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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150860/quality-of-life-outcomes-after-subthalamic-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease-depends-on-age
#1
Haidar S Dafsari, Paul Reker, Lisa Stalinski, Monty Silverdale, Alexandra Rizos, Keyoumars Ashkan, Michael T Barbe, Gereon R Fink, Julian Evans, Julia Steffen, Michael Samuel, Till A Dembek, Veerle Visser-Vandewalle, Angelo Antonini, K Ray-Chaudhuri, Pablo Martinez-Martin, Lars Timmermann
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate how quality of life outcome after bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) depends on age. METHODS: In this prospective, open-label, multicenter study including 120 PD patients undergoing bilateral STN-DBS, we investigated the PDQuestionnaire-8 (PDQ-8), Unified PD Rating Scale-III, Scales for Outcomes in PD-motor examination, complications, activities of daily living, and levodopa equivalent daily dose preoperatively and at 5 months follow-up...
November 18, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150051/glutamate-is-down-regulated-and-tinnitus-loudness-levels-decreased-following-rtms-over-auditory-cortex-of-the-left-hemisphere-a-prospective-randomized-single-blinded-sham-controlled-cross-over-study
#2
Anthony T Cacace, Jiani Hu, Stephen Romero, Yang Xuan, Robert F Burkard, Richard S Tyler
Using a prospective randomized single-blinded sham-controlled cross-over design, we studied the efficacy of low frequency (1-Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over auditory cortex of the left temporal lobe as an experimental treatment modality for noise-induced tinnitus. Pre/post outcome measures for sham vs. active rTMS conditions included differential changes in tinnitus loudness, self-perceived changes in the Tinnitus Handicap Questionnaire (THQ), and neurochemical changes of brain metabolite concentrations using single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) obtained from left and right auditory cortical areas...
November 14, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149906/forebrain-specific-conditional-silencing-of-staufen2-alters-synaptic-plasticity-learning-and-memory-in-rats
#3
Stefan M Berger, Iván Fernández-Lamo, Kai Schönig, Sandra M Fernández Moya, Janina Ehses, Rico Schieweck, Stefano Clementi, Thomas Enkel, Sascha Grothe, Oliver von Bohlen Und Halbach, Inmaculada Segura, José María Delgado-García, Agnès Gruart, Michael A Kiebler, Dusan Bartsch
BACKGROUND: Dendritic messenger RNA (mRNA) localization and subsequent local translation in dendrites critically contributes to synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. Little is known, however, about the contribution of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) to these processes in vivo. RESULTS: To delineate the role of the double-stranded RBP Staufen2 (Stau2), we generate a transgenic rat model, in which Stau2 expression is conditionally silenced by Cre-inducible expression of a microRNA (miRNA) targeting Stau2 mRNA in adult forebrain neurons...
November 17, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146505/muscarinic-receptor-oligomerization
#4
REVIEW
Sara Marsango, Richard J Ward, Elisa Alvarez-Curto, Graeme Milligan
G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been classically described as monomeric entities that function by binding in a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio to both ligand and downstream signalling proteins. However, in recent years, a growing numbers of studies have supported the hypothesis that these receptors can interact to form dimers and higher order oligomers although the molecular basis for these interactions, the overall quaternary arrangements and the functional importance of the GPCR oligomerization remain topics of intense speculation...
November 13, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145914/development-and-initial-validation-of-the-retrospective-indigenous-childhood-enrichment-scale-rice
#5
Cecilia Minogue, Kim Delbaere, Kylie Radford, Tony Broe, Wendy Sue Forder, Suncica Lah
BACKGROUND: Years of education is the most commonly used proxy measure of cognitive reserve. Other forms of cognitive stimulation in childhood may provide similar protection against cognitive decline, particularly in Indigenous groups, where education may have been lacking in quality or quantity. The Retrospective Indigenous Childhood Enrichment (RICE) scale was developed to measure non-school-based activities and environmental stimulation during childhood that are likely to have enhanced cognitive reserve...
November 17, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144106/cognitive-reserve-as-a-variable-impacting-the-effectiveness-of-rehabilitation-on-balance-in-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Giulia Piccinini, Isabella Imbimbo, Diego Ricciardi, Daniele Coraci, Claudia Santilli, Maria R Lo Monaco, Claudia Loreti, Maria C Vulpiani, Maria C Silveri, Luca Padua
BACKGROUND: Cognitive reserve (CR) can be considered an active expression of brain resilience in response to damage. Several studies have shown the influence of CR on cognitive impairment and its relationship with cognitive function in Parkinson's disease (PD). AIM: To show if CR influences the effectiveness of balance rehabilitation in PD patients who performed a conventional rehabilitative treatment. DESIGN: Observational longitudinal study...
November 16, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142061/effects-of-regulatory-bc1-rna-deletion-on-synaptic-plasticity-learning-and-memory
#7
Ain Chung, Nessy Dahan, Juan Marcos Alarcon, André A Fenton
Nonprotein coding dendritic BC1 RNA regulates translation of mRNAs in neurons. We examined two lines of BC1 knockout mice and report that loss of BC1 RNA exaggerates group I mGluR-stimulated LTD of the Schaffer collateral synapse, with one of the lines showing a much more enhanced DHPG-induced LTD than the other. When the animals were given the hippocampus-synaptic plasticity-dependent active place avoidance task, learning and memory were impaired in the BC1-KO line with the more severely altered DHPG-induced LTD...
December 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141966/nutritional-factors-affecting-adult-neurogenesis-and-cognitive-function
#8
REVIEW
Shibu M Poulose, Marshall G Miller, Tammy Scott, Barbara Shukitt-Hale
Adult neurogenesis, a complex process by which stem cells in the hippocampal brain region differentiate and proliferate into new neurons and other resident brain cells, is known to be affected by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including diet. Neurogenesis plays a critical role in neural plasticity, brain homeostasis, and maintenance in the central nervous system and is a crucial factor in preserving the cognitive function and repair of damaged brain cells affected by aging and brain disorders. Intrinsic factors such as aging, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and brain injury, as well as lifestyle factors such as high-fat and high-sugar diets and alcohol and opioid addiction, negatively affect adult neurogenesis...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141211/lateral-preoptic-control-of-the-lateral-habenula-through-convergent-glutamate-and-gaba-transmission
#9
David J Barker, Jorge Miranda-Barrientos, Shiliang Zhang, David H Root, Hui-Ling Wang, Bing Liu, Erin S Calipari, Marisela Morales
The lateral habenula (LHb) is a brain structure that participates in cognitive and emotional processing and has been implicated in several mental disorders. Although one of the largest inputs to the LHb originates in the lateral preoptic area (LPO), little is known about how the LPO participates in the regulation of LHb function. Here, we provide evidence that the LPO exerts bivalent control over the LHb through the convergent transmission of LPO glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) onto single LHb neurons...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139169/sex-differences-in-the-phagocytic-and-migratory-activity-of-microglia-and-their-impairment-by-palmitic-acid
#10
Natalia Yanguas-Casás, Andrea Crespo-Castrillo, Maria L de Ceballos, Julie A Chowen, Iñigo Azcoitia, Maria Angeles Arevalo, Luis M Garcia-Segura
Sex differences in the incidence, clinical manifestation, disease course, and prognosis of neurological diseases, such as autism spectrum disorders or Alzheimer's disease, have been reported. Obesity has been postulated as a risk factor for cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease and, during pregnancy, increases the risk of autism spectrum disorders in the offspring. Obesity is associated with increased serum and brain levels of free fatty acids, such as palmitic acid, which activate microglial cells triggering a potent inflammatory cascade...
November 15, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138358/epileptic-pilocarpine-treated-rats-exhibit-aberrant-hippocampal-epsp-spike-potentiation-but-retain-long-term-potentiation
#11
Ezekiel Carpenter-Hyland, Edyta K Bichler, Mathew Smith, Robert S Sloviter, Morris Benveniste
Hippocampal neuron plasticity is strongly associated with learning, memory, and cognition. In addition to modification of synaptic function and connectivity, the capacity of hippocampal neurons to undergo plasticity involves the ability to change nonsynaptic excitability. This includes altering the probability that EPSPs will generate action potentials (E-S plasticity). Epilepsy is a prevalent neurological disorder commonly associated with neuronal hyperexcitability and cognitive dysfunction. We examined E-S plasticity in chronically epileptic Sprague-Dawley rats 3-10 weeks after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus CA1 neurons in hippocampal slices were assayed by whole-cell current clamp to measure EPSPs evoked by Schaffer collateral stimulation...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137545/exploring-the-perceived-health-benefits-of-singing-in-a-choir-an-international-cross-sectional-mixed-methods-study
#12
Hilary Moss, Julie Lynch, Jessica O'Donoghue
AIM: This mixed-methods exploratory study investigates the perceived health benefits of singing in a choir from an international sample of choristers. METHOD: An online questionnaire including demographic information, 28 quantitative statements and two qualitative questions relating to the perceived health benefits of singing in a choir was distributed via email and social media over a period of 4 months to a sample of 1,779 choristers. Basic descriptives and comparisons between subgroups of the sample are presented along with thematic analysis of qualitative comments...
November 1, 2017: Perspectives in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137413/abnormal-neural-activities-of-directional-brain-networks-in-patients-with-long-term-bilateral-hearing-loss
#13
Long-Chun Xu, Gang Zhang, Yue Zou, Min-Feng Zhang, Dong-Sheng Zhang, Hua Ma, Wen-Bo Zhao, Guang-Yu Zhang
The objective of the study is to provide some implications for rehabilitation of hearing impairment by investigating changes of neural activities of directional brain networks in patients with long-term bilateral hearing loss. Firstly, we implemented neuropsychological tests of 21 subjects (11 patients with long-term bilateral hearing loss, and 10 subjects with normal hearing), and these tests revealed significant differences between the deaf group and the controls. Then we constructed the individual specific virtual brain based on functional magnetic resonance data of participants by utilizing effective connectivity and multivariate regression methods...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136661/domain-learning-naming-game-for-color-categorization
#14
Doujie Li, Zhongyan Fan, Wallace K S Tang
Naming game simulates the evolution of vocabulary in a population of agents. Through pairwise interactions in the games, agents acquire a set of vocabulary in their memory for object naming. The existing model confines to a one-to-one mapping between a name and an object. Focus is usually put onto name consensus in the population rather than knowledge learning in agents, and hence simple learning model is usually adopted. However, the cognition system of human being is much more complex and knowledge is usually presented in a complicated form...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134288/task-relevant-brain-networks-identified-with-simultaneous-pet-mr-imaging-of-metabolism-and-connectivity
#15
Andreas Hahn, Gregor Gryglewski, Lukas Nics, Lucas Rischka, Sebastian Ganger, Helen Sigurdardottir, Chrysoula Vraka, Leo Silberbauer, Thomas Vanicek, Alexander Kautzky, Wolfgang Wadsak, Markus Mitterhauser, Markus Hartenbach, Marcus Hacker, Siegfried Kasper, Rupert Lanzenberger
Except for task-specific functional MRI, the vast majority of imaging studies assessed human brain function at resting conditions. However, tracking task-specific neuronal activity yields important insight how the brain responds to stimulation. We specifically investigated changes in glucose metabolism, functional connectivity and white matter microstructure during task performance using several recent methodological advancements. Opening the eyes and right finger tapping had elicited an increased glucose metabolism in primary visual and motor cortices, respectively...
November 13, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133709/experience-of-pallidal-deep-brain-stimulation-in-dystonia-at-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-india-an-initial-experience
#16
M Manjunath, Ravi Yadav, Srinivas Dwarakanath, Ketan Jhunjhunwala, A Jafar, Pratibha Surathi, Abhishek Lenka, Albert Stezin, S Sampath, Pramod K Pal
INTRODUCTION: Dystonia is one of the most prevalent forms of movement disorders and is characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing abnormal, often repetitive, movements, postures, or both. Dystonia causes significant morbidity with an adverse impact on the quality of life. When dystonia is medically refractory, causing severe pain and impairment in activities of daily living, deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus interna (GPi) is a potential option to reduce disability...
November 2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132271/capgras-syndrome-in-advanced-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Christopher L Groth, Antonia Pusso, Scott A Sperling, Diane S Huss, W Jeffrey Elias, G Frederick Wooten, Matthew J Barrett
Psychosis is common in Parkinson's disease (PD), especially in advanced disease, and can lead to a number of psychotic symptoms, including delusions. One uncommon delusion is Capgras syndrome (CS). The authors report on three PD patients with a history of deep brain stimulation (DBS) who developed this delusion. The anatomic targets in these three patients were the subthalamic nuclei in two patients and the globus pallidus interna in one patient. The length of time between surgery and development of CS varied but was greater than 6 months...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131369/photobiomodulation-for-traumatic-brain-injury-and-stroke
#18
REVIEW
Michael R Hamblin
There is a notable lack of therapeutic alternatives for what is fast becoming a global epidemic of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Photobiomodulation (PBM) employs red or near-infrared (NIR) light (600-1100nm) to stimulate healing, protect tissue from dying, increase mitochondrial function, improve blood flow, and tissue oxygenation. PBM can also act to reduce swelling, increase antioxidants, decrease inflammation, protect against apoptosis, and modulate microglial activation state. All these mechanisms of action strongly suggest that PBM delivered to the head should be beneficial in cases of both acute and chronic TBI...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130020/what-do-we-know-from-clinical-trials-on-exercise-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Yong Shen, Rena Li
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in elderly with major symptoms of a general term for memory loss and other intellectual abilities impairment which are serious enough to interfere with daily life. While there is no treatment can prevent and revise the cognitive function impairment in AD, physical activity becomes a potential beneficial intervention for AD. Multiple evidences suggested that exercise in general plays beneficial roles in improving brain function. Most common mechanisms of exercise-induced enhancement of brain function are including alteration of neurogenesis, neuron plasticity, neuronal signaling and receptors, as well as neuronal networks...
December 2016: Journal of Sport and Health Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128578/electrical-brain-stimulation-tes-improves-learning-more-than-performance-a-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Bianca A Simonsmeier, Roland H Grabner, Julia Hein, Ugne Krenz, Michael Schneider
Researchers have recently started evaluating whether stimulating the brain noninvasively with a weak and painless electrical current (transcranial Electrical Stimulation, tES) enhances physiological and cognitive processes. Some studies found that tES has weak but positive effects on brain physiology, cognition, or assessment performance, which have attracted massive public interest. We present the first meta-analytic test of the hypothesis that tES in a learning phase is more effective than tES in an assessment phase...
November 8, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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