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Cognitive stimulation

Giulia Prete, Anita D'Anselmo, Luca Tommasi, Alfredo Brancucci
Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) has been increasingly adopted to modulate perceptual and cognitive functions, but the effects on auditory perception are still relatively uncharted. Starting from the evidence that a stronger right ear advantage effect (REA) in dichotic listening positively correlates with speech sound processing, the present study was aimed at modulating the REA by means of high-frequency transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (hf-tRNS). Stimulation was applied over the auditory cortex (AC) either unilaterally (Experiment 1, N = 50) or bilaterally (Experiment 2, N = 24) during a verbal dichotic listening task...
March 13, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Xin Zhao, Jinyu Liu, Shijun Yang, Dandan Song, Chen Wang, Chen Chen, Xiaoya Li, Qiuting Wang, Shasha Ge, Runmei Yang, Xiuhua Liu, Yulin Lin, Dayong Cai
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Vascular dementia (VaD) is the common cognitive disorder derived mainly from lacunar stroke (LS). The oxidative stress induced neurovascular coupling (NVC) dysfunction involves in the pathogenesis of VaD. Currently, there is no specific drug for VaD. Ling-Yang-Gou-Teng -Decoction (LG), a well-known traditional Chinese formula, has been used for preventing VaD in clinic. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, we aimed to investigate the underlying mechanism of LG on VaD in rats...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Nathalie Bier, Juliette Sablier, Catherine Briand, Stéphanie Pinard, Vincent Rialle, Sylvain Giroux, Hélène Pigot, Lisa Quillion Dupré, Jeremy Bauchet, Emmanuel Monfort, Esther Bosshardt, Laetitia Courbet
In this editorial, we wish to highlight and reflect on research advances presented in the articles comprising this special issue on technology and neuropsychological rehabilitation, which happens to be published more than a decade after the first special issue on the subject. In 2004, the journal recognised the great potential of information technology for increasing the support provided to people with cognitive deficits, and published emerging state-of-the art practices in the field. Since that time, research and technology have made tremendous progress, and the influence of information technology on research methods has transformed the field of neurorehabilitation...
March 16, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Young Hak Roh, Young Do Koh, Jong Oh Kim, Kyu Ho Lee, Hyun Sik Gong, Goo Hyun Baek
BACKGROUND: Postoperative pillar pain (deep-seated wrist pain worsened by leaning on the heel of the hand) sometimes occurs after carpal tunnel release (CTR), leading to weakness in the hand and delayed return to work. Increased pain sensitivity has been found to be associated with worse symptoms and poorer treatment response in a number of chronic musculoskeletal conditions, but few studies have investigated the association of pain sensitization with pillar pain after CTR. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) Is preoperative pain sensitization in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) associated with increased severity of pillar pain after open CTR? (2) What other demographic, electrophysiological, or preoperative clinical characteristics are associated with pillar pain after CTR? METHODS: Over a 35-month period, one surgeon performed 162 open carpal tunnel releases...
April 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Angus P Yu, Bjorn T Tam, Christopher W Lai, Doris S Yu, Jean Woo, Ka-Fai Chung, Stanley S Hui, Justina Y Liu, Gao X Wei, Parco M Siu
Tai Chi Chuan (TCC), a traditional Chinese martial art, is well-documented to result in beneficial consequences in physical and mental health. TCC is regarded as a mind-body exercise that is comprised of physical exercise and meditation. Favorable effects of TCC on body balance, gait, bone mineral density, metabolic parameters, anxiety, depression, cognitive function, and sleep have been previously reported. However, the underlying mechanisms explaining the effects of TCC remain largely unclear. Recently, advances in neuroimaging technology have offered new investigative opportunities to reveal the effects of TCC on anatomical morphologies and neurological activities in different regions of the brain...
2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Anand Rughani, Jason M Schwalb, Christos Sidiropoulos, Julie Pilitsis, Adolfo Ramirez-Zamora, Jennifer A Sweet, Sandeep Mittal, Alberto J Espay, Jorge Gonzalez Martinez, Aviva Abosch, Emad Eskandar, Robert Gross, Ron Alterman, Clement Hamani
QUESTION 1: Is bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) more, less, or as effective as bilateral globus pallidus internus deep brain stimulation (GPi DBS) in treating motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease, as measured by improvements in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, part III (UPDRS-III) scores? RECOMMENDATION: Given that bilateral STN DBS is at least as effective as bilateral GPi DBS in treating motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (as measured by improvements in UPDRS-III scores), consideration can be given to the selection of either target in patients undergoing surgery to treat motor symptoms...
March 12, 2018: Neurosurgery
Cláudia Lopes Carvalho, Ariella Fornachari Ribeiro Belan, Leila Regina de Castro, Márcia Radanovic
PURPOSE: To characterize the linguistic profile of adults and elderly with Down Syndrome (DS) using the Arizona Battery for Communication Disorders of Dementia (ABCD). METHODS: Thirty adult individuals with DS were evaluated through the MoCA cognitive battery, four functional scales (Pfeffer, Lawton-IADL, Katz-IADL and IQCODE) and the ABCD battery, which evaluates Mental State, Episodic Memory, Linguistic Expression, Linguistic Comprehension and Visuospatial Construction...
March 12, 2018: CoDAS
Natalie Colaneri, Mark Sheldon, Andrew Adesman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Given the pervasiveness of psychotropic medication in the youth population and an increasingly competitive culture regarding educational performance, children, teenagers, and/or their parents may increasingly seek psychotropic substances in an effort to enhance a student's cognitive abilities and/or academic performance. Physicians must become aware of this very important and clinically relevant issue and work to ensure that medications remain in the hands of patients seeking wellness and not enhancement...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Wing Ting To, Justin Eroh, John Hart, Sven Vanneste
The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) has been identified as a core region affected by many disorders, representing a promising target for neuromodulation. High Definition-transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS) is a non-invasive neuromodulation technique that has already shown promising outcomes and has been tested to engage deeper structures. This study investigates whether it is possible to modulate dACC activity using anodal and cathodal HD-tDCS. Furthermore, it examines what effects anodal and cathodal HD-tDCS targeting dACC have on cognitive and emotional processing...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jana Klaus, Dennis J L G Schutter
In addition to the role of left frontotemporal areas in language processing, there is increasing evidence that language comprehension and production require cognitive control and working memory resources involving the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the left DLPFC in both language comprehension and production. In a double-blind, sham-controlled crossover experiment, thirty-two participants received cathodal or sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the left DLPFC while performing a language comprehension and a language production task...
March 10, 2018: Neuroscience
Robert Steger, Lauren Blachorsky, Qizong Yang, Joshua C Brumberg
The properties of specific cortical cell types enable greater understanding of how cortical microcircuits process and transmit sensory, motor, and cognitive information. Previous reports have characterized the intrinsic properties of the inverted pyramidal cell (IPC) where the most prominent dendrite is orientated towards the cortical white matter. Using whole cell patch clamp recordings from rat and mouse somatosensory cortex in conjunction with electric microstimulation of the white matter we characterized the synaptic inputs onto IPCs and the more common upright pyramidal cell (UPC) in the infragranular layers...
March 13, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Juliann M Mellin, Sankaraleengam Alagapan, Caroline Lustenberger, Courtney E Lugo, Morgan L Alexander, John H Gilmore, L Fredrik Jarskog, Flavio Fröhlich
BACKGROUND: Approximately 30% of patients with schizophrenia experience auditory hallucinations that are refractory to antipsychotic medications. Here, we evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) that we hypothesized would improve auditory hallucination symptoms by enhancing synchronization between the frontal and temporo-parietal areas of the left hemisphere. METHOD: 22 participants were randomized to one of three arms and received twice daily, 20 min sessions of sham, 10 Hz 2 mA peak-to-peak tACS, or 2 mA tDCS over the course of 5 consecutive days...
March 10, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
Fabian Blasberg, Lars Wojtecki, Saskia Elben, Philipp Jörg Slotty, Jan Vesper, Alfons Schnitzler, Stefan Jun Groiss
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery for Parkinson's disease (PD) is usually performed as awake surgery allowing sufficient intraoperative testing. Recently, outcomes after asleep surgery have been assumed comparable. However, direct comparisons between awake and asleep surgery are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the difference between awake and asleep surgery comparing motor and nonmotor outcome after subthalamic nucleus (STN)-DBS in a large single center PD population...
March 13, 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
Burkhard Pleger, Dagmar Timmann
Lesion studies emphasize the role of the human cerebellum in a variety of cognitive processes. To date, most evidence comes from studies investigating language-related functions, such as verbal short-term/working memory, word generation, or linguistic/semantic predictions. This review summarizes brain imaging, non-invasive cerebellar stimulation and lesion studies in this field. Converging evidence suggests a cerebellar role in error processing and memory encoding although findings are partly contradictory...
March 9, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Lizanne Schweren, Pieter Hoekstra, Marloes van Lieshout, Jaap Oosterlaan, Nanda Lambregts-Rommelse, Jan Buitelaar, Barbara Franke, Catharina Hartman
BACKGROUND: Methodological and ethical constraints have hampered studies into long-term lasting outcomes of stimulant treatment in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Lasting effects may be beneficial (i.e. improved functioning even when treatment is temporarily ceased) or detrimental (i.e. worse functioning while off medication), but both hypotheses currently lack empirical support. Here we investigate whether stimulant treatment history predicts long-term development of ADHD symptoms, social-emotional functioning or cognition, measured after medication wash-out...
March 13, 2018: Psychological Medicine
John Noel M Viaña, Frederic Gilbert
Memory dysfunction and cognitive impairments due to Alzheimer's disease can affect the selfhood and identity of afflicted individuals, causing distress to both people with Alzheimer's disease and their caregivers. Recently, a number of case studies and clinical trials have been conducted to determine the potential of deep brain stimulation as a therapeutic modality for people with Alzheimer's disease. Some of these studies have shown that deep brain stimulation could induce flashbacks and stabilize or even improve memory...
January 1, 2018: Dementia
Heather Brown, Francesco D'Amico, Martin Knapp, Martin Orrell, Amritpal Rehill, Luke Vale, Louise Robinson
OBJECTIVES: Identify if cost-effectiveness of Maintenance Cognitive Simulation Therapy (MCST) differs by type of living arrangement and cognitive ability of the person with dementia. Next, a value of information analysis is performed to inform decisions about future research. METHODS: Incremental cost-effectiveness analysis applying seemingly unrelated regressions using data from a multicentre RCT of MCST versus treatment as usual in a population which had already received 7 weeks of CST for dementia (ISRCTN: 26286067)...
March 12, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
Adam Bryant Miller, Margaret A Sheridan, Jamie L Hanson, Katie A McLaughlin, John E Bates, Jennifer E Lansford, Gregory S Pettit, Kenneth A Dodge
Prior research demonstrates a link between exposure to childhood adversity and psychopathology later in development. However, work on mechanisms linking adversity to psychopathology fails to account for specificity in these pathways across different types of adversity. Here, we test a conceptual model that distinguishes deprivation and threat as distinct forms of childhood adversity with different pathways to psychopathology. Deprivation involves an absence of inputs from the environment, such as cognitive and social stimulation, that influence psychopathology by altering cognitive development, such as verbal abilities...
February 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
C Kornreich, P Cole, H Kajosch
Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a cheap, easy to use, and relatively safe noninvasive brain stimulation technique. It is increasingly used in several indications in psychiatry and neurology, mainly for depression, chronic pain and cognitive decline due to degenerative brain diseases. Its efficacy is probable in depression and must still be confirmed in numerous other indications. Lowcost devices for the general public are easy to find on the internet and are frequently used for non-therapeutic indications, like the improvement of video gamers' performances...
2018: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
Erik K St Louis
Apathy has been recently recognized as a distinct neuropsychological syndrome, overlapping with but also separable from mood disorders and cognitive impairment. While it is perhaps seen most often as a cardinal feature of depression as an amotivational symptom, it may occur independently in isolation without other prominent mood, vegetative, or cognitive symptoms or signs. The etymology of apathy is derived from the Greek "pathos" (passion), so apathy may be considered to be an amotivational state, i...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
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