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repetitive impacts and concussion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880054/elucidating-the-role-of-compression-waves-and-impact-duration-for-generating-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#1
Brandon P Lucke-Wold, Michael Phillips, Ryan C Turner, Aric F Logsdon, Kelly E Smith, Jason D Huber, Charles L Rosen, Jonathan D Regele
BACKGROUND: In total, 3.8 million concussions occur each year in the US leading to acute functional deficits, but the underlying histopathologic changes that occur are relatively unknown. In order to improve understanding of acute injury mechanisms, appropriately designed pre-clinical models must be utilized. METHODS: The clinical relevance of compression wave injury models revolves around the ability to produce consistent histopathologic deficits. Mild traumatic brain injuries activate similar neuroinflammatory cascades, cell death markers and increases in amyloid precursor protein in both humans and rodents...
November 23, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867100/the-independent-influence-of-concussive-and-sub-concussive-impacts-on-soccer-players-neurophysiological-and-neuropsychological-function
#2
R Davis Moore, Julien Lepine, Dave Ellemberg
Accumulating research demonstrates that repetitive sub-concussive impacts can alter the structure, function and connectivity of the brain. However, the functional significance of these alterations as well as the independent contribution of concussive and sub-concussive impacts to neurophysiological and neuropsychological health are unclear. Accordingly, we compared the neurophysiological and neuropsychological function of contact athletes with (concussion group) and without (sub-concussion group) a history of concussion, to non-contact athletes...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843436/lifetime-multiple-mild-traumatic-brain-injuries-are-associated-with-cognitive-and-mood-symptoms-in-young-healthy-college-students
#3
Kyle C Vynorius, Alyssa M Paquin, Daniel R Seichepine
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI, also known as concussion) has been associated with a range of long-term mood and cognitive deficits, including executive dysfunction. Previous research in athletes suggests that cognitive and mood problems are associated with a history of repetitive mTBI. However, to date, no studies have examined the impact of a lifetime accumulation of repetitive mTBIs on cognition, particularly executive functioning, and mood in a sample of young adults who were not athletes...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829969/chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-in-athletes-involved-with-high-impact-sports
#4
Cyrus Safinia, Eric M Bershad, H Brent Clark, Karen SantaCruz, Naila Alakbarova, Jose I Suarez, Afshin A Divani
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease occurring most commonly in athletes and is caused by repeated concussive or subconcussive blows to the head. The main purpose of this review is to evaluate the published literature on chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in athletes participating in high-impact sports. In particular, we highlight the significance of concussive and subconcussive impacts in multiple sports, elucidate the differences between clinical/pathological features of CTE and related neurodegenerative diseases, and provide an explanation for the variation in clinical presentation between athletes of different sports...
October 2016: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793189/microglial-neuroinflammation-contributes-to-tau-accumulation-in-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy
#5
Jonathan D Cherry, Yorghos Tripodis, Victor E Alvarez, Bertrand Huber, Patrick T Kiernan, Daniel H Daneshvar, Jesse Mez, Philip H Montenigro, Todd M Solomon, Michael L Alosco, Robert A Stern, Ann C McKee, Thor D Stein
The chronic effects of repetitive head impacts (RHI) on the development of neuroinflammation and its relationship to chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) are unknown. Here we set out to determine the relationship between RHI exposure, neuroinflammation, and the development of hyperphosphorylated tau (ptau) pathology and dementia risk in CTE. We studied a cohort of 66 deceased American football athletes from the Boston University-Veteran's Affairs-Concussion Legacy Foundation Brain Bank as well as 16 non-athlete controls...
October 28, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768069/a-repetitive-concussive-head-injury-model-in-mice
#6
Zhihui Yang, Fan Lin, Amanda S Weissman, Emily Jaalouk, Qing-Shan Xue, Kevin K W Wang
Despite the concussion/ mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) being the most frequent occurrence of traumatic brain injury, there is still a lack of knowledge on the injury and its effects. To develop a better understanding of concussions, animals are often used because they provide a controlled, rigorous, and efficient model. Studies have adapted traditional animal models to perform mTBI to stimulate mild injury severity by changing the injury parameters. These models have been used because they can produce morphologically similar brain injuries to the clinical condition and provide a spectrum of injury severities...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27505027/short-and-long-term-behavioral-and-pathological-changes-in-a-novel-rodent-model-of-repetitive-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Kelly M McAteer, Frances Corrigan, Emma Thornton, Renee Jade Turner, Robert Vink
A history of concussion, particularly repeated injury, has been linked to an increased risk for the development of neurodegenerative diseases, particularly chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). CTE is characterized by abnormal accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau and deficits in learning and memory. As yet the mechanisms associated with the development of CTE are unknown. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to develop and characterize a novel model of repetitive mTBI that accurately reproduces the key short and long-term functional and histopathological features seen clinically...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498246/brain-structure-alterations-and-cognitive-impairment-following-repetitive-mild-head-impact-an-in-vivo-mri-and-behavioral-study-in-rat
#8
Yang Qin, Gai-Li Li, Xian-Hua Xu, Zhi-Yong Sun, Jian-Wen Gu, Fa-Bao Gao
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or concussion is a common health issue. Several people repeatedly experience head impact milder than that causing concussion. The present study aimed to confirm the effects of such repeated impact on the brain structure and cognitive abilities. Rat models were established by closed skull weight-drop injury. The animals were anesthetized, subjected to single (s)-sham, s-mTBI, repetitive (r)-sham, and r-mTBI, and recovery times were recorded. MRI, including T2-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), as well as, neurological severity scores (mNSS) were assessed for the dynamics of the brain structure and neurological function...
August 4, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458972/altered-blood-biomarker-profiles-in-athletes-with-a-history-of-repetitive-head-impacts
#9
Alex P Di Battista, Shawn G Rhind, Doug Richards, Nathan Churchill, Andrew J Baker, Michael G Hutchison
The long-term health effects of concussion and sub-concussive impacts in sport are unknown. Growing evidence suggests both inflammation and neurodegeneration are pivotal to secondary injury processes and the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study we characterized circulating brain injury and inflammatory mediators in healthy male and female athletes according to concussion history and collision sport participation. Eighty-seven university level athletes (male, n = 60; female, n = 27) were recruited before the start of the competitive season...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432348/the-impact-of-traumatic-brain-injury-on-the-aging-brain
#10
REVIEW
Jacob S Young, Jonathan G Hobbs, Julian E Bailes
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has come to the forefront of both the scientific and popular culture. Specifically, sports-related concussions or mild TBI (mTBI) has become the center of scientific scrutiny with a large amount of research focusing on the long-term sequela of this type of injury. As the populace continues to age, the impact of TBI on the aging brain will become clearer. Currently, reports have come to light that link TBI to neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, as well as certain psychiatric diseases...
September 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27421756/the-controversial-second-impact-syndrome-a-review-of-the-literature
#11
REVIEW
Loren A McLendon, Stephen F Kralik, Patricia A Grayson, Meredith R Golomb
BACKGROUND: Second impact syndrome is a devastating injury that primarily affects athletic children and young adults. It occurs when a second concussion occurs before symptoms from the first concussion have resolved. Diffuse and often catastrophic cerebral edema results. Reports of second impact syndrome are few, and some argue that second impact syndrome is simply diffuse cerebral swelling unrelated to the first concussion. METHODS: Ovid and PubMed were searched from years 1946 to 2015 using the terms "second impact syndrome," "repeat concussion," and "catastrophic brain injury...
September 2016: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27281278/quantifying-head-impacts-in-collegiate-lacrosse
#12
Bryson B Reynolds, James Patrie, Erich J Henry, Howard P Goodkin, Donna K Broshek, Max Wintermark, T Jason Druzgal
BACKGROUND: Concussion and repetitive head impact in sports has increased interest and concern for clinicians, scientists, and athletes. Lacrosse is the fastest growing sport in the United States, but the burden of head impact in lacrosse is unknown. PURPOSE: The goal of this pilot study was to quantify head impact associated with practicing and playing collegiate lacrosse while subjects were fitted with wearable accelerometers. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study...
June 8, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27142715/the-association-between-white-matter-tract-abnormalities-and-neuropsychiatric-and-cognitive-symptoms-in-retired-professional-football-players-with-multiple-concussions
#13
Namita Multani, Ruma Goswami, Mozhgan Khodadadi, Ahmed Ebraheem, Karen D Davis, Charles H Tator, Richard Wennberg, David J Mikulis, Leo Ezerins, Maria Carmela Tartaglia
Retired professional athletes, who have suffered repetitive concussions, report symptoms of depression, anxiety, and memory impairment over time. Moreover, recent imaging data suggest chronic white-matter tract deterioration in sport-related concussion. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of repetitive concussions in retired professional football players on white-matter tracts, and relate these changes to neuropsychological function. All subjects (18 retired professional football players and 17 healthy controls) underwent imaging, neuropsychological assessment, and reported on concussion-related symptoms...
July 2016: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27142534/minimizing-head-acceleration-in-soccer-a-review-of-the-literature
#14
Jaclyn B Caccese, Thomas W Kaminski
Physicians and healthcare professionals are often asked for recommendations on how to keep athletes safe during contact sports such as soccer. With an increase in concussion awareness and concern about repetitive subconcussion, many parents and athletes are interested in mitigating head acceleration in soccer, so we conducted a literature review on factors that affect head acceleration in soccer. We searched electronic databases and reference lists to find studies using the keywords 'soccer' OR 'football' AND 'head acceleration'...
May 3, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27029716/cumulative-head-impact-exposure-predicts-later-life-depression-apathy-executive-dysfunction-and-cognitive-impairment-in-former-high-school-and-college-football-players
#15
Philip Homes Montenigro, Michael L Alosco, Brett Martin, Daniel H Daneshvar, Jesse Mez, Christine Chaisson, Christopher J Nowinski, Rhoda Au, Ann C McKee, Robert C Cantu, Michael D McClean, Robert A Stern, Yorghos Tripodis
Repetitive head impacts (RHI) refer to the cumulative exposure to concussive and subconcussive events. Although RHI is believed to increase risk for later-life neurological consequences (including chronic traumatic encephalopathy), quantitative analysis of this relationship has not yet been examined due to the lack of validated tools to quantify lifetime RHI exposure. The objectives of this study were: 1) to develop a metric to quantify cumulative RHI exposure from football, that we term the cumulative head impact index (CHII); 2) to use the CHII to examine the association between RHI exposure and long-term clinical outcomes; and (3) to evaluate its predictive properties relative to other exposure metrics (i...
March 30, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26979930/are-there-subconcussive-neuropsychological-effects-in-youth-sports-an-exploratory-study-of-high-and-low-contact-sports
#16
William T Tsushima, Olga Geling, Monica Arnold, Ross Oshiro
This exploratory study was designed to examine the neuropsychological effects of sports-related head trauma-specifically, repetitive subconcussive impacts or head blows that do not result in a diagnosable concussion. The researchers compared the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) neurocognitive test scores of 2 groups of nonconcussed youth athletes (n = 282), grouped according to the frequency of concussions in their respective sports, with the assumption that more subconcussive impacts occur in sports in which there are more reported concussions...
2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26913900/myelin-water-fraction-is-transiently-reduced-after-a-single-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-a-prospective-cohort-study-in-collegiate-hockey-players
#17
Alexander D Wright, Michael Jarrett, Irene Vavasour, Elham Shahinfard, Shannon Kolind, Paul van Donkelaar, Jack Taunton, David Li, Alexander Rauscher
Impact-related mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) are a major public health concern, and remain as one of the most poorly understood injuries in the field of neuroscience. Currently, the diagnosis and management of such injuries are based largely on patient-reported symptoms. An improved understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of mTBI is urgently needed in order to develop better diagnostic and management protocols. Specifically, dynamic post-injury changes to the myelin sheath in the human brain have not been examined, despite 'compromised white matter integrity' often being described as a consequence of mTBI...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26859643/effect-of-repetitive-sub-concussive-head-impacts-on-ocular-near-point-of-convergence
#18
K Kawata, R Tierney, J Phillips, J J Jeka
This study intended to examine effects of repetitive sub-concussive head impacts on ocular near point of convergence (NPC). 20 healthy young adult soccer players were assigned to either a heading or control group. Heading subjects completed 10 headers of soccer balls projected at a speed of 11.2 m/s. Control subjects did not perform heading. Linear head acceleration was measured with a triaxial accelerometer. The NPC assessment was performed at pre-, 0 h post-, and 24 h post-heading. During the NPC assessment participants were seated and a visual target was moved towards the eyes at 1cm/sec...
May 2016: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26834695/the-role-of-medical-imaging-in-the-recharacterization-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-using-youth-sports-as-a-laboratory
#19
REVIEW
Thomas M Talavage, Eric A Nauman, Larry J Leverenz
The short- and long-term impact of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an increasingly vital concern for both military and civilian personnel. Such injuries produce significant social and financial burdens and necessitate improved diagnostic and treatment methods. Recent integration of neuroimaging and biomechanical studies in youth collision-sport athletes has revealed that significant alterations in brain structure and function occur even in the absence of traditional clinical markers of "concussion." While task performance is maintained, athletes exposed to repetitive head accelerations exhibit structural changes to the underlying white matter, altered glial cell metabolism, aberrant vascular response, and marked changes in functional network behavior...
2015: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26810521/ocular-motor-assessment-in-concussion-current-status-and-future-directions
#20
REVIEW
Rachel E Ventura, Laura J Balcer, Steven L Galetta, Janet C Rucker
Mild head injury such as concussions and subconcussive repetitive impact may lead to subtle changes in brain function and it is imperative to find sensitive and reliable tests to detect such changes. Tests involving the visual system, in particular eye movements, can incorporate higher cortical functioning and involve diffuse pathways in the brain, including many areas susceptible to head impact. With concussions, the clinical neuro-ophthalmic exam is important for detecting abnormalities in vergence, saccades, pursuit, and visual fixation...
February 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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