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lymphopenia causes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772762/paradoxical-effect-of-chloroquine-treatment-in-enhancing-chikungunya-virus-infection
#1
Pierre Roques, Simon-Djamel Thiberville, Laurence Dupuis-Maguiraga, Fok-Moon Lum, Karine Labadie, Frédéric Martinon, Gabriel Gras, Pierre Lebon, Lisa F P Ng, Xavier de Lamballerie, Roger Le Grand
Since 2005, Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) re-emerged and caused numerous outbreaks in the world, and finally, was introduced into the Americas in 2013. The lack of CHIKV-specific therapies has led to the use of non-specific drugs. Chloroquine, which is commonly used to treat febrile illnesses in the tropics, has been shown to inhibit CHIKV replication in vitro. To assess the in vivo effect of chloroquine, two complementary studies were performed: (i) a prophylactic study in a non-human primate model (NHP); and (ii) a curative study "CuraChik", which was performed during the Reunion Island outbreak in 2006 in a human cohort...
May 17, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749587/newborn-screening-for-severe-combined-immunodeficiency
#2
REVIEW
John Routes, James Verbsky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides a brief history of newborn screening (NBS) for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), discusses the theoretical basis for the T cell receptor excision circle (TREC) assay, highlights the results of recent studies using the TREC, and provides practical advice for the evaluation of infants with an abnormal TREC assay. RECENT FINDINGS: Currently, all but three states perform NBS for SCID in the USA. NBS using the TREC assay is highly sensitive in identifying infants with SCID and may also identify infants with T cell lymphopenia due to other causes such as congenital syndromes, multiple congenital anamolies, and some combined immunodeficiencies...
May 10, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729943/phenotype-penetrance-and-treatment-of-133-ctla-4-insufficient-individuals
#3
Charlotte Schwab, Annemarie Gabrysch, Peter Olbrich, Virginia Patiño, Klaus Warnatz, Daniel Wolff, Akihiro Hoshino, Masao Kobayashi, Kohsuke Imai, Masatoshi Takagi, Ingunn Dybedal, Jamanda A Haddock, David Sansom, Jose M Lucena, Maximilian Seidl, Annette Schmitt-Gräff, Veronika Reiser, Florian Emmerich, Natalie Frede, Alla Bulashevska, Ulrich Salzer, Desirée Schubert, Seiichi Hayakawa, Satoshi Okada, Maria Kanariou, Zeynep Yesim Kucuk, Hugo Chapdelaine, Lenka Petruzelkova, Zdenek Sumnik, Anna Sediva, Mary Slatter, Peter D Arkwright, Andrew Cant, Hanns-Martin Lorenz, Thomas Giese, Vassilios Lougaris, Alessandro Plebani, Christina Price, Kathleen E Sullivan, Michel Moutschen, Jiri Litzman, Tomas Freiberger, Frank L van de Veerdonk, Mike Recher, Michael H Albert, Fabian Hauck, Suranjith Seneviratne, Jana Pachlopnik Schmid, Antonios Kolios, Gary Unglik, Christian Klemann, Carsten Speckmann, Stephan Ehl, Alan Leichtner, Richard Blumberg, Andre Franke, Scott Snapper, Sebastian Zeissig, Charlotte Cunningham-Rundles, Lisa Giulino-Roth, Olivier Elemento, Gregor Dückers, Tim Niehues, Eva Fronkova, Veronika Kanderová, Craig D Platt, Janet Chou, Talal Chatila, Raif Geha, Elizabeth McDermott, Su Bunn, Monika Kurzai, Ansgar Schulz, Laia Alsina, Ferran Casals, Angela Deyà-Martinez, Sophie Hambleton, Hirokazu Kanegane, Kjetil Taskén, Olaf Neth, Bodo Grimbacher
BACKGROUND: Cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte-antigen-4 (CTLA-4) is a negative immune regulator. Heterozygous CTLA4 germline mutations can cause a complex immune dysregulation syndrome in humans. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the penetrance, the clinical features and the best treatment options in 133 CTLA4 mutation carriers. METHODS: Genetics, clinical features, laboratory values, and outcome of treatment options were assessed in a worldwide cohort of CTLA4 mutation carriers...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707546/-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-characterization-of-a-typical-and-a-high-pathogenic-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-type-ii-strains
#4
Dario Amilcar Malacari, Andrea Pécora, Maria Sol Pérez Aguirreburualde, Nancy Patricia Cardoso, Anselmo Carlos Odeón, Alejandra Victoria Capozzo
Non-cytopathic (ncp) type 2 bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV-2) is widely prevalent in Argentina causing high mortality rates in cattle herds. In this study, we characterized an Argentinean ncp BVDV-2 field isolate (98-124) compared to a high-virulence reference strain (NY-93), using in silico analysis, in vitro assays, and in vivo infections of colostrum-deprived calves (CDC) to compare pathogenic characters and virulence. In vitro infection of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with BVDV 98-124 induced necrosis shortly after infection while NY-93 strain increased the apoptotic rate in infected cells...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707522/early-lymphocyte-loss-and-increased-granulocyte-lymphocyte-ratio-predict-systemic-spread-of-streptococcus-pyogenes-in-a-mouse-model-of-acute-skin-infection
#5
Torsten G Loof, Aaqib Sohail, Mahmoud M Bahgat, Aravind Tallam, Haroon Arshad, Manas K Akmatov, Marina C Pils, Ulrike Heise, Andreas Beineke, Frank Pessler
Background: Group A streptococci may induce lymphopenia, but the value of lymphocyte loss as early biomarkers for systemic spread and severe infection has not been examined systematically. Methods: We evaluated peripheral blood cell indices as biomarkers for severity and spread of infection in a mouse model of Streptococcus pyogenes skin infection, using two isolates of greatly differing virulence. Internal organs were examined histologically. Results: After subcutaneous inoculation, strain AP1 disseminated rapidly to peripheral blood and internal organs, causing frank sepsis...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698832/effect-of-exposition-to-chlorpyrifos-upon-plasmatic-cholinesterases-hematology-and-blood-biochemistry-values-in-bothrops-asper-serpentes-viperidae
#6
Randall Arguedas, Aarón Gómez, Marco D Barquero, Danilo Chacón, Greivin Corrales, Sonia Hernández, Guillermo León
The terciopelo (Bothrops asper), is one of the most important venomous snakes in Costa Rica and common on agriculture where insecticides are frequently used for pest control. To assess the exposure to organophosphates on captive B. asper, an experiment using chlorpyrifos and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), as a biomarker was conducted. In addition to BChE, hematology, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total proteins (TP) and albumin were measured after exposure. Different concentrations of chlorpyrifos were used in Group A (0...
April 20, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671115/utility-of-dna-rna-protein-and-functional-approaches-to-solve-cryptic-immunodeficiencies
#7
Margot A Cousin, Matthew J Smith, Ashley N Sigafoos, Jay J Jin, Marine I Murphree, Nicole J Boczek, Patrick R Blackburn, Gavin R Oliver, Ross A Aleff, Karl J Clark, Eric D Wieben, Avni Y Joshi, Pavel N Pichurin, Roshini S Abraham, Eric W Klee
PURPOSE: We report a female infant identified by newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiencies (NBS SCID) with T cell lymphopenia (TCL). The patient had persistently elevated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) with IgA deficiency, and elevated IgM. Gene sequencing for a SCID panel was uninformative. We sought to determine the cause of the immunodeficiency in this infant. METHODS: We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) on the patient and parents to identify a genetic diagnosis...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664568/the-role-of-cytokines-in-t-cell-memory-in-health-and-disease
#8
REVIEW
Miro E Raeber, Yves Zurbuchen, Daniela Impellizzieri, Onur Boyman
Upon stimulation with their cognate antigen, naive T cells undergo proliferation and differentiation into effector cells, followed by apoptosis or survival as precursors of long-lived memory cells. These phases of a T-cell response and the ensuing maintenance of memory T cells are shaped by cytokines, most notably interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-7, and IL-15 that share the common γ chain (γc ) cytokine receptor. Steady-state production of IL-7 and IL-15 is necessary for background proliferation and homeostatic survival of CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cells...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649923/diffuse-dermatophytosis-occurring-on-dimethyl-fumarate-therapy
#9
Jeffrey I Greenstein
BACKGROUND: Opportunistic infections have occurred during dimethyl fumarate (DMF) therapy. OBJECTIVE: Diffuse skin dermatophytosis which occurred during DMF therapy in the setting of lymphopenia is described. METHODS AND RESULTS: The clinical course, the lymphocyte subset profile, and dermatologic evaluations were reviewed. In both instances, there was no other cause of lymphopenia or immune suppression, and it is likely that the tinea infections are associated with DMF therapy...
April 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615247/evaluation-of-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-transmission-potential-to-na%C3%A3-ve-calves-by-direct-and-indirect-exposure-routes
#10
Shollie M Falkenberg, Rohana P Dassanayake, John D Neill, Julia F Ridpath
Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) can cause both acute and persistent infections in cattle. Exposure to BVDV persistently infected (PI) animals results in transmission of the virus to a naïve animal which causes a transient acute infection. While it is known that direct exposure to PI animals is a highly efficient means of transmission, less information is available regarding the potential for transmission from acutely infected either by direct or indirect exposure to naïve animals. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for spread of the virus from calves acutely infected, with typical virulence field viruses know to have minimal shedding and viremia, to naïve contact animals either by direct or indirect exposure...
April 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587836/atrophy-of-primary-lymphoid-organs-induced-by-marek-s-disease-virus-during-early-infection-is-associated-with-increased-apoptosis-inhibition-of-cell-proliferation-and-a-severe-b-lymphopenia
#11
Camille Berthault, Thibaut Larcher, Sonja Härtle, Jean-François Vautherot, Laetitia Trapp-Fragnet, Caroline Denesvre
Marek's disease is a multi-faceted highly contagious disease affecting chickens caused by the Marek's disease alphaherpesvirus (MDV). MDV early infection induces a transient immunosuppression, which is associated with thymus and bursa of Fabricius atrophy. Little is known about the cellular processes involved in primary lymphoid organ atrophy. Here, by in situ TUNEL assay, we demonstrate that MDV infection results in a high level of apoptosis in the thymus and bursa of Fabricius, which is concomitant to the MDV lytic cycle...
March 27, 2018: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556235/exome-sequencing-diagnoses-x-linked-moesin-associated-immunodeficiency-in-a-primary-immunodeficiency-case
#12
Gabrielle Bradshaw, Robbie R Lualhati, Cassie L Albury, Neven Maksemous, Deidre Roos-Araujo, Robert A Smith, Miles C Benton, David A Eccles, Rod A Lea, Heidi G Sutherland, Larisa M Haupt, Lyn R Griffiths
Background: We investigated the molecular etiology of a young male proband with confirmed immunodeficiency of unknown cause, presenting with recurrent bacterial and Varicella zoster viral infections in childhood and persistent lymphopenia into early adulthood. Aim: To identify causative functional genetic variants related to an undiagnosed primary immunodeficiency. Method: Whole genome microarray copy number variant (CNV) analysis was performed on the proband followed by whole exome sequencing (WES) and trio analysis of the proband and family members...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515938/suppressed-without-a-cause-a-case-of-idiopathic-immune-deficiency
#13
Muhammad Talha Ayub, Munnam S Jafar, Muhammad Khalid, Muhammad A Baig, Benjamin Mba
We report a case of a 45-year-old male who presented with a headache, fever, vomiting, somnolence, and difficulty walking for 10 days. His cerebrospinal fluid studies revealed cryptococcal meningitis. Chest and abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans showed splenomegaly along with mediastinal, retroperitoneal and inguinal lymphadenopathy. CD4 count turned out to be 208 μL-1 . Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing, serum protein electrophoresis, serum light chains and quantitative immunoglobulins were non-diagnostic and CD4 lymphopenia was attributed to acute infection...
January 1, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515037/interleukin-7-restores-lymphocytes-in-septic-shock-the-iris-7-randomized-clinical-trial
#14
Bruno Francois, Robin Jeannet, Thomas Daix, Andrew H Walton, Matthew S Shotwell, Jacqueline Unsinger, Guillaume Monneret, Thomas Rimmelé, Teresa Blood, Michel Morre, Anne Gregoire, Gail A Mayo, Jane Blood, Scott K Durum, Edward R Sherwood, Richard S Hotchkiss
BACKGROUND: A defining pathophysiologic feature of sepsis is profound apoptosis-induced death and depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is an antiapoptotic common γ-chain cytokine that is essential for lymphocyte proliferation and survival. Clinical trials of IL-7 in over 390 oncologic and lymphopenic patients showed that IL-7 was safe, invariably increased CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte counts, and improved immunity. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of recombinant human IL-7 (CYT107) in patients with septic shock and severe lymphopenia...
March 8, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512373/good-s-syndrome-association-of-the-late-onset-combined-immunodeficiency-with-thymoma-review-of-literature-and-case-report
#15
Marzieh Tavakol, Seyed Alireza Mahdaviani, Mir Reza Ghaemi, Mohammad Vaezi, Atosa Dorudinia, Hamidreza Jamaati, Ali Akbar Velayati
Good's syndrome, the adult onset hypogammaglobulinemia associated with thymoma has been explained about six decades ago. It generally presents with recurrent infections and several paraneoplastic syndromes including myasthenia gravis, pure red cell aplasia, connective tissue disorders, superior vena cava, Horner's syndrome, lichen planus and inflammatory bowel disease. Lack of B cell, dysfunction of T cell, CD4+ T cell lymphopenia, reversed CD4/CD8+ T cell ratio, autoantibodies against Th17 related cytokines have been respected as the pathogenesis of the immune dysregulation this syndrome...
February 2018: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505002/case-report-of-primary-intestinal-lymphangiectasia-diagnosed-in-an-octogenarian-by-ileal-intubation-and-by-push-enteroscopy-after-missed-diagnosis-by-standard-colonoscopy-and-egd
#16
Mitchell S Cappell, Ahmed Edhi, Mitual Amin
RATIONALE: Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL) is a rare, presumably congenital lesion that is usually diagnosed in patients < 3 years old, is rarely first diagnosed in adulthood, and when first diagnosed in adulthood typically presents with symptoms for many years. Although PIL is often identified by endoscopic abnormalities, it must be emphasized that the jejunoileum/distal duodenum must be intubated for diagnosis because the lesions are present in these regions. This work demonstrates that 1)-PIL can occur in an octogenarian; 2)-shows that the characteristic endoscopic findings are not found at colonoscopy without terminal ileal intubation; and 3)-may be missed at standard EGD without distal duodenal intubation...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504856/treatment-of-pyonephrosis-with-a-subcutaneous-ureteral-bypass-device-in-four-cats
#17
Megan Cray, Allyson C Berent, Chick W Weisse, Demetrius Bagley
CASE DESCRIPTION 4 cats were examined because of ureteral obstruction. CLINICAL FINDINGS Clinical and clinicopathologic abnormalities were nonspecific and included anorexia, lethargy, weight loss, anemia, leukocytosis, neutrophilia, lymphopenia, and azotemia. A diagnosis of pyonephrosis was made in all cats. The presence of bacteriuria was confirmed by means of urinalysis in 2 cats, bacterial culture of a urine sample obtained by means of preoperative cystocentesis in 2 cats, and bacterial culture of samples obtained from the renal pelvis intraoperatively in 3 cats...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490633/effect-of-surgery-and-radiotherapy-on-complete-blood-count-lymphocyte-subsets-and-inflammatory-response-in-patients-with-advanced-oral-cancer
#18
Tadej Dovšak, Alojz Ihan, Vojko Didanovič, Andrej Kansky, Miha Verdenik, Nataša Ihan Hren
BACKGROUND: The immune system has a known role in the aetiology, progression and final treatment outcome of oral squamous cell cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of radical surgery and radiotherapy on advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma blood counts, lymphocyte subsets and levels of acute inflammatory response markers. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from 56 patients 5 days before and 10 days after surgery, 30 days and 1 year after radiotherapy...
March 1, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482778/a-systematic-review-of-the-influence-of-radiation-induced-lymphopenia-on-survival-outcomes-in-solid-tumors
#19
REVIEW
Bhanu Prasad Venkatesulu, Supriya Mallick, Steven H Lin, Sunil Krishnan
Lymphopenia is a common accompaniment of multimodal cancer therapy. As the most radiosensitive cells of the hematopoietic system, lymphocytes residing within or circulating through a radiation portal are frequently depleted by radiation therapy. The recognition that radiation-induced reduction of circulating lymphocyte counts and eventual lymphocyte infiltration of tumors have a tangible impact on overall survival outcomes has revived the interest in understanding the causes of treatment-associated lymphopenia and developing strategies to predict, prevent and ameliorate this well-documented phenomenon...
March 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472919/in-the-absence-of-central-pre-b-cell-receptor-selection-peripheral-selection-attempts-to-optimize-the-antibody-repertoire-by-enriching-for-cdr-h3-y101
#20
Mohamed Khass, Tessa Blackburn, Ada Elgavish, Peter D Burrows, Harry W Schroeder
Sequential developmental checkpoints are used to "optimize" the B cell antigen receptor repertoire by minimizing production of autoreactive or useless immunoglobulins and enriching for potentially protective antibodies. The first and apparently most impactful checkpoint requires μHC to form a functional pre-B cell receptor (preBCR) by associating with surrogate light chain, which is composed of VpreB and λ5. Absence of any of the preBCR components causes a block in B cell development that is characterized by severe immature B cell lymphopenia...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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