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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213069/a-pilot-study-of-cell-mediated-gene-therapy-for-spinal-cord-injury-in-mini-pigs
#1
Islamov Rustem Robertovich, Sokolov Mikhail Evgenyevich, Bashirov Farid Vagizovich, Fadeev Filip Olegovich, Shmarov Maxim Michaylovich, Naroditskiy Boris Savelyevich, Povysheva Tatyana Vyacheslavovna, Shaymardanova Gulnara Ferdinantovna, Yakupov Radik Albertovich, Chelyshev Yuri Aleksandrovich, Lavrov Igor Aleksandrovich
Currently, in clinical practice there is no efficient way to overcome the sequences of neurodegeneration after spinal cord traumatic injury. Using a new experimental model of spinal cord contusion injury on miniature pigs, we proposed to deliver therapeutic genes encoding vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) to the damaged area, using umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (UCBC). In this study, genetically engineered UCBC (2×10(6) cells in 200 ml of saline) were injected intrathecally to mini-pigs 10days after SCI...
February 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197794/therapeutic-options-in-refractory-diabetic-macular-oedema
#2
Sanket U Shah, Raj K Maturi
Diabetic macular oedema (DMO) results from alterations of several biochemical pathways in diabetic eyes. Centre-involving DMO is an important cause of visual loss in diabetes. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents are now the mainstay of centre-involving DMO treatment. Oedema that does not achieve optimal response to these agents occurs in a sizeable proportion of eyes and is called refractory or persistent DMO. Management of refractory DMO is challenging. In this paper, the pathophysiology of DMO, and the definitions used in various studies are summarised...
February 15, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153617/the-susceptibility-pathogenesis-of-the-moyamoya-disease
#3
Juntao Hu, Jie Luo, Qianxue Chen
Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a cerebrovascular disease characterized by progressive stenosis of the intracranial internal carotid arteries and their proximal branches. Epidemiologically, MMD is more prevalent in east Asia than any region worldwide, which have been estimated at 0.94 per 100 000 in Japanese and 0.43 per 100,000 in Chinese.However, the etiology of this rare disease remains unknown. Regarding biomarkers of moyamoya disease, moyamoya disease is characterized by an increased expression of angiogenic factors and pro-inflammatory molecules such as vascular endothelial growth factors and matrix metalloproteinase-9, which may partly explain its clinical manifestations of the pathologic angiogenesis, spontaneous hemorrhage, and higher incidence of cerebral hyperperfusion after revascularization surgery...
January 30, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122484/anatomic-peculiarities-of-pig-and-human-liver
#4
Andriy Nykonenko, Petr Vávra, Pavel Zonča
Many investigations on surgical methods and medical treatment are currently done on pigs. This is possible because the pig is sufficiently close genetically to humans. In recent years, progress in liver surgery has opened new possibilities in surgical treatment of liver diseases. Because the methods are relatively novel, various improvements are still needed, and it is thus helpful to conduct experimental surgeries on pig livers. We reviewed the literature to compare the anatomic and functional features of pig and human livers, information that will be of great importance for improving surgical techniques...
February 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121209/combined-treatment-with-intravitreal-bevacizumab-and-laser-photocoagulation-for-exudative-maculopathy-in-facioscapulohumeral-muscular-dystrophy
#5
Rita Matos, João Beato, Marta Silva, Sérgio Silva, Elisete Brandão, Fernando Falcão-Reis, Susana Penas
PURPOSE: To report a rare case of exudative maculopathy in a patient with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), and its management. METHODS: Observational case report. RESULTS: A 62-year-old man with genetically confirmed FSHD was referred to our department complaining of decreased visual acuity in his left eye. At presentation, right eye examination was unremarkable and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/20. Left eye BCVA was 20/100 and it presented a dense cataract with the evidence of macular lipid exudation...
January 25, 2017: Ophthalmic Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011470/advances-in-experimental-targeted-therapy-and-immunotherapy-for-patients-with-glioblastoma-multiforme
#6
REVIEW
Jiri Polivka, Jiri Polivka, Lubos Holubec, Tereza Kubikova, Vladimir Priban, Ondrej Hes, Kristyna Pivovarcikova, Inka Treskova
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) represents the most malignant primary brain tumor in adults with generally dismal prognosis, early clinical deterioration and high mortality. GBM is extremely invasive, characterized by intense and aberrant vascularization and high resistance to multimodal treatment. Standard therapy (surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy with temozolomide) has very limited effectiveness, with median overall survival of patients no longer than 15 months. Progress in genetics and epigenetics of GBM over the past decade has revealed various aberrations in cellular signaling pathways, the tumor microenvironment, and pathological angiogenesis...
2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002537/cerebral-arteriopathy-with-subcortical-infarcts-and-leukoencephalopathy-in-acromegalic-patient-with-severe-headache
#7
LuminiŢa Nicoleta Cima, Simona Vasilica Fica, Alice Ioana Albu, Ioana Maria Lambrescu, Ioana SmărăndiŢa Lăcău, Bogdan Ovidiu Popescu, Mihaela Gherghiceanu, Corin Virgil Badiu, Carmen Gabriela Barbu
A 68-year-old female patient was admitted in our clinic with severe frontal bilateral headache, dizziness, depression and cognitive decline in the context of a previously diagnosed acromegaly. She also had high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, secondary diabetes mellitus. Acromegaly was caused by a growth hormone (GH) secreting-pituitary macroadenoma, so a transsphenoidal surgery was performed. The postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan revealed a 20÷22÷25 mm pituitary mass remnant and medical therapy with somatostatin analogues (SSAs) was started...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975139/foramina-parietalia-permagna-familial-and-radiological-evaluation-of-two-cases-and-review-of-literature
#8
Larissa Gabor, Huseyin Canaz, Gokhan Canaz, Nursu Kara, Elif Yilmaz Gulec, Ibrahim Alatas
PURPOSE: Foramina parietalia permagna is a variable intramembranous ossification defect of the parietal bones. Foramina parietalia permagna have an autosomal dominant inheritance, and it is showed that mutations in chromosome 5 and 11 are causing this anomaly. Enlarged parietal foramina occurs extremely rare. They are usually asymptomatic, but occasional headache, vomiting, pain over unprotected cerebral cortex, and seizures may be experienced by the patients. In the literature, some associated congenital bony defects, soft tissue pathologies, underlying neuronal deficits, and vascular variations have been described...
December 14, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973464/pathogenesis-of-diverticulosis-and-diverticular-disease
#9
Marjorie M Walker, Angela K Harris
Diverticulosis is defined by the presence of diverticula due to herniation of mucosa and muscularis mucosa through the muscularis propria at sites of vascular penetration in the colon and is asymptomatic in the vast majority affected. There are global differences of distribution, in Western industrialised societies, the most common site is in the right colon, but in Asia left sided diverticulosis predominates. Whilst present in 17.5% of a general population and 42% of all comers at endoscopy it is seen in 71% of those aged ≥80 years...
December 14, 2016: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959277/endothelial-dysfunction-may-play-a-key-role-in-keloid-and-hypertrophic-scar-pathogenesis-keloids-and-hypertrophic-scars-may-be-vascular-disorders
#10
Rei Ogawa, Satoshi Akaishi
Keloids and hypertrophic scars are fibroproliferative disorders (FPDs) of the skin that result from abnormal healing of injured or irritated skin. They can be called pathological or inflammatory scars. Common causes are trauma, burn, surgery, vaccination, skin piercing, folliculitis, acne, and herpes zoster infection. The pathogenesis of these scars clearly involves local conditions such as delayed wound healing, wound depth, and the tension of the skin around the scars. Scar severity is also shaped by interactions between these local factors and genetic and systemic factors such as hypertension and sex hormones...
November 2016: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878206/new-findings-on-venous-thrombogenesis
#11
James R Byrnes, Alisa S Wolberg
Venous thrombosis (VT) is the third most common cause of cardiovascular death worldwide. Complications from VT and pulmonary embolism are the leading cause of lost disability-adjusted life years. Risks include genetic (e.g., non-O blood group, activated protein C resistance, hyperprothrombinemia) and acquired (e.g., age, surgery, cancer, pregnancy, immobilisation, female hormone use) factors. Pathophysiologic mechanisms that promote VT are incompletely understood, but involve abnormalities in blood coagulability, vessel function, and flow (so-called Virchow's Triad)...
November 23, 2016: Hämostaseologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867584/birt-hogg-dube-syndrome-accompanied-by-pulmonary-arteriovenous-malformation
#12
Noriyuki Matsutani, Hitoshi Dejima, Yusuke Takahashi, Hirofumi Uehara, Hisae Iinuma, Fumihiko Tanaka, Masafumi Kawamura
A 25-year-old male with Birt-Hogg-Dube (BHD) syndrome who developed hemothorax caused by ruptured of pulmonary arteriovenous malformation was reported. The patient was admitted to the hospital due to chest pain. A chest X-ray showed pleural fluid in his left lung, and a chest CT showed the presence of a tumor with enhanced contrast in the lower left lobe of approximately 5 cm in a diameter. Pleural fluid was collected by tap and indicated the presence of blood; therefore, hemothorax was suspected. Thoracoscopic surgery was performed to remove the mass for homostasis...
October 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687326/arterial-complications-of-vascular-ehlers-danlos-syndrome
#13
REVIEW
Matthew J Eagleton
BACKGROUND: Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a relatively rare genetic syndrome that occurs owing to disorders in the metabolism of fibrillary collagen. These defects affect the soft connective tissues resulting in abnormalities in the skin, joints, hollow organs, and blood vessels. Patients with these defects frequently present at a young age with spontaneous arterial complications involving the medium-sized arteries. Complications involving the hollow organs, such as spontaneous colonic perforation, are observed as well...
December 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645688/hypoxic-pulmonary-vasoconstriction-from-molecular-mechanisms-to-medicine
#14
REVIEW
Kimberly J Dunham-Snary, Danchen Wu, Edward A Sykes, Amar Thakrar, Leah R G Parlow, Jeffrey D Mewburn, Joel L Parlow, Stephen L Archer
Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is a homeostatic mechanism that is intrinsic to the pulmonary vasculature. Intrapulmonary arteries constrict in response to alveolar hypoxia, diverting blood to better-oxygenated lung segments, thereby optimizing ventilation/perfusion matching and systemic oxygen delivery. In response to alveolar hypoxia, a mitochondrial sensor dynamically changes reactive oxygen species and redox couples in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC). This inhibits potassium channels, depolarizes PASMC, activates voltage-gated calcium channels, and increases cytosolic calcium, causing vasoconstriction...
January 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638077/meni%C3%A3-re-s-disease
#15
REVIEW
J M Espinosa-Sanchez, J A Lopez-Escamez
Menière's disease (MD) is a chronic multifactorial disorder of the inner ear characterized by episodic vestibular symptoms associated with sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus, and aural pressure. Epidemiologic and genomic evidence supports a genetic susceptibility with multiple biochemical pathways involved, including the endocrine system, innate immune response, and autonomic nervous system. Allergens, infectious agents, vascular events, or genetic factors could modify inner-ear homeostasis and trigger MD...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633319/reconstruction-of-large-mandibular-defects-using-autologous-tissues-generated-from-in-vivo-bioreactors
#16
Alexander M Tatara, Sarita R Shah, Nagi Demian, Tang Ho, Jonathan Shum, Jeroen J J P van den Beucken, John A Jansen, Mark E Wong, Antonios G Mikos
: Reconstruction of large mandibular defects is clinically challenging due to the need for donor tissue of appropriate shape and volume to facilitate high fidelity repair. In order to generate large vascularized tissues of custom geometry, bioreactors were implanted against the rib periosteum of 3-4year-old sheep for nine weeks. Bioreactors were filled with either morcellized autologous bone, synthetic ceramic particles, or a combination thereof. Tissues generated within synthetic graft-filled bioreactors were transferred into a large right-sided mandibular angle defect as either avascular grafts (n=3) or vascularized free flaps (n=3)...
November 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627088/-diabetic-retinopathy-pathogenesis-and-therapeutic-implications
#17
Terezie Pelikánová
UNLABELLED: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) develops in patients with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes and is the major cause of vision loss and blindness in the working population. The main risk factor of DR is hyperglycemia accompanied by enhanced mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress, formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE) and hexosamines, increase in polyol metabolism of glucose. The severity of vascular injury depends on the individual genetic background and is modified by other epigenetic, metabolic and haemodynamic factors, including hypertension, dyslipidemia and oxidative stress...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622750/von-willebrand-disease-the-dos-and-don-ts-in-surgery
#18
REVIEW
Wolfgang Miesbach, Erik Berntorp
Von Willebrand disease (VWD) is the most common genetic bleeding disorder. VWD is caused by a deficiency or dysfunction of von Willebrand factor (VWF), a plasma protein that mediates the initial adhesion of platelets at sites of vascular injury and binds and stabilises coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) in the blood. Prophylaxis of surgical bleeding in patients with VWD requires consideration of the individual situation, including the type of procedure and the bleeding rate, before decisions about treatment type, dose, duration and adjunctive therapy with antifibrinolytics or antithrombotic prophylaxis can be made...
February 2017: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618325/current-concepts-in-the-molecular-genetics-and-management-of-thyroid-cancer-an-update-for-radiologists
#19
Tatiana Kelil, Abhishek R Keraliya, Stephanie A Howard, Katherine M Krajewski, Marta Braschi-Amirfarzan, Jason L Hornick, Nikhil H Ramaiya, Sree Harsha Tirumani
Substantial improvement in the understanding of the oncogenic pathways in thyroid cancer has led to identification of specific molecular alterations, including mutations of BRAF and RET in papillary thyroid cancer, mutation of RAS and rearrangement of PPARG in follicular thyroid cancer, mutation of RET in medullary thyroid cancer, and mutations of TP53 and in the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K)/AKT1 pathway in anaplastic thyroid cancer. Ultrasonography (US) and US-guided biopsy remain cornerstones in the initial workup of thyroid cancer...
September 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611897/surgical-outcomes-of-majewski-osteodysplastic-primordial-dwarfism-type-ii-with-intracranial-vascular-anomalies
#20
Mario Teo, Jeremiah N Johnson, Teresa E Bell-Stephens, Michael P Marks, Huy M Do, Robert L Dodd, Michael B Bober, Gary K Steinberg
OBJECTIVE Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism Type II (MOPD II) is a rare genetic disorder. Features of it include extremely small stature, severe microcephaly, and normal or near-normal intelligence. Previous studies have found that more than 50% of patients with MOPD II have intracranial vascular anomalies, but few successful surgical revascularization or aneurysm-clipping cases have been reported because of the diminutive arteries and narrow surgical corridors in these patients. Here, the authors report on a large series of patients with MOPD II who underwent surgery for an intracranial vascular anomaly...
December 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
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