernatants containing exosomes were harvested and exosome purification was performed by ultracentrifugation...
August 16, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817810/tgf-%C3%AE-1-is-involved-in-vitamin-d-induced-chondrogenic-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-by-regulating-the-erk-jnk-pathway
#3
Xiaorui Jiang, Botao Huang, Huiying Yang, Guishi Li, Chunlei Zhang, Guangshi Yang, Feng Lin, Guodong Lin
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by degradation of cartilage, sole cell type of which is chondrocytes. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) possess multipotency and can be directionally differentiated into chondrocytes under stimulation. This study was aimed to explore the possible roles of vitamin D and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in the chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs. METHODS: BMSCs were isolated from femurs and tibias of rats and characterized by flow cytometry...
August 16, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817802/molecular-memory-of-morphologies-by-septins-during-neuron-generation-allows-early-polarity-inheritance
#4
Leila Boubakar, Julien Falk, Hugo Ducuing, Karine Thoinet, Florie Reynaud, Edmund Derrington, Valérie Castellani
Transmission of polarity established early during cell lineage history is emerging as a key process guiding cell differentiation. Highly polarized neurons provide a fascinating model to study inheritance of polarity over cell generations and across morphological transitions. Neural crest cells (NCCs) migrate to the dorsal root ganglia to generate neurons directly or after cell divisions in situ. Using live imaging of vertebrate embryo slices, we found that bipolar NCC progenitors lose their polarity, retracting their processes to round for division, but generate neurons with bipolar morphology by emitting processes from the same locations as the progenitor...
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817801/a-sensitized-igf1-treatment-restores-corticospinal-axon-dependent-functions
#5
Yuanyuan Liu, Xuhua Wang, Wenlei Li, Qian Zhang, Yi Li, Zicong Zhang, Junjie Zhu, Bo Chen, Philip R Williams, Yiming Zhang, Bin Yu, Xiaosong Gu, Zhigang He
A major hurdle for functional recovery after both spinal cord injury and cortical stroke is the limited regrowth of the axons in the corticospinal tract (CST) that originate in the motor cortex and innervate the spinal cord. Despite recent advances in engaging the intrinsic mechanisms that control CST regrowth, it remains to be tested whether such methods can promote functional recovery in translatable settings. Here we show that post-lesional AAV-assisted co-expression of two soluble proteins, namely insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and osteopontin (OPN), in cortical neurons leads to robust CST regrowth and the recovery of CST-dependent behavioral performance after both T10 lateral spinal hemisection and a unilateral cortical stroke...
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817787/evaluation-of-the-electron-transfer-flavoprotein-etf-as-an-antibacterial-target-in-burkholderia-cenocepacia
#6
Maria S Stietz, Christina Lopez, Osasumwen Osifo, Marcelo Tolmasky, Silvia T Cardona
There are hundreds of essential genes in multidrug resistant bacterial genomes, but only a few of their products are exploited as antibacterial targets. An example is the electron flavoprotein (ETF) which is required for growth and viability in <i>Burkholderia cenocepacia</i>. Here, we evaluated ETF as an antibiotic target for <i>Burkholderia cepacia</i> complex (Bcc). Depletion of the bacterial ETF during infection of <i>Caenorhabditis elegans</i> significantly extended survival of the nematodes, proving that ETF is essential for survival of <i>B...
August 17, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817784/hydrogen-peroxide-regulates-angiogenesis-related-factors-in-tumor-cells
#7
Ana Jerónimo, Gonçalo Rodrigues, Filipe Vilas-Boas, Gabriel G Martins, Ana Bagulho, Carla Real
Tumor angiogenesis is required for tumor development and growth and is regulated by several factors including reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>) is a ROS with an important role in cell signaling but how H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> regulates tumor angiogenesis is still poorly understood. We have xenografted tumor cells with altered levels of H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> by catalase overexpression into zebrafish embryos to study redox-induced tumor neovascularization...
August 17, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817771/ice-templated-and-cross-linked-amyloid-fibril-aerogel-scaffolds-for-cell-growth
#8
Gustav Nyström, Wye-Khay Fong, Raffaele Mezzenga
Amyloid fibrils prepared from β-lactoglobulin were used to form freeze-dried and cross-linked aerogels. By varying the fibril concentration and freezing gradient, it was possible to control the pore structure and elastic modulus of the aerogels over one order of magnitude from ~2 to ~200 kPa. Using butane tetracarboxylic acid as cross-linker these aerogels maintained their monolithic shape in aqueous conditions displaying elastic behavior and a modulus in the range of 4-40 kPa. When explored as scaffolds for cell growth, the amyloid fibril aerogels demonstrated biocompatibility and led to the successful penetration and permeation of two epithelial cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29) throughout the scaffold...
August 17, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817683/genome-wide-association-analysis-of-cold-tolerance-at-germination-in-temperate-japonica-rice-oryza-sativa-l-varieties
#9
Ester Sales, Juan Viruel, Concha Domingo, Luis Marqués
A pool of 200 traditional, landraces and modern elite and old cultivars of rice, mainly japonica varieties adapted to temperate regions, have been used to perform a genome wide association study to detect chromosome regions associated to low temperature germination (LTG) regulation using a panel of 1672 SNP markers. Phenotyping was performed by determining growth rates when seeds were germinated at 25° and 15°C in order to separate the germination vigorousness from cold tolerance effects. As expected, the ability to produce viable seedlings varied widely among rice cultivars and also depended greatly on temperature...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817665/concentrations-of-trace-elements-in-human-milk-comparisons-among-women-in-argentina-namibia-poland-and-the-united-states
#10
Laura D Klein, Alicia A Breakey, Brooke Scelza, Claudia Valeggia, Grazyna Jasienska, Katie Hinde
Human milk contains essential micronutrients for growth and development during early life. Environmental pollutants, such as potentially toxic metals, can also be transferred to the infant through human milk. These elements have been well-studied, but changing diets and environments and advances in laboratory technology require re-examining these elements in a variety of settings. The aim of this study was to characterize the concentrations of essential and toxic metals in human milk from four diverse populations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817658/hyperspectral-prediction-of-leaf-area-index-of-winter-wheat-in-irrigated-and-rainfed-fields
#11
Guangxin Li, Chao Wang, Meichen Feng, Wude Yang, Fangzhou Li, Ruiyun Feng
The growth status of winter wheat in irrigated field and rainfed field are obviously different and the field types may have an effect on the predictive accuracy of hyperspectral model. The objectives of the present study were to understand the difference of spectral sensitive wavelengths for leaf area index (LAI) in two field types and realize its hyperspectral prediction. In study, a total of 31 and 28 sample sites in irrigated fields and rainfed fields respectively were selected from Wenxi County, and the LAI and canopy spectra were also collected at the main grow stage of winter wheat...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817639/impacts-of-forest-restoration-on-water-yield-a-systematic-review
#12
Solange Filoso, Maíra Ometto Bezerra, Katherine C B Weiss, Margaret A Palmer
BACKGROUND: Enhancing water provision services is a common target in forest restoration projects worldwide due to growing concerns over freshwater scarcity. However, whether or not forest cover expansion or restoration can improve water provision services is still unclear and highly disputed. PURPOSE: The goal of this review is to provide a balanced and impartial assessment of the impacts of forest restoration and forest cover expansion on water yields as informed by the scientific literature...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817627/analysing-researchers-outreach-efforts-and-the-association-with-publication-metrics-a-case-study-of-kudos
#13
Mojisola Erdt, Htet Htet Aung, Ashley Sara Aw, Charlie Rapple, Yin-Leng Theng
With the growth of scholarly collaboration networks and social communication platforms, members of the scholarly community are experimenting with their approach to disseminating research outputs, in an effort to increase their audience and outreach. However, from a researcher's point of view, it is difficult to determine whether efforts to make work more visible are worthwhile (in terms of the association with publication metrics) and within that, difficult to assess which platform or network is most effective for sharing work and connecting to a wider audience...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817611/the-directed-migration-of-gonadal-distal-tip-cells-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-requires-ngat-1-a-%C3%A3-1-4-n-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-enzyme
#14
Joseph Veyhl, Robert J Dunn, Wendy L Johnston, Alexa Bennett, Lijia W Zhang, James W Dennis, Harry Schachter, Joseph G Culotti
Glycoproteins such as growth factor receptors and extracellular matrix have well-known functions in development and cancer progression, however, the glycans at sites of modification are often heterogeneous molecular populations which makes their functional characterization challenging. Here we provide evidence for a specific, discrete, well-defined glycan modification and regulation of a stage-specific cell migration in Caenorhabditis elegans. We show that a chain-terminating, putative null mutation in the gene encoding a predicted β1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase, named ngat-1, causes a maternally rescued temperature sensitive (ts) defect in the second phase of the three phase migration pattern of the posterior, but not the anterior, hermaphrodite Distal Tip Cell (DTC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817600/development-and-evaluation-of-height-diameter-at-breast-models-for-native-chinese-metasequoia
#15
Mu Liu, Zhongke Feng, Zhixiang Zhang, Chenghui Ma, Mingming Wang, Bo-Ling Lian, Renjie Sun, Li Zhang
Accurate tree height and diameter at breast height (dbh) are important input variables for growth and yield models. A total of 5503 Chinese Metasequoia trees were used in this study. We studied 53 fitted models, of which 7 were linear models and 46 were non-linear models. These models were divided into two groups of single models and multivariate models according to the number of independent variables. The results show that the allometry equation of tree height which has diameter at breast height as independent variable can better reflect the change of tree height; in addition the prediction accuracy of the multivariate composite models is higher than that of the single variable models...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817576/gestational-diabetes-mellitus-is-associated-with-increased-pro-migratory-activation-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-receptor-2-and-reduced-expression-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-receptor-1
#16
Felipe Troncoso, Jesenia Acurio, Kurt Herlitz, Claudio Aguayo, Patricio Bertoglia, Enrique Guzman-Gutierrez, Marco Loyola, Marcelo Gonzalez, Meriem Rezgaoui, Gernot Desoye, Carlos Escudero
Placentas from gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are often hypervascularized; however, participation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors in this placental adaptation is unclear. We aimed to test whether changes in phosphorylation of tyrosine 951 or tyrosine 1175 (pY951 or pY1175) of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (KDR) are associated with the proangiogenic state observed in placentas from GDM. We obtained placental samples from women with normal pregnancies (n = 24) or GDM (n = 18)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817575/mck1-is-a-novel-regulator-of-myo-inositol-phosphate-synthase-mips-that-is-required-for-inhibition-of-inositol-synthesis-by-the-mood-stabilizer-valproate
#17
Wenxi Yu, Joshua Daniel, Dhara Mehta, Krishna Rao Maddipati, Miriam L Greenberg
Myo-inositol, the precursor of all inositol compounds, is essential for the viability of eukaryotes. Identifying the factors that regulate inositol homeostasis is of obvious importance to understanding cell function and the pathologies underlying neurological and metabolic resulting from perturbation of inositol metabolism. The current study identifies Mck1, a GSK3 homolog, as a novel positive regulator of inositol de novo synthesis in yeast. Mck1 was required for normal activity of myo-inositol phosphate synthase (MIPS), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step of inositol synthesis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817487/inhibiting-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-1b-to-improve-regenerative-functions-of-endothelial-cells
#18
Yuan Wang, Feng Yan, Wenjing Zhang, Shu Pang, Fan Jiang
Protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B) is an important negative regulator of insulin receptor- and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-dependent signalings in endothelial cells. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of PTP1B has been shown to enhance endothelial cell proliferation and migration, and increase nitric oxide production. In vivo, inhibiting PTP1B can reverse endothelial dysfunction, promote angiogenesis, and accelerate wound healing. Intense research is currently continuing in an effort to discover novel selective PTP1B inhibitors, primarily for treating insulin resistance...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817457/a-comparison-by-meta-analysis-of-papillary-early-gastric-carcinoma-to-its-tubular-counterpart-for-the-risk-of-lymph-node-metastasis-and-submucosal-invasion
#19
Xiao-Yong Wang, Jin Yan, Jia Wu, Yi-Feng Zhang, Guo-Xin Zhang
BACKGROUND AND AIM: At present, the decision to perform endoscopic resection for treating either papillary early gastric cancer (EGC) or tubular EGC is made according to identical criteria. However, there is controversy in the literature whether the risk of lymph node metastasis (LNM) and submucosal invasion for both disease modalities is equal, and this prompts investigation to clarify this issue. METHODS: The PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched for relevant studies published up to January 2017...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817455/jak-kinase-3-signaling-in-microgliogenesis-from-the-spinal-nestin-progenitors-in-both-development-and-response-to-injury
#20
Sumit Barua, Jee-In Chung, A Young Kim, Soo-Yeon Lee, Soo Hwan Lee, Eun Joo Baik
During spinal cord development, endogenous progenitors expressing nestin can migrate into the target and differentiate into neurons and other glial cells. Microglial cells can also be derived from nestin progenitor cells, even in the adult brain. Knockdown of Jak kinase 3 (Jak3) signaling can increase neurogenesis with longer neurite outgrowth in cortical progenitor cells. This study investigated the effect of Jak3 signaling on differentiation from nestin progenitor cells using E13.5 spinal progenitor cell cultures...
August 16, 2017: Neuroreport
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