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lymphopenia causes

Erez Rechavi, Atar Lev, Eran Eyal, Ortal Barel, Nitzan Kol, Sarit Farage Barhom, Ben Pode-Shakked, Yair Anikster, Raz Somech, Amos J Simon
PURPOSE: Immunodeficiency, centromeric instability, and facial anomalies (ICF) syndrome is an extremely rare autosomal recessive disease. The immune phenotype is characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia in the presence of B cells. T cell lymphopenia also develops in some patients. We sought to further investigate the immune defect in an ICF patient with a novel missense mutation in DNMT3B and a severe phenotype. METHODS: Patient lymphocytes were examined for subset counts, immunoglobulin levels, T and B cell de novo production (via excision circles) and receptor repertoire diversity...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical Immunology
Anthony L Desbien
A clear index for a response to adjuvants is a change in the cellular composition of lymph nodes draining the site of adjuvant injection (Didierlaurent et al., J Immunol 183:6186-6197, 2009; Caproni et al., J Immunol 188:3088-98, 2012; Desbien et al., Eur J Immunol 1-11, 2014). During the steady state, lymph nodes (LNs) are composed of a fixed ratio of innate and adaptive cells awaiting activation signals from tissue draining lymph. Upon exposure to innate stimulants, lymph nodes undergo dramatic changes. The most apparent change to the lymph node is an increase in size...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Kesava A Ramakrishnan, Reuben J Pengelly, Yifang Gao, Mary Morgan, Sanjay V Patel, E Graham Davies, Sarah Ennis, Saul N Faust, Anthony P Williams
BACKGROUND: Methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD1) deficiency has recently been reported to cause a folate-responsive syndrome displaying a phenotype that includes megaloblastic anemia and severe combined immunodeficiency. OBJECTIVE: To describe our investigative approach to the molecular diagnosis and evaluation of immune dysfunction in a family with MTHFD1 deficiency. METHODS: The methods used were exome sequencing and analysis of variants in genes involved in the folate metabolic pathway in a family with 2 affected siblings...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Marcel Doerflinger, Jason Glab, Christina Nedeva, Irvin Jose, Ann Lin, Lorraine O'Reilly, Cody Allison, Marc Pellegrini, Richard S Hotchkiss, Hamsa Puthalakath
Sepsis-induced lymphopenia is a major cause of morbidities in intensive care units and in populations with chronic conditions such as renal failure, diabetes, HIV and alcohol abuse. Currently, other than supportive care and antibiotics, there are no treatments for this condition. We developed an in vitro assay to understand the role of the ER-stress-mediated apoptosis process in lymphocyte death during polymicrobial sepsis, which was reproducible in in vivo mouse models. Modulating ER stress using chemical chaperones significantly reduced the induction of the pro-apoptotic protein Bim both in vitro and in mice...
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
Nasr Y A Hemdan, Cynthia Weigel, Christina-Maria Reimann, Markus H Gräler
Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response to pathogens and a leading cause of hospital related mortality worldwide. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) regulates multiple cellular processes potentially involved in the pathogenesis of sepsis, including antigen presentation, lymphocyte egress, and maintenance of vascular integrity. We thus explored the impact of manipulating S1P signaling in experimental polymicrobial sepsis in mice. Administration of 4-deoxypyridoxine (DOP), an inhibitor of the S1P-degrading enzyme S1P-lyase, or of the sphingosine analogue FTY720 that serves as an S1P receptor agonist after phosphorylation ameliorated morbidity, improved recovery from sepsis in surviving mice, and reduced sepsis-elicited hypothermia and body weight loss...
September 29, 2016: European Journal of Immunology
Lianwen Zhang, Michael B Steele, Nathan Jenks, Jacquelyn Grell, Lukkana Suksanpaisan, Shruthi Naik, Mark J Federspiel, Martha Q Lacy, Stephen J Russell, Kah-Whye Peng
Oncolytic VSV-IFNβ-NIS is selectively destructive to tumors. Here, we present the IND enabling preclinical rodent studies in support of clinical testing of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) as a systemic therapy. Efficacy studies showed dose-dependent tumor regression in C57BL/KaLwRij mice bearing syngeneic 5TGM1 plasmacytomas after systemic VSV administration. In contrast, the virus was effective at all doses tested against human KAS6/1 xenografts in SCID mice. Intravenous administration of VSV-mIFNβ-NIS is well tolerated in C57BL/6 mice up to 5 × 10(10) TCID50 (50% tissue culture infective dose)/kg with no neurovirulence, no cytokine storm, and no abnormalities in tissues...
September 2016: Human Gene Therapy. Clinical Development
S A Beigh, J S Soodan, A M Bhat
The present study was aimed to determine the effect on liver, associated oxidative stress, trace element and vitamin alteration in dogs with sarcoptic mange. A total of 24 dogs with clinically established diagnosis of sarcoptic mange, divided into two groups, severely infested group (n=9) and mild/moderately infested group (n=15), according to the extent of skin lesions caused by sarcoptic mange and 6 dogs as control group were included in the present study. In comparison to healthy control hemoglobin, PCV, and TEC were significantly (P<0...
August 30, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Christopher M Harris, Scott Mittelstadt, Patricia Banfor, Peter Bousquet, David B Duignan, Gary Gintant, Michelle Hart, Youngjae Kim, Jason Segreti
Inhibition of the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-catabolizing enzyme S1P lyase (S1PL) elevates the native ligand of S1P receptors and provides an alternative mechanism for immune suppression to synthetic S1P receptor agonists. S1PL inhibition is reported to preferentially elevate S1P in lymphoid organs. Tissue selectivity could potentially differentiate S1PL inhibitors from S1P receptor agonists, the use of which also results in bradycardia, atrioventricular block, and hypertension. But it is unknown if S1PL inhibition would also modulate cardiac S1P levels or cardiovascular function...
October 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
David N Soleimani-Meigooni, Katherine E Schwetye, Maria Reyes Angeles, Caroline F Ryschkewitsch, Eugene O Major, Xin Dang, Igor J Koralnik, Robert E Schmidt, David B Clifford, F Matthew Kuhlmann, Robert C Bucelli
JC virus (JCV) is a human polyomavirus that infects the central nervous system (CNS) of immunocompromised patients. JCV granule cell neuronopathy (JCV-GCN) is caused by infection of cerebellar granule cells, causing ataxia. A 77-year-old man with iatrogenic lymphopenia presented with severe ataxia and was diagnosed with JCV-GCN. His ataxia and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) improved with intravenous immunoglobulin, high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone, mirtazapine, and mefloquine. Interleukin-7 (IL-7) therapy reconstituted his lymphocytes and reduced his CSF JCV load...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Naporn Khamanarong, Somchai Insiripong
The CD4 lymphocytes are an important part of the immune system. Besides HIV Infection, other conditions can cause a low CD4 count. We report the case of a 82-year-old female who presented with a markedly low CD4 count during a severe lower respiratory tract infection and respiratory failure without HIV infection. The total lymphocyte and the absolute CD4 counts are 255/mm³ and 109/mm³, respectively. Sputum and bronchial lavage fluid were both negative for acid-fast bacilli. The anti-HIV antibody test was negative...
May 2016: Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health
Asuka Terashima, Kazuo Okamoto, Tomoki Nakashima, Shizuo Akira, Koichi Ikuta, Hiroshi Takayanagi
Sepsis is a host inflammatory response to severe infection associated with high mortality that is caused by lymphopenia-associated immunodeficiency. However, it is unknown how lymphopenia persists after the accelerated lymphocyte apoptosis subsides. Here we show that sepsis rapidly ablated osteoblasts, which reduced the number of common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs). Osteoblast ablation or inducible deletion of interleukin-7 (IL-7) in osteoblasts recapitulated the lymphopenic phenotype together with a lower CLP number without affecting hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs)...
June 21, 2016: Immunity
Elodie Elkaim, Benedicte Neven, Julie Bruneau, Kanako Mitsui-Sekinaka, Aurelie Stanislas, Lucie Heurtier, Carrie L Lucas, Helen Matthews, Marie-Céline Deau, Svetlana Sharapova, James Curtis, Janine Reichenbach, Catherine Glastre, David A Parry, Gururaj Arumugakani, Elizabeth McDermott, Sara Sebnem Kilic, Motoi Yamashita, Despina Moshous, Hicham Lamrini, Burkhard Otremba, Andrew Gennery, Tanya Coulter, Isabella Quinti, Jean-Louis Stephan, Vassilios Lougaris, Nicholas Brodszki, Vincent Barlogis, Takaki Asano, Lionel Galicier, David Boutboul, Shigeaki Nonoyama, Andrew Cant, Kohsuke Imai, Capucine Picard, Sergey Nejentsev, Thierry Jo Molina, Michael Lenardo, Sinisa Savic, Marina Cavazzana, Alain Fischer, Anne Durandy, Sven Kracker
BACKGROUND: Activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ syndrome (APDS) 2 (p110δ-activating mutations causing senescent T cells, lymphadenopathy, and immunodeficiency [PASLI]-R1), a recently described primary immunodeficiency, results from autosomal dominant mutations in PIK3R1, the gene encoding the regulatory subunit (p85α, p55α, and p50α) of class IA phosphoinositide 3-kinases. OBJECTIVES: We sought to review the clinical, immunologic, and histopathologic phenotypes of APDS2 in a genetically defined international patient cohort...
July 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Marius Vögelin, Luc Biedermann, Pascal Frei, Stephan R Vavricka, Sylvie Scharl, Jonas Zeitz, Michael C Sulz, Michael Fried, Gerhard Rogler, Michael Scharl
BACKGROUND: Thiopurines are known to cause lymphopenia (<1,500 lymphocytes/μl). As severe lymphopenia (<500C/μl) is associated with opportunistic infections, we investigated severity of thiopurine-related lymphopenia and development of opportunistic infections in our tertiary referral centre. METHODS: We retrospectively screened medical records of 1,070 IBD patients and identified 100 individuals that developed a total of 161 episodes of lymphopenia during thiopurine treatment between 2002 and 2014...
2016: PloS One
Kunihiro Yamaoka
The biologics have revolutionized the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, there are still patients that are difficult to control and a cure is still not achievable. Tofacitinib, a Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor is an orally available, new-in-class, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug with similar efficacy to biologics. JAK is activated by multiple cytokines involved in the pathology of RA, and affects non-immune and immune cells, mainly the lymphocytes. Besides its anti-rheumatic effect, the recent focus has been on adverse events...
September 2016: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
Mamoru Ohtoyo, Nobuo Machinaga, Ryotaku Inoue, Katsunobu Hagihara, Hiroshi Yuita, Masakazu Tamura, Ryuji Hashimoto, Jun Chiba, Fumihito Muro, Jun Watanabe, Yoshimasa Kobayashi, Koji Abe, Yasuo Kita, Miyuki Nagasaki, Takaichi Shimozato
Caramel color is widely used in the food industry, and its many variations are generally considered to be safe. It has been known for a long time that THI (2-acetyl-4-(tetrahydroxybutyl)imidazole), a component of caramel color III, causes lymphopenia in animals through sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) lyase (S1PL) inhibition. However, this mechanism of action has not been fully validated because THI does not inhibit S1PL in vitro. To reconcile this situation, we examined molecular details of THI mechanism of action using "smaller" THI derivatives...
May 19, 2016: Cell Chemical Biology
Manuela Bonizzoli, Rosaria Arvia, Simona di Valvasone, Francesco Liotta, Krystyna Zakrzewska, Alberta Azzi, Adriano Peris
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is today a leading cause of hospitalization in intensive care unit (ICU). ARDS and pneumonia are closely related to critically ill patients; however, the etiologic agent is not always identified. The presence of human herpes simplex virus 1, human cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus in respiratory samples of critically ill patients is increasingly reported even without canonical immunosuppression. The main aim of this study was to better understand the significance of herpesviruses finding in lower respiratory tract of ARDS patients hospitalized in ICU...
August 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Jelena Maric-Biresev, Julia P Hunn, Oleg Krut, J Bernd Helms, Sascha Martens, Jonathan C Howard
BACKGROUND: The interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-inducible immunity-related GTPase (IRG), Irgm1, plays an essential role in restraining activation of the IRG pathogen resistance system. However, the loss of Irgm1 in mice also causes a dramatic but unexplained susceptibility phenotype upon infection with a variety of pathogens, including many not normally controlled by the IRG system. This phenotype is associated with lymphopenia, hemopoietic collapse, and death of the mouse. RESULTS: We show that the three regulatory IRG proteins (GMS sub-family), including Irgm1, each of which localizes to distinct sets of endocellular membranes, play an important role during the cellular response to IFN-γ, each protecting specific membranes from off-target activation of effector IRG proteins (GKS sub-family)...
2016: BMC Biology
Joanna Kosalka, Bogdan Jakiela, Jacek Musial
INTRODUCTION: Renal involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with production of antibodies to double stranded DNA, deposition of immune complexes and organ damage. These processes have been linked with abnormalities in B- and T-cell memory compartments. The aim of the study was to analyze subsets of peripheral memory B-cells and T-cells in lupus nephritis (LN) patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used multicolor flow cytometry to analyze major memory subsets of peripheral blood B-cells (defined by CD27, IgD and CD21) and T-cells (CD45RA, CD45RO, CCR7) in 32 patients with active or inactive LN, and 23 control subjects...
2016: Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica
M-A Lieboldt, J Frahm, I Halle, L Schrader, S Weigend, R Preisinger, G Breves, S Dänicke
Due to its decisive function in the avian metabolic, endocrine and immune system L-arginine (Arg) is dietary indispensable for chickens. In 12-week-old cockerels of two high- and two low-performing purebred layer lines, the effects of increasing dietary Arg on the haematological and febrile response were studied over 48 h after single lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. The offered diets contained Arg equivalent to 70%, 100% and 200% of recommended supply. Pathophysiological alterations in weight gain, feed intake, body temperature and differential blood count were examined in comparison with their physiological initial values...
April 14, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Karl-Heinz Herbinger, Ingrid Hanus, Marcus Beissner, Nicole Berens-Riha, Inge Kroidl, Frank von Sonnenburg, Thomas Löscher, Michael Hoelscher, Hans Dieter Nothdurft, Mirjam Schunk
The present controlled cross-sectional study aimed to assess relative and absolute lymphocytosis and lymphopenia induced by imported infectious diseases (IDs) seen among patients consulting the Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Medical Center of the University of Munich (1999-2014) after being in the tropics and subtropics. The analysis investigated data sets from 17,229 diseased German travelers returning from Latin America (3,238), Africa (5,467), and Asia (8,524), and from 1,774 healthy controls who had not recently traveled...
June 1, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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