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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29930873/intracranial-complications-of-acute-bacterial-endocarditis
#1
Burke A Cunha, Ismail Jimada, Karishma Chawla
Background: Infectious endocarditis (IE) clinically manifests as either subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE) or acute bacterial endocarditis (ABE). Neurologic manifestations are markedly different for these two entities. ABE is caused by invasive, highly virulent pathogens (e.g., Staphylococcus aureus ), whereas SBE is attributed to relatively avirulent, non-invasive organisms (e.g., viridans streptococci ). Methods: Here, we reviewed the clinical and radiographic presentations of a patient with cranial complications attributed to ABE...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917201/a-study-on-correlations-of-procalcitonin-and-interleukin-6-with-viral-meningitis
#2
D-B Liu, H-P Zhang, K Yu, Q-B Lu, Z-F Zhu
OBJECTIVE: To study the change rules of inflammatory factors in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum of patients with viral meningitis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 742 patients with suspected viral meningitis admitted to Department of Neurosurgery in our hospital from August 2012 to May 2016 were selected as research objects and retrospectively analyzed. 536 patients were diagnosed with viral meningitis by CSF with the lumbar puncture and brain computed tomography (CT), while the other 206 patients were diagnosed with non-infectious nervous system disease, as the control group...
June 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913693/treatment-of-post-dural-puncture-headache-using-epidural-injection-of-fibrin-sealant-as-an-alternative-to-autologous-epidural-blood-patch-case-report
#3
Joseph Atallah, Emmanuel Gage, Jonathan Koning, Joan Duggan, Vicki Ramsey-Williams, Samuel Scott, Daniel Gaudin, Mazin Sarhan
Background Post dural puncture headache (PDPH) is an iatrogenic cause of patient morbidity in pain management after spinal or epidural anaesthesia, as well as after diagnostic lumbar puncture. Most patients respond to conservative treatment or to epidural blood patch, yet limited options for effective treatment are available for patients who fail these treatments or present with theoretical contraindication. Case report We present a case of a patient with previously diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C, who presented with signs of PDPH, which placed him at a theoretical risk of meningeal seeding of the virus during the blood patching procedure...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913529/a-pilot-study-evaluating-cerebral-vasculitis-in-kawasaki-s-disease
#4
Jung Sook Yeom, Young Hye Cho, Chung Mo Koo, Jin Su Jun, Ji Sook Park, Eun Sil Park, Ji-Hyun Seo, Jae-Young Lim, Hyang-Ok Woo, Hee-Shang Youn
Cerebral vasculitis is thought to be a possible underlying mechanism of severe neurological complications of Kawasaki's disease (KD), such as cerebral infarct or aneurysm rupture. To evaluate the intracranial inflammatory response in patients with acute-stage KD, we measured the levels of cytokines (interleukin [IL]-6 and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α) and pentraxin-3 (PTX3) in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with KD ( n  = 7) and compared the levels to those of the age- and sex-matched febrile control patients (bacterial meningitis [ n  = 5], enteroviral meningitis [ n  = 10], nonspecific viral illness without central nervous system involvement [ n  = 10])...
June 18, 2018: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913285/epidemiology-and-clinical-outcomes-of-viral-central-nervous-system-infections
#5
Fatma Ben Abid, Mohammed Abukhattab, Hafedh Ghazouani, Obada Khalil, Ahmed Gohar, Hussam Al Soub, Muna Al Maslamani, Abdullatif Al Khal, Eman Al Masalamani, Said Al Dhahry, Samar Hashim, Faraj Howadi, Adeel A Butt
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) viral infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. No data are available regarding their epidemiology in Qatar. DESIGN: We retrospectively evaluated all cerebrospinal fluid findings from January 2011-March 2015 at Hamad Medical Corporation. Those with abnormal CSF finding were included in our study. We excluded those with missing medical records, no clinical evidence of viral CNS infection or proven bacterial, fungal or tuberculosis CNS infection...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902492/analytical-validation-of-viral-cns-flow-chip-kit-for-detection-of-acute-meningitis-and-encephalitis
#6
Mercedes Pérez-Ruiz, Irene Pedrosa-Corral, Sara Sanbonmatsu-Gámez, Cristina Gómez-Camarasa, José María Navarro-Marí
A new molecular assay (Viral CNS Flow Chip kit, Master Diagnóstica, Spain) has been developed for the detection of eight viruses causing acute meningitis and encephalitis, i.e. herpes simplex viruses 1-2, varicella zoster virus, human enterovirus, human parechovirus, Toscana virus, human cytomegalovirus and Epstein Barr virus. The new assay is a multiplex one-step RT-PCR followed by automatic flow-through hybridization, colorimetric detection and image analysis. The limit of detection was 50 copies/reaction, and 10 copies/reaction for human enterovirus and the other seven viruses, respectively...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895163/evidence-of-hepatitis-a-virus-infection-in-the-patients-with-acute-encephalitis-syndrome-in-gorakhpur-region-north-india
#7
M S Joshi, B V Tandale, M M Gore, S Bhalla, Y K Gurav, G N Sapkal, K P Kushwaha A, S D Chitambar
The etiological agent remained unidentified in a large number of patients hospitalized for acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) in 2008-2009 in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, north India. All patients were found to present with fever and altered sensorium, while 28%, 19% and 13% showed hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and meningeal signs, respectively. Involvement mostly of children with abnormal hepatic features prompted us to undertake an exploratory study on viral hepatitis A to determine its association, if any, with hepatic derangements...
2018: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891780/the-role-of-procalcitonin-in-the-diagnosis-of-meningitis-a-literature-review
#8
REVIEW
Dimitrios Velissaris, Martina Pintea, Nikolaos Pantzaris, Eirini Spatha, Vassilios Karamouzos, Charalampos Pierrakos, Menelaos Karanikolas
OBJECTIVE: To review the current published literature on the use of procalcitonin as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in adult patients with meningitis. METHODS: We conducted a PubMed search to identify all relevant publications regarding the diagnostic and prognostic value of serum procalcitonin in patients with a known or suspected central nervous system infection. We also reviewed the bibliographies of all identified manuscripts in an attempt to identify additional relevant references...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881343/a-specific-reduction-in-a%C3%AE-1-42-vs-a-universal-loss-of-a%C3%AE-peptides-in-csf-differentiates-alzheimer-s-disease-from-meningitis-and-multiple-sclerosis
#9
Philipp Spitzer, Roland Lang, Timo J Oberstein, Piotr Lewczuk, Natalia Ermann, Hagen B Huttner, Ilias Masouris, Johannes Kornhuber, Uwe Ködel, Juan M Maler
A reduced concentration of Aβ1-42 in CSF is one of the established biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease. Reduced CSF concentrations of Aβ1-42 have also been shown in multiple sclerosis, viral encephalitis and bacterial meningitis. As neuroinflammation is one of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease, an infectious origin of the disease has been proposed. According to this hypothesis, amyloid pathology is a consequence of a microbial infection and the resulting immune defense. Accordingly, changes in CSF levels of amyloid-β peptides should be similar in AD and inflammatory brain diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869434/computed-tomography-head-scans-prior-to-lumbar-punctures-in-suspected-meningitis
#10
Aqilah Imtiaz, Robyn Toomath
The literature suggests that certain clinical criteria to determine raised intracranial pressure should be met if a patient suspected of meningitis is to undergo a computed tomography (CT) head scan prior to having a lumbar puncture (LP). The purpose of this audit was to evaluate whether these criteria were being used by the general medicine department of Auckland City Hospital when requesting CT scans prior to LPs in patients with suspected meningitis. A total of 37 patients admitted under general medicine with suspected meningitis from January 1st to July 31st 2016 were retrospectively audited based on the clinical evidence justifying the decision to do a CT scan prior to an LP...
June 5, 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791951/nervous-system-infections-and-the-global-traveler
#11
Savina Reid, Haley Thompson, Kiran T Thakur
Neurological complications of infectious diseases are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. It is imperative that neurologists be up-to-date on current developments including typical and atypical presentations of neurological infections in travelers, diagnostic and treatment recommendations, and emerging pathogen resistance patterns to avoid fatal outcomes and long-term sequelae. This article will address concepts of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases, and will provide updates on the neurological manifestations of select emerging and reemerging infections, including Ebola virus, bacterial meningitis, enterovirus 71, Zika virus, cerebral malaria, and Japanese encephalitis...
April 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789506/design-and-efficacy-of-nanogels-formulations-for-intranasal-administration
#12
REVIEW
Blessing A Aderibigbe, Tobeka Naki
Nanogels are drug delivery systems that can bypass the blood-brain barrier and deliver drugs to the desired site when administered intranasally. They have been used as a drug delivery platform for the management of brain diseases such as Alzheimer disease, migraine, schizophrenia and depression. nanogels have also been developed as vaccine carriers for the protection of bacterial infections such as influenza, meningitis, pneumonia and as veterinary vaccine carriers for the protection of animals from encephalomyelitis and mouth to foot disease...
May 23, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784466/knowledge-gaps-persist-and-hinder-progress-in-eliminating-mumps
#13
REVIEW
R Ramanathan, E A Voigt, R B Kennedy, G A Poland
Mumps, a common childhood disease in the pre-vaccine era that causes swelling of the parotid salivary glands, can lead to orchitis, viral meningitis, and sensorineural deafness. While the incidence of disease decreased dramatically after the vaccine was added to standard vaccination schedules, the disease has made a substantial resurgence in recent years. As a result, it becomes critical to examine the factors involved in recurring outbreaks. Although low and incomplete vaccination coverage may be a key reason, it does not fully explain the issue due to the high rate of occurrence in populations with high vaccination coverage rates...
May 18, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725333/follicular-dendritic-cells-of-lymph-nodes-as-human-immunodeficiency-virus-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-reservoirs-and-insights-on-cervical-lymph-node
#14
REVIEW
Rajnish S Dave, Pooja Jain, Siddappa N Byrareddy
A hallmark feature of follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) within the lymph nodes (LNs) is their ability to retain antigens and virions for a prolonged duration. FDCs in the cervical lymph nodes (CLNs) are particularly relevant in elucidating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection within the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) draining LNs of the central nervous system. The FDC viral reservoir in both peripheral LN and CLN, like the other HIV reservoirs, contribute to both low-level viremia and viral resurgence upon cessation or failure of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712653/direct-activation-of-adenosine-monophosphate-activated-protein-kinase-ampk-by-pf-06409577-inhibits-flavivirus-infection-through-modification-of-host-cell-lipid-metabolism
#15
Nereida Jiménez de Oya, Ana-Belén Blázquez, Josefina Casas, Juan-Carlos Saiz, Miguel A Martín Acebes
Mosquito-borne flaviviruses are a group of RNA viruses that constitute global threats for human and animal health. Replication of these pathogens is strictly dependent on cellular lipid metabolism. We have evaluated the effect of the pharmacological activation of Adenosine Monophosphate-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK), a master regulator of lipid metabolism, on the infection of three medically relevant flaviviruses: West Nile virus (WNV), Zika virus (ZIKV) and dengue virus (DENV). WNV is responsible for recurrent outbreaks of meningitis and encephalitis affecting humans and horses worldwide...
April 30, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705691/cxcl13-concentrations-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-patients-with-lyme-neuroborreliosis-and-other-neurological-disorders-determined-by-luminex-and-elisa
#16
Mateusz Markowicz, Anna-Margarita Schötta, Michael Kundi, Petra Bogovič, Katarina Ogrinc, Franc Strle, Gerold Stanek
The aims of the study were to determine and compare the concentration of CXCL13 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) and various other neurological disorders applying a Luminex based assay and ELISA, and to find factors associated with CXCL13 concentration. CSF samples obtained from four clinically well-defined groups of patients (proven LNB, suspected LNB, tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), and aseptic meningitis/meningoencephalitis other than TBE) - 25 samples per group - were analyzed...
April 20, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670625/immunology-of-cryptococcal-infections-developing-a-rational-approach-to-patient-therapy
#17
REVIEW
Waleed Elsegeiny, Kieren A Marr, Peter R Williamson
Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is responsible for upwards of 15% of HIV-related deaths worldwide and is currently the most common cause of non-viral meningitis in the US, affecting both previously healthy and people with immune suppression caused by cancer chemotherapy, transplantation, and biologic therapies. Despite a continued 30-50% attributable mortality, recommended therapeutic strategies have remained largely unchanged since the 1950s. Recent murine models and human studies examining the role of the immune system in both susceptibility to the infection as well as host damage have begun to influence patient care decisions...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669791/retrospective-evaluation-of-infants-aged-1-60-days-with-residual-csf-tested-using-the-filmarray%C3%A2-meningitis-encephalitis-me-panel
#18
Anne J Blaschke, Kristen M Holmberg, Judy A Daly, Amy L Leber, Jennifer Dien Bard, Ernest K Korgenski, Kevin M Bourzac, Kristen J Kanack
In pediatric practice it is common for infants under 2 months of age to undergo evaluation for sepsis when they are ill, often including lumbar puncture (LP) to assess for central nervous system (CNS) infection. The FilmArray® Meningitis/Encephalitis (ME) Panel is a newly approved test for rapid identification of CNS pathogens. Our objective was to study the epidemiology of CNS infection in young infants and the potential impact of rapid multiplex PCR on their care.A performance evaluation of the FilmArray ME Panel was conducted from 2/2014-9/2014 at 11 sites...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669602/cerebral-vasculitis-and-lateral-rectus-palsy-two-rare-central-nervous-system-complications-of-dengue-fever-two-case-reports-and-review-of-the-literature
#19
H M M Herath, J S Hewavithana, C M De Silva, O A R Kularathna, N P Weerasinghe
BACKGROUND: Dengue fever is a common mosquito-borne viral illness with a clinical spectrum ranging from a simple febrile illness to potentially life-threatening complications such as dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. Dengue infection can affect many organs, including the central nervous system. The neurological manifestations reported in dengue infections are meningitis, encephalitis, stroke, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the cases of two interesting patients with confirmed dengue infection who presented with complications of possible central nervous system vasculitis and cranial nerve palsy...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658309/individuals-with-hiv-1-subtype-c-infection-and-cryptococcal-meningitis-exhibit-viral-genetic-intermixing-of-hiv-1-between-plasma-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-a-high-prevalence-of-cxcr4-using-variants
#20
Katlego Sojane, Richard T Kangethe, Christina C Chang, Mahomed-Yunus S Moosa, Sharon R Lewin, Martyn A French, Thumbi Ndung'u
The genotypic properties of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype C in individuals presenting with cryptococcal meningitis (CM) are not well established. Employing single-genome amplification as well as bulk PCR, cloning and sequencing strategies, we evaluated the genetic properties of HIV-1 subtype C env in 16 antiretroviral therapy-naive study participants with CM. Eleven of the 16 participants had matched blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) evaluated, with the rest having either a plasma or CSF sample evaluated...
May 23, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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