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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670625/immunology-of-cryptococcal-infections-developing-a-rational-approach-to-patient-therapy
#1
REVIEW
Waleed Elsegeiny, Kieren A Marr, Peter R Williamson
Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is responsible for upwards of 15% of HIV-related deaths worldwide and is currently the most common cause of non-viral meningitis in the US, affecting both previously healthy and people with immune suppression caused by cancer chemotherapy, transplantation, and biologic therapies. Despite a continued 30-50% attributable mortality, recommended therapeutic strategies have remained largely unchanged since the 1950s. Recent murine models and human studies examining the role of the immune system in both susceptibility to the infection as well as host damage have begun to influence patient care decisions...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669791/retrospective-evaluation-of-infants-aged-1-60-days-with-residual-csf-tested-using-the-filmarray%C3%A2-meningitis-encephalitis-me-panel
#2
Anne J Blaschke, Kristen M Holmberg, Judy A Daly, Amy L Leber, Jennifer Dien Bard, Ernest K Korgenski, Kevin M Bourzac, Kristen J Kanack
In pediatric practice it is common for infants under 2 months of age to undergo evaluation for sepsis when they are ill, often including lumbar puncture (LP) to assess for central nervous system (CNS) infection. The FilmArray® Meningitis/Encephalitis (ME) Panel is a newly approved test for rapid identification of CNS pathogens. Our objective was to study the epidemiology of CNS infection in young infants and the potential impact of rapid multiplex PCR on their care.A performance evaluation of the FilmArray ME Panel was conducted from 2/2014-9/2014 at 11 sites...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669602/cerebral-vasculitis-and-lateral-rectus-palsy-two-rare-central-nervous-system-complications-of-dengue-fever-two-case-reports-and-review-of-the-literature
#3
H M M Herath, J S Hewavithana, C M De Silva, O A R Kularathna, N P Weerasinghe
BACKGROUND: Dengue fever is a common mosquito-borne viral illness with a clinical spectrum ranging from a simple febrile illness to potentially life-threatening complications such as dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. Dengue infection can affect many organs, including the central nervous system. The neurological manifestations reported in dengue infections are meningitis, encephalitis, stroke, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the cases of two interesting patients with confirmed dengue infection who presented with complications of possible central nervous system vasculitis and cranial nerve palsy...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658309/individuals-with-hiv-1-subtype-c-infection-and-cryptococcal-meningitis-exhibit-viral-genetic-intermixing-of-hiv-1-between-plasma-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-a-high-prevalence-of-cxcr4-using-variants
#4
Katlego Sojane, Richard T Kangethe, Christina C Chang, Mahomed-Yunus Moosa, Sharon Ruth Lewin, Martyn A French, Thumbi Ndung'u
The genotypic properties of HIV-1 subtype C in individuals presenting with cryptococcal meningitis (CM) are not well established. Employing single-genome amplification as well as bulk PCR, cloning and sequencing strategies, we evaluated the genetic properties of HIV-1 subtype C env in 16 antiretroviral therapy naïve study participants with CM. Eleven of the 16 participants had matched blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) evaluated, with the rest having either a plasma or CSF sample evaluated. Before antiretroviral therapy initiation, matched plasma and cerebrospinal fluid-derived env sequences of all 11 participants displayed genetic intermixing between the two compartments...
April 15, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652804/cerebrospinal-fluid-concentrations-of-biogenic-amines-potential-biomarkers-for-diagnosis-of-bacterial-and-viral-meningitis
#5
Aneela Taj, Nusrat Jamil
Catecholamine and serotonin are biogenic amines (BAs) that serve as neurotransmitters and play an important role in the regulation of cardinal functions that are mainly altered during central nervous system (CNS) infections. A total 92 samples of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were classified into 4 groups based on their etiology. In these samples, BAs/neurotransmitters i.e., dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) were detected and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-EC) to determine the neurophysiology of the CNS infections by bacteria ( Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) and Neisseria meningitidis (Nm)) and herpes simplex virus (HSV)...
April 13, 2018: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650033/enterovirus-serotypes-in-patients-with-central-nervous-system-and-respiratory-infections-in-viet-nam-1997-2010
#6
Nguyen Thi Thuy Chinh B'Krong, Ngo Ngoc Quang Minh, Phan Tu Qui, Tran Thi Hong Chau, Ho Dang Trung Nghia, Lien Anh Ha Do, Nguyen Ngoc Nhung, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Guy Thwaites, Le Van Tan, H Rogier van Doorn, Tran Tan Thanh
BACKGROUND: Enteroviruses are the most common causative agents of human illness. Enteroviruses have been associated with regional and global epidemics, recently, including with severe disease (Enterovirus A71 and D68), and are of interest as emerging viruses. Here, we typed Enterovirus A-D (EV) from central nervous system (CNS) and respiratory infections in Viet Nam. METHODS: Data and specimens from prospective observational clinical studies conducted between 1997 and 2010 were used...
April 12, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628177/cerebrospinal-fluid-monocytes-in-bacterial-meningitis-viral-meningitis-and-neuroborreliosis
#7
M Martinot, V Greigert, L Souply, B Rosolen, D De Briel, M Mohseni Zadeh, J-D Kaiser
OBJECTIVE: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leukocytes analysis is commonly used to diagnose meningitis and to differentiate bacterial from viral meningitis. Interpreting CSF monocytes can be difficult for physicians, especially in France where lymphocytes and monocytes results are sometimes pooled. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We assessed SF monocytes in patients presenting with microbiologically confirmed meningitis (CSF leukocyte count>10/mm3 for adults or >30/mm3 for children<2 months), i...
April 5, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626301/nucleoprotein-from-the-unique-human-infecting-orthobunyavirus-of-simbu-serogroup-oropouche-virus-forms-higher-order-oligomers-in-complex-with-nucleic-acids-in-vitro
#8
Juliana Londoño Murillo, Aline Diniz Cabral, Mabel Uehara, Viviam Moura da Silva, Juliete Vitorino Dos Santos, João Renato Carvalho Muniz, Leandro Farias Estrozi, Daphna Fenel, Wanius Garcia, Márcia Aparecida Sperança
Oropouche virus (OROV) is the unique known human pathogen belonging to serogroup Simbu of Orthobunyavirus genus and Bunyaviridae family. OROV is transmitted by wild mosquitoes species to sloths, rodents, monkeys and birds in sylvatic environment, and by midges (Culicoides paraensis and Culex quinquefasciatus) to man causing explosive outbreaks in urban locations. OROV infection causes dengue fever-like symptoms and in few cases, can cause clinical symptoms of aseptic meningitis. OROV contains a tripartite negative RNA genome encapsidated by the viral nucleocapsid protein (NP), which is essential for viral genome encapsidation, transcription and replication...
April 6, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626023/management-of-acute-meningitis
#9
Michael J Griffiths, Fiona McGill, Tom Solomon
Acute meningitis remains a devastating disease. Clinicians need a low threshold for suspecting meningitis, to undertake appropriate investigations and provide treatment in a timely manner, to minimise the risk of poor outcome in bacterial disease, while limiting unnecessary treatment in viral meningitis.
March 2018: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620789/infectious-meningitis-encephalitis-evaluation-of-a-rapid-and-fully-automated-multiplex-pcr-in-the-microbiological-diagnostic-workup
#10
Giulia Piccirilli, Angela Chiereghin, Liliana Gabrielli, Maddalena Giannella, Diego Squarzoni, Gabriele Turello, Silvia Felici, Caterina Vocale, Roberta Zuntini, Dino Gibertoni, Alberto Enrico Maraolo, Simone Ambretti, Tiziana Lazzarotto
Infectious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) such as meningitis/encephalitis (ME) require rapid identification of causative pathogens for effective treatment. This study evaluated the analytical performance and clinical utility of a fully automated multiplex PCR test to improve the microbiological diagnostic workup of ME. Seventy-seven cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 77 patients with suspected ME were studied. The samples were tested by FilmArray™ (FA) ME Panel test and the results were compared with those obtained using conventional microbiological procedures (CMP)...
April 5, 2018: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29583086/dual-infection-of-the-central-nervous-system-caused-by-cryptococcus-and-toxoplasma-in-a-patient-with-aids-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#11
Jose Armando Gonzales Zamora
Dual infection of the central nervous system secondary to Cryptococcus and Toxoplasma is very uncommon, even in the setting of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We report the case of a 52-year-old patient who was admitted with multiple cranial nerve deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging showed supratentorial and infratentorial enhancing lesions. He was newly diagnosed with HIV infection with a CD4 count of 59 cells/uL and HIV viral load of 299,619 copies/mL. Diagnosis of Cryptococcus meningitis was made by Cryptococcal antigen in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)...
March 27, 2018: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572238/suppression-of-diabetes-by-accumulation-of-non-islet-specific-cd8-effector-t-cells-in-pancreatic-islets
#12
Gustaf Christoffersson, Grzegorz Chodaczek, Sowbarnika S Ratliff, Ken Coppieters, Matthias G von Herrath
The inflammatory lesion at the pancreatic islet in type 1 diabetes (T1D) contains a heterogeneous infiltrate of T cells. In human and mouse studies, a large majority (98 to 99%) of the cytotoxic CD8+ T cells (CTLs) within islets are not specific to any islet antigen and are thought to passively add to tissue damage. We show by intravital confocal microscopy the opposite, immune-regulatory function of this cohort of CTLs. Diabetes did not develop in mice with islets showing high levels of infiltration of non-islet-specific CTLs not recognizing local antigens...
March 23, 2018: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570919/de-novo-cmv-associated-collapsing-focal-segmental-glomerulosclerosis-in-a-kidney-transplant-recipient
#13
Anup M Patel, Robert D Zenenberg, Ryan J Goldberg
Collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a variant of FSGS and is associated with severe nephrotic syndrome and acute kidney injury and can occur after kidney transplantation. The exact mechanism of collapsing FSGS after kidney transplantation is unknown, but potential causes include autoimmune diseases, certain malignancies, bisphosphonates, m-TOR inhibitors, interferon-alpha, HIV infection, and other viruses. We describe a case of de novo Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-associated collapsing FSGS in a kidney transplant recipient with a UL97 phosphotransferase mutation that was successfully treated with intravenous ganciclovir, intravenous immunoglobulin, and steroids...
March 23, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559369/assessment-of-hmgb-1-concentration-in-tick-borne-encephalitis-and-neuroborreliosis
#14
Anna Moniuszko-Malinowska, Paweł Penza, Piotr Czupryna, Olga Zajkowska, Sławomir Pancewicz, Renata Świerzbińska, Justyna Dunaj, Joanna Zajkowska
AIM: The aim of the study was to determine HMGB-1 concentration in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients suffering from tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and neuroborreliosis (NB). We focused on HMGB-1 measurement in CSF or sera in order to establish whether it could help to differentiate between NB and TBE. METHODS: 80 patients with meningitis and meningoencephalitis were enrolled in the study. Patients were divided into two groups: Group I - patients with NB (n=40) and Group II - patients with TBE (n=40)...
March 17, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540454/one-year-in-the-life-of-a-rapid-syndromic-panel-for-meningitis-encephalitis-a-pediatric-tertiary-care-facility-s-experience
#15
Samia N Naccache, Maryann Lustestica, Margil Fahit, Javier Mestas, Jennifer Dien Bard
Early establishment of infectious process allows for expedited clinical management of meningitis and encephalitis. The FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis (FA-M/E) panel provides rapid detection of potential pathogens associated with encephalitis/meningitis in both immunocompetent and compromised patients. Here we conducted a one year review of the performance of the FA-M/E panel at a tertiary care children's hospital. 265 samples from 251 patients were tested. 87.25% (219/251) were negative, 9.96% (25/251) were positive for viral analytes and 3...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515559/enterovirus-a71-proteins-structure-and-function
#16
REVIEW
Jingjing Yuan, Li Shen, Jing Wu, Xinran Zou, Jiaqi Gu, Jianguo Chen, Lingxiang Mao
Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) infection has grown to become a serious threat to global public health. It is one of the major causes of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in infants and young children. EV-A71 can also infect the central nervous system (CNS) and induce diverse neurological complications, such as brainstem encephalitis, aseptic meningitis, and acute flaccid paralysis, or even death. Viral proteins play a crucial role in EV-A71 infection. Many recent studies have discussed the structure and function of EV-A71 proteins, and the findings reported will definitely aid the development of vaccines and therapeutic approaches...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514899/role-of-microvesicles-in-the-spread-of-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-in-oligodendrocytic-cells
#17
Raquel Bello-Morales, Beatriz Praena, Carmen de la Nuez, María Teresa Rejas, Milagros Guerra, Marcos Galán, Manuel Izquierdo, Víctor Calvo, Claude Krummenacher, José Antonio López-Guerrero
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a neurotropic pathogen that can infect many types of cells and establishes latent infections in neurons of sensory ganglia. In some cases, the virus spreads into the CNS causing encephalitis or meningitis. Cells infected with several different types of viruses may secrete microvesicles containing viral proteins and RNAs. In some instances, extracellular microvesicles harboring infectious virus have been found. Here we describe the features of shedding microvesicles released by the human oligodendroglial HOG cell line infected with HSV-1 and their participation in the viral cycle...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479055/development-and-validation-of-an-ultrasensitive-procalcitonin-sandwich-immunoassay
#18
Viviana A Carcamo Yañez, Jens C Göpfert, Markus Otto, Hayrettin Tumani, Andreas Peter, Thomas O Joos
Procalcitonin (PCT) is well established as a highly specific biomarker for the detection of bacterial infections and sepsis. However, the currently available diagnostic tests are not able to detect very low or very early increases of PCT or even baseline levels in healthy individuals or patients with non-bacterial infections. In order to be able to detect these very low concentrations of PCT, a sandwich immunoassay was developed using high sensitivity Single Molecule Array technology (Simoa). The assay was thoroughly validated and applied to analyze human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples from patients with bacterial or viral meningitis as well as CSF, serum, and K2 EDTA plasma from healthy control subjects...
November 16, 2017: High-throughput
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454354/cerebrospinal-fluid-level-of-nogo-receptor-1-antagonist-lateral-olfactory-tract-usher-substance-lotus-correlates-inversely-with-the-extent-of-neuroinflammation
#19
Keita Takahashi, Hideyuki Takeuchi, Yuji Kurihara, Hiroshi Doi, Misako Kunii, Kenichi Tanaka, Haruko Nakamura, Ryoko Fukai, Atsuko Tomita-Katsumoto, Mikiko Tada, Yuichi Higashiyama, Hideto Joki, Shigeru Koyano, Kohtaro Takei, Fumiaki Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Although inflammation in the central nervous system is responsible for multiple neurological diseases, the lack of appropriate biomarkers makes it difficult to evaluate inflammatory activities in these diseases. Therefore, a new biomarker reflecting neuroinflammation is required for accurate diagnosis, appropriate therapy, and comprehension of pathogenesis of these neurological disorders. We previously reported that the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentration of lateral olfactory tract usher substance (LOTUS), which promotes axonal growth as a Nogo receptor 1 antagonist, negatively correlates with disease activity in multiple sclerosis, suggesting that variation in LOTUS reflects the inflammatory activities and is a useful biomarker to evaluate the disease activity...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432047/community-acquired-meningitis-in-hiv-infected-patients-in-the-united-states
#20
Karen J Vigil, Lucrecia Salazar, Rodrigo Hasbun
We conducted a retrospective study of 549 adults admitted with community-acquired meningitis (CAM) to several hospitals in New Orleans, LA and Houston, TX between 1999 and 2014 to characterize the current epidemiology, clinical manifestations, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) characteristics, and outcomes of CAM between HIV-infected and uninfected patients and to identify risk factors for adverse outcomes in CAM. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression analysis were used to identify prognostic factors. A total of 1022 patients with CAM were screened...
February 2018: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
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