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Arun Paul Amar, Abhay P Sagare, Zhen Zhao, Yaoming Wang, Amy R Nelson, John H Griffin, Berislav V Zlokovic
In the management of acute ischemic stroke, vessel recanalization correlates with functional status, mortality, cost, and other outcome measures. Thrombolysis with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator has many limitations that restrict its applicability, but recent advances in the development of mechanical thrombectomy devices as well as improved systems of stroke care have resulted in greater likelihood of vessel revascularization. Nonetheless, there remains substantial discrepancy between rates of recanalization and rates of favorable outcome...
September 18, 2017: Neuropharmacology
Patrick Lyden, Sara Weymer, Chris Coffey, Merit Cudkowicz, Samantha Berg, Sarah O'Brien, Marc Fisher, E Clarke Haley, Pooja Khatri, Jeff Saver, Steven Levine, Howard Levy, Marilyn Rymer, Lawrence Wechsler, Ashutosh Jadhav, Elizabeth McNeil, Salina Waddy, Kent Pryor
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The advent of intra-arterial neurothrombectomy (IAT) for acute ischemic stroke opens a potentially transformative opportunity to improve neuroprotection studies. Combining a putative neuroprotectant with recanalization could produce more powerful trials but could introduce heterogeneity and adverse event possibilities. We sought to demonstrate feasibility of IAT in neuroprotectant trials by defining IAT selection criteria for an ongoing neuroprotectant clinical trial...
December 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
John H Griffin, Laurent O Mosnier, José A Fernández, Berislav V Zlokovic
APC (activated protein C), derived from the plasma protease zymogen, is antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory. In preclinical injury models, recombinant APC provides neuroprotection for multiple injuries, including ischemic stroke. APC acts directly on brain endothelial cells and neurons by initiating cell signaling that requires multiple receptors. Two or more major APC receptors mediate APC's neuroprotective cell signaling. When bound to endothelial cell protein C receptor, APC can cleave protease-activated receptor 1, causing biased cytoprotective signaling that reduces ischemia-induced injury...
November 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Yaoming Wang, Zhen Zhao, Sanket V Rege, Min Wang, Gabriel Si, Yi Zhou, Su Wang, John H Griffin, Steven A Goldman, Berislav V Zlokovic
Activated protein C (APC) is a blood protease with anticoagulant activity and cell-signaling activities mediated by the activation of protease-activated receptor 1 (F2R, also known as PAR1) and F2RL1 (also known as PAR3) via noncanonical cleavage. Recombinant variants of APC, such as the 3K3A-APC (Lys191-193Ala) mutant in which three Lys residues (KKK191-193) were replaced with alanine, and/or its other mutants with reduced (>90%) anticoagulant activity, engineered to reduce APC-associated bleeding risk while retaining normal cell-signaling activity, have shown benefits in preclinical models of ischemic stroke, brain trauma, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, sepsis, ischemic and reperfusion injury of heart, kidney and liver, pulmonary, kidney and gastrointestinal inflammation, diabetes and lethal body radiation...
September 2016: Nature Medicine
John H Griffin, José A Fernández, Patrick D Lyden, Berislav V Zlokovic
Activated protein C (APC) is a plasma serine protease that is capable of antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and cell-signaling activities. Animal injury studies show that recombinant APC and some of its mutants are remarkably therapeutic for a wide range of injuries. In particular, for neurologic injuries, APC reduces damage caused by ischemia/reperfusion in the brain, by acute brain trauma, and by chronic neurodegenerative conditions. For these neuroprotective effects, APC requires endothelial cell protein C receptor...
May 2016: Thrombosis Research
John H Griffin, Berislav V Zlokovic, Laurent O Mosnier
The homeostatic blood protease, activated protein C (APC), can function as (1) an antithrombotic on the basis of inactivation of clotting factors Va and VIIIa; (2) a cytoprotective on the basis of endothelial barrier stabilization and anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic actions; and (3) a regenerative on the basis of stimulation of neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and wound healing. Pharmacologic therapies using recombinant human and murine APCs indicate that APC provides effective acute or chronic therapies for a strikingly diverse range of preclinical injury models...
May 7, 2015: Blood
Laurent O Mosnier, Berislav V Zlokovic, John H Griffin
Despite years of research and efforts to translate stroke research to clinical therapy, ischaemic stroke remains a major cause of death, disability, and diminished quality of life. Primary and secondary preventive measures combined with improved quality of care have made significant progress. However, no novel drug for ischaemic stroke therapy has been approved in the past decade. Numerous studies have shown beneficial effects of activated protein C (APC) in rodent stroke models. In addition to its natural anticoagulant functions, APC conveys multiple direct cytoprotective effects on many different cell types that involve multiple receptors including protease activated receptor (PAR) 1, PAR3, and the endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR)...
November 2014: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Patrick Lyden, Howard Levy, Sara Weymer, Kent Pryor, William Kramer, John H Griffin, Thomas P Davis, Berislav Zlokovic
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Activated Protein C (APC) stimulates multiple cytoprotective pathways via the protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) and promotes anticoagulation. 3K3A-APC was designed for preserved activity at PAR-1 with reduced anticoagulation. This Phase 1 trial characterized pharmacokinetics and anticoagulation effects of 3K3A-APC. METHODS: Subjects (n=64) were randomly assigned to receive 3K3A-APC (n=4) at 6, 30, 90, 180, 360, 540 or 720 µg/kg or placebo (n=6) and were observed for 24 hr...
2013: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Yaoming Wang, Zhen Zhao, Nienwen Chow, Padmesh S Rajput, John H Griffin, Patrick D Lyden, Berislav V Zlokovic
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: 3K3A-activated protein C (APC) protects young, healthy male rodents after ischemic stroke. 3K3A-APC is currently under development as a neuroprotectant for acute ischemic stroke in humans. Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Roundtable recommends that after initial studies in young, healthy male animals, further studies should be performed in females, aged animals, and animals with comorbid conditions. Here, we studied the effects of delayed 3KA-APC therapy alone and with tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) in aged female mice and spontaneously hypertensive rats...
December 2013: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Huang Guo, Zhen Zhao, Qi Yang, Min Wang, Robert D Bell, Su Wang, Nienwen Chow, Thomas P Davis, John H Griffin, Steven A Goldman, Berislav V Zlokovic
Activated protein C (APC) is a protease with anticoagulant and cell-signaling activities. In the CNS, APC and its analogs with reduced anticoagulant activity but preserved cell signaling activities, such as 3K3A-APC, exert neuroprotective, vasculoprotective, and anti-inflammatory effects. Murine APC promotes subependymal neurogenesis in rodents in vivo after ischemic and traumatic brain injury. Whether human APC can influence neuronal production from resident progenitor cells in humans is unknown. Here we show that 3K3A-APC, but not S360A-APC (an enzymatically inactive analog of APC), stimulates neuronal mitogenesis and differentiation from fetal human neural stem and progenitor cells (NPCs)...
April 3, 2013: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Yaoming Wang, Ranjeet Kumar Sinha, Laurent O Mosnier, John H Griffin, Berislav V Zlokovic
Wild type (WT) activated protein C (APC) and cytoprotective-selective APC variants such as 3K3A-APC (<10% anticoagulant but normal cytoprotective activity) are neuroprotective in murine focal ischemic stroke models. Here we compared the neuroprotective effects of the anticoagulant-selective E149A-APC variant (>3-fold increased anticoagulant activity but defective cytoprotective activities) to those of the cytoprotective-selective 5A-APC variant (<10% anticoagulant activity). After transient distal middle cerebral artery occlusion, mice received a vehicle, E149A-APC or 5A-APC at 0...
August 2013: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
Yaoming Wang, Zhen Zhao, Nienwen Chow, Tracy Ali, John H Griffin, Berislav V Zlokovic
3K3A-APC is a recombinant analog of activated protein C (APC) which is an endogenous protease with multiple functions in the body. Compared to APC, 3K3A-APC has reduced anticoagulant activity but preserved cell signaling activities. In the brain, 3K3A-APC exerts neuroprotective effects after an acute or chronic injury. 3K3A-APC is currently under clinical assessment as a neuroprotective agent following acute ischemic stroke. Whether 3K3A-APC can influence post-ischemic neurogenesis and improve neurological outcome by promoting brain repair remains unknown...
April 24, 2013: Brain Research
Yaoming Wang, Zhenggang Zhang, Nienwen Chow, Thomas P Davis, John H Griffin, Michael Chopp, Berislav V Zlokovic
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is the only approved therapy for acute ischemic stroke. However, tPA has a brief therapeutic window. Its side effects include intracerebral bleeding and neurotoxicity. Therefore, a combination therapy with tPA and agents that can extend the therapeutic window of tPA and/or counteract its side effects are warranted. Here, we studied whether 3K3A-APC, a neuroprotective analog of activated protein C with reduced anticoagulant activity, can enhance the therapeutic effects of tPA in models of ischemic stroke in rodents...
September 2012: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Patricia D Williams, Berislav V Zlokovic, John H Griffin, Kent E Pryor, Thomas P Davis
Activated protein C (APC), a protease with anticoagulant and cytoprotective activities, protects neurons and cerebrovascular endothelium from ischemic injury. A recombinant APC, drotrecogin alfa (activated) (DrotAA) (Xigris®), was approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of sepsis; however, serious bleeding was a dose-limiting side effect. A modified APC, containing 405 amino acid residues, 3K3A-APC, was designed to possess significantly reduced anticoagulant activity ( < 10 %) while maintaining full cytoprotective properties...
2012: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Corey T Walker, Andrew H Marky, Anthony L Petraglia, Tracy Ali, Nienwen Chow, Berislav V Zlokovic
The anticoagulant activated protein C (APC) protects neurons and vascular cells from injury through its direct cytoprotective effects that are independent of its anticoagulant action. Wild-type recombinant murine APC (wt-APC) exerts significant neuroprotection in mice if administered early after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Here, we compared efficacy and safety of a late therapy for TBI with wt-APC and 3K3A-APC, an APC analog with approximately 80% reduced anticoagulant activity but normal cytoprotective activity, using a controlled cortical impact model of TBI...
August 6, 2010: Brain Research
Antonino Tuttolomondo, Riccardo Di Sciacca, Domenico Di Raimondo, Valentina Arnao, Chiara Renda, Antonio Pinto, Giuseppe Licata
Involvement of various neurotransmitters and neuromodulators have been shown to contribute to the ischemic injury and neuronal death associated with stroke Role of excitatory amino acid receptor activation, calcium overload, nitric oxide, and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of ischemic brain damage is well established. Several new strategies are currently emerging, based on recent advances in our understanding of molecular pathways that could be considered as potential therapeutic targets. For example reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important contributors to the secondary injury cascade following traumatic brain injury (TBI), and ROS inhibition has consistently been shown to be neuroprotective following experimental TBI and brain ischemia...
2009: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Huang Guo, Itender Singh, Yaoming Wang, Rashid Deane, Theresa Barrett, José A Fernández, Nienwen Chow, John H Griffin, Berislav V Zlokovic
The anticoagulant activated protein C (APC) protects neurons and endothelium via protease activated receptor (PAR)1, PAR3 and endothelial protein C receptor. APC is neuroprotective in stroke models. Bleeding complications may limit the pharmacologic utility of APC. Here, we compared the 3K3A-APC mutant with 80% reduced anticoagulant activity and wild-type (wt)-APC. Murine 3K3A-APC compared with wt-APC protected mouse cortical neurons from N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced apoptosis with twofold greater efficacy and more potently reduced N-methyl-D-aspartate excitotoxic lesions in vivo...
March 2009: European Journal of Neuroscience
Huang Guo, Yaoming Wang, Itender Singh, Dong Liu, José A Fernández, John H Griffin, Nienwen Chow, Berislav V Zlokovic
Activated protein C (APC) is a protease with anticoagulant and cytoprotective activities. APC is neuroprotective in rodent models of stroke. But, an APC variant with reduced anticoagulant activity, 3K3A-APC, compared to wild-type APC shows greater neuroprotection with no risk for bleeding in stroke models. To determine whether 3K3A-APC exhibits species-dependent neuroprotection similar to that as seen with wild-type APC, we studied murine and human recombinant 3K3A-APC mutants which show approximately 80% reduced anticoagulant activity...
April 2009: Journal of Neurochemistry
Yaoming Wang, Meenakshisundaram Thiyagarajan, Nienwen Chow, Itender Singh, Huang Guo, Thomas P Davis, Berislav V Zlokovic
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Activated protein C (APC), a protease with anticoagulant and cytoprotective activities, protects neurons and endothelium from ischemic injury. Drotrecogin-alfa activated, a hyperanticoagulant form of human recombinant APC, is currently being studied in patients with ischemic stroke. How changes in APC anticoagulant activity influence APC's neuroprotection and risk for bleeding is not clear. METHODS: We used neuronal and brain endothelial cell injury models and middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice to compare efficacy and safety of drotrecogin-alfa activated and human 3K3A-APC, an APC nonanticoagulant mutant...
May 2009: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Rashid Deane, Barbra LaRue, Abhay P Sagare, Francis J Castellino, Zhihui Zhong, Berislav V Zlokovic
Activated protein C (APC), a serine-protease with anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, and cytoprotective activities, is neuroprotective and holds potential to treat different neurologic disorders. It is unknown whether APC crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to reach its therapeutic targets in the brain. By using a brain vascular perfusion technique, we show that (125)I-labeled plasma-derived mouse APC enters the brain from cerebrovascular circulation by a concentration-dependent mechanism. The permeability surface area product of (125)I-APC (0...
January 2009: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
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