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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346926/microbiota-and-obesity
#1
Erika Isolauri
Obesity is globally the most prevalent nutritional disorder. Multifaceted therapeutic approaches are called for to halt the cascade from neonatal adiposity/high birth weight to childhood excessive weight gain/adult obesity with comorbidities. Recent experimental and clinical data provide one new target for interventions aiming to close this vicious circle: the microbiota. An aberrant gut microbiota, dysbiosis, induces immune and metabolic disturbances both locally and, consequent upon impaired gut barrier function, also systemic low-grade inflammation, which is causally linked to insulin resistance...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346905/modeling-the-terrestrial-n-processes-in-a-small-mountain-catchment-through-inca-n-a-case-study-in-taiwan
#2
Meng-Chang Lu, Chung-Te Chang, Teng-Chiu Lin, Lih-Jih Wang, Chiao-Ping Wang, Ting-Chang Hsu, Jr-Chuan Huang
Riverine dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) is an important indicator of trophic status of aquatic ecosystems. High riverine DIN export in Taiwan, ~3800kg-Nkm(-2)yr(-1), which is ~18 times higher than the global average, urges the need of thorough understanding of N cycling processes. We applied INCA-N (Integrated Nitrogen Catchment Model) to simulate riverine DIN export and infer terrestrial N processes using weekly rainwater and streamwater samples collected at the Fushan Experimental Forest (FEF) of northern Taiwan...
March 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346838/hiv-1-transmission-networks-across-south-korea
#3
Mi Young Ahn, Joel O Wertheim, Woo Joo Kim, Shin-Woo Kim, Jin Soo Lee, Hea Won Ann, Yongduk Jeon, Jin Young Ahn, Je Eun Song, Dong Hyun Oh, Yong Chan Kim, Eun Jin Kim, In Young Jung, Moo Hyun Kim, Wooyoung Jeong, Su Jin Jeong, Nam Su Ku, June Myung Kim, Davey M Smith, Jun Yong Choi
Molecular epidemiology can help clarify the properties and dynamics of HIV-1 transmission networks in both global and regional scales. We studied 143 HIV-1-infected individuals recruited from four medical centers of three cities in South Korea between April 2013 and May 2014. HIV-1 env V3 sequence data were generated (337-793 bp) and analyzed using a pairwise distance-based clustering approach to infer putative transmission networks. Participants whose viruses were ≤2.0% divergent according to Tamura-Nei 93 genetic distance were defined as clustering...
March 27, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346827/effects-of-cerium-oxide-and-ferrocene-nanoparticles-addition-as-fuel-borne-catalysts-on-diesel-engine-particulate-emissions-environmental-and-health-implications
#4
Zhi-Hui Zhang, Rajasekhar Balasubramanian
This study systematically examined the potential impacts of doping CeO2 and Fe(C5H5)2 nanoparticles as fuel-borne catalysts (FBCs) to ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel on the physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics of diesel particulate matter (DPM). The FBCs-doped fuels are effective in promoting soot oxidation and reducing the DPM mass emissions, but lead to a significant increase in the total particle counts due to the formation of self-nucleated metallic nanoparticles. Compared to undoped ULSD, the FBCs-doped fuels result in higher concentrations of particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and n-alkanes, higher fractions of organic carbon (OC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in particles, show slight alterations in soot nanostructure, reduce soot ignition temperature and activation energy...
March 27, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346804/hepatitis-b-and-c-virus-infections-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-people-who-inject-drugs-in-lahore-pakistan
#5
Sana Mansha, Muhammad Imran, Amir Miraj Ul Hussain Shah, Muhsin Jamal, Fayyaz Ahmed, Muhammad Atif, Muhammmad Saleem, Sher Zaman Safi, Zareen Fatima, Ahmed Bilal Waqar
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are the major cause of the global burden of hepatitis. One of the main routes of transmission for both viruses is through exposure to infected blood, which includes sharing blood-contaminated syringes and needles. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) attacks the immune system and results in acquired immune deficiency syndrome and opportunistic infections. The objective of this study was to assess the epidemiology of HBV and HCV infections among HIV-infected people who inject drugs (PWID)...
March 27, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346758/commentary-distillation-and-element-based-design-of-psychological-treatments-in-global-mental-health-a-commentary-on-brown-et%C3%A2-al-2017
#6
Daniel Michelson, Vikram Patel
This commentary reflects on the "elements" approach in psychological treatment research, and its specific application to a systematic review of psychosocial interventions for youth in conflict-affected areas. We discuss three key questions for the field. First, what psychological treatment elements are necessary and/or sufficient to achieve clinically significant change for a given population? Second, how should elements be sequenced to achieve optimal outcomes? Third, what might account for the large heterogeneity observed in psychological treatment trials, other than the constituent practice elements? We conclude by describing a new research programme that aims to develop a transdiagnostic intervention targeting common mental health difficulties among school-going adolescents in India...
April 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346661/a-major-shift-in-diversification-rate-helps-explain-macroevolutionary-patterns-in-primate-species-diversity
#7
Jessica H Arbour, Sharlene E Santana
Primates represent one of the most species rich, wide ranging and ecologically diverse clades of mammals. What major macroevolutionary factors have driven their diversification and contributed to the modern distribution of primate species remains widely debated. We employed phylogenetic comparative methods to examine the role of clade age and evolutionary rate heterogeneity in the modern distribution of species diversity of Primates. Primate diversification has accelerated since its origin, with decreased extinction leading to a shift to even higher evolutionary rates in the most species rich family (Cercopithecidae)...
March 27, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346616/unilateral-amblyopia-affects-two-eyes-fellow-eye-deficits-in-amblyopia
#8
Kimberly Meier, Deborah Giaschi
Unilateral amblyopia is a visual disorder that arises after selective disruption of visual input to one eye during critical periods of development. In the clinic, amblyopia is understood as poor visual acuity in an eye that was deprived of pattern vision early in life. By its nature, however, amblyopia has an adverse effect on the development of a binocular visual system and the interactions between signals from two eyes. Visual functions aside from visual acuity are impacted, and many studies have indicated compromised sensitivity in the fellow eye even though it demonstrates normal visual acuity...
March 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346565/anticholinergic-burden-and-functional-status-in-older-people-with-cognitive-impairment-results-from-the-regal-project
#9
V Boccardi, M Baroni, L Paolacci, S Ercolani, A Longo, M Giordano, C Ruggiero, P Mecocci
OBJECTIVE: The use of drugs with intrinsic anticholinergic properties is widespread among old age persons. A growing body of evidences suggest that a high anticholinergic burden is associated with physical and cognitive impairment. However, the association between anticholinergic drug use and functional status is still poorly investigated, particularly among subjects with initial cognitive impairment. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study examining the association between drug-related anticholinergic burden and functional status in cognitively healthy (CH) (n=691), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n=541) or mild Alzheimer's diseases (AD) (n=1127) subjects...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346541/quality-of-life-and-objective-outcome-assessment-in-women-with-tape-division-after-surgery-for-stress-urinary-incontinence
#10
Daniela Ulrich, Vesna Bjelic-Radisic, Anna Höllein, Gerda Trutnovsky, Karl Tamussino, Thomas Aigmüller
BACKGROUND: Midurethral tapes may cause long-term complications such as voiding dysfunction, groin pain, de novo urgency or mesh erosion, which necessitate a reoperation. There is a paucity of data regarding health related quality of life in patients undergoing tape removal. The aim of the study was to evaluate quality of life (QoL) and objective outcome after midurethral tape division or excision. METHODS: All patients who underwent a midurethral tape division for voiding difficulties, pain or therapy resistant de novo overactive bladder between 1999 and 2014 were invited for follow-up...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346540/fragment-library-screening-identifies-hits-that-bind-to-the-non-catalytic-surface-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-dsba1
#11
Biswaranjan Mohanty, Kieran Rimmer, Róisín M McMahon, Stephen J Headey, Mansha Vazirani, Stephen R Shouldice, Mathieu Coinçon, Stephanie Tay, Craig J Morton, Jamie S Simpson, Jennifer L Martin, Martin J Scanlon
At a time when the antibiotic drug discovery pipeline has stalled, antibiotic resistance is accelerating with catastrophic implications for our ability to treat bacterial infections. Globally we face the prospect of a future when common infections can once again kill. Anti-virulence approaches that target the capacity of the bacterium to cause disease rather than the growth or survival of the bacterium itself offer a tantalizing prospect of novel antimicrobials. They may also reduce the propensity to induce resistance by removing the strong selection pressure imparted by bactericidal or bacteriostatic agents...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346500/night-time-lights-a-global-long-term-look-at-links-to-socio-economic-trends
#12
Jeremy Proville, Daniel Zavala-Araiza, Gernot Wagner
We use a parallelized spatial analytics platform to process the twenty-one year totality of the longest-running time series of night-time lights data-the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) dataset-surpassing the narrower scope of prior studies to assess changes in area lit of countries globally. Doing so allows a retrospective look at the global, long-term relationships between night-time lights and a series of socio-economic indicators. We find the strongest correlations with electricity consumption, CO2 emissions, and GDP, followed by population, CH4 emissions, N2O emissions, poverty (inverse) and F-gas emissions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346498/characteristics-of-seasonal-influenza-a-and-b-in-latin-america-influenza-surveillance-data-from-ten-countries
#13
Saverio Caini, Wladimir J Alonso, Angel Balmaseda, Alfredo Bruno, Patricia Bustos, Leticia Castillo, Celina de Lozano, Doménica de Mora, Rodrigo A Fasce, Walquiria Aparecida Ferreira de Almeida, Gabriela F Kusznierz, Jenny Lara, Maria Luisa Matute, Brechla Moreno, Claudio Maierovitch Pessanha Henriques, Juan Manuel Rudi, Clotilde El-Guerche Séblain, François Schellevis, John Paget
INTRODUCTION: The increased availability of influenza surveillance data in recent years justifies an actual and more complete overview of influenza epidemiology in Latin America. We compared the influenza surveillance systems and assessed the epidemiology of influenza A and B, including the spatio-temporal patterns of influenza epidemics, in ten countries and sub-national regions in Latin America. METHODS: We aggregated the data by year and country and characteristics of eighty-two years were analysed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346497/determinants-of-infant-nutritional-status-in-dabat-district-north-gondar-ethiopia-a-case-control-study
#14
Amarech Asratie Wubante
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is the top cause of global burden of disease, disability and mortality among infants. Over two-thirds of deaths of children globally occur during the first year of life (infancy). Malnutrition among infants is substantially high in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study is aimed to assess determinants of infant nutritional status. METHODS: A community based nested case-control study was conducted from February to June 2013 in Dabat district. A total of 80 cases and 320 controls (1:4 ratios) were studied...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346493/aberrant-neuronal-activity-induced-signaling-and-gene-expression-in-a-mouse-model-of-rasopathy
#15
Franziska Altmüller, Santosh Pothula, Anil Annamneedi, Saeideh Nakhei-Rad, Carolina Montenegro-Venegas, Eneko Pina-Fernández, Claudia Marini, Monica Santos, Denny Schanze, Dirk Montag, Mohammad R Ahmadian, Oliver Stork, Martin Zenker, Anna Fejtova
Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by reduced growth, craniofacial abnormalities, congenital heart defects, and variable cognitive deficits. NS belongs to the RASopathies, genetic conditions linked to mutations in components and regulators of the Ras signaling pathway. Approximately 50% of NS cases are caused by mutations in PTPN11. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying cognitive impairments in NS patients are still poorly understood. Here, we report the generation and characterization of a new conditional mouse strain that expresses the overactive Ptpn11D61Y allele only in the forebrain...
March 27, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346474/the-microrna-205-5p-is-correlated-to-metastatic-potential-of-21t-series-a-breast-cancer-progression-model
#16
L Stankevicins, A Barat, P Dessen, Y Vassetzky, C V de Moura Gallo
MicroRNA is a class of noncoding RNAs able to base pair with complementary messenger RNA sequences, inhibiting their expression. These regulatory molecules play important roles in key cellular processes including cell proliferation, differentiation and response to DNA damage; changes in miRNA expression are a common feature of human cancers. To gain insights into the mechanisms involved in breast cancer progression we conducted a microRNA global expression analysis on a 21T series of cell lines obtained from the same patient during different stages of breast cancer progression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346461/geometry-can-provide-long-range-mechanical-guidance-for-embryogenesis
#17
Mahamar Dicko, Pierre Saramito, Guy B Blanchard, Claire M Lye, Bénédicte Sanson, Jocelyn Étienne
Downstream of gene expression, effectors such as the actomyosin contractile machinery drive embryo morphogenesis. During Drosophila embryonic axis extension, actomyosin has a specific planar-polarised organisation, which is responsible for oriented cell intercalation. In addition to these cell rearrangements, cell shape changes also contribute to tissue deformation. While cell-autonomous dynamics are well described, understanding the tissue-scale behaviour challenges us to solve the corresponding mechanical problem at the scale of the whole embryo, since mechanical resistance of all neighbouring epithelia will feedback on individual cells...
March 27, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346451/sc3-consensus-clustering-of-single-cell-rna-seq-data
#18
Vladimir Yu Kiselev, Kristina Kirschner, Michael T Schaub, Tallulah Andrews, Andrew Yiu, Tamir Chandra, Kedar N Natarajan, Wolf Reik, Mauricio Barahona, Anthony R Green, Martin Hemberg
Single-cell RNA-seq enables the quantitative characterization of cell types based on global transcriptome profiles. We present single-cell consensus clustering (SC3), a user-friendly tool for unsupervised clustering, which achieves high accuracy and robustness by combining multiple clustering solutions through a consensus approach (http://bioconductor.org/packages/SC3). We demonstrate that SC3 is capable of identifying subclones from the transcriptomes of neoplastic cells collected from patients.
March 27, 2017: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346446/dengue-virus-ns2b-protein-targets-cgas-for-degradation-and-prevents-mitochondrial-dna-sensing-during-infection
#19
Sebastian Aguirre, Priya Luthra, Maria T Sanchez-Aparicio, Ana M Maestre, Jenish Patel, Francise Lamothe, Anthony C Fredericks, Shashank Tripathi, Tongtong Zhu, Jessica Pintado-Silva, Laurence G Webb, Dabeiba Bernal-Rubio, Alexander Solovyov, Benjamin Greenbaum, Viviana Simon, Christopher F Basler, Lubbertus C F Mulder, Adolfo García-Sastre, Ana Fernandez-Sesma
During the last few decades, the global incidence of dengue virus (DENV) has increased dramatically, and it is now endemic in more than 100 countries. To establish a productive infection in humans, DENV uses different strategies to inhibit or avoid the host innate immune system. Several DENV proteins have been shown to strategically target crucial components of the type I interferon system. Here, we report that the DENV NS2B protease cofactor targets the DNA sensor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) for lysosomal degradation to avoid the detection of mitochondrial DNA during infection...
March 27, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346437/friction-forces-position-the-neural-anlage
#20
Michael Smutny, Zsuzsa Ákos, Silvia Grigolon, Shayan Shamipour, Verena Ruprecht, Daniel Čapek, Martin Behrndt, Ekaterina Papusheva, Masazumi Tada, Björn Hof, Tamás Vicsek, Guillaume Salbreux, Carl-Philipp Heisenberg
During embryonic development, mechanical forces are essential for cellular rearrangements driving tissue morphogenesis. Here, we show that in the early zebrafish embryo, friction forces are generated at the interface between anterior axial mesoderm (prechordal plate, ppl) progenitors migrating towards the animal pole and neurectoderm progenitors moving in the opposite direction towards the vegetal pole of the embryo. These friction forces lead to global rearrangement of cells within the neurectoderm and determine the position of the neural anlage...
March 27, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
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