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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925214/acute-and-chronic-effects-of-noradrenergic-enhancement-on-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-induced-neuroplasticity-in-humans
#1
Hsiao-I Kuo, Walter Paulus, Giorgi Batsikadze, Asif Jamil, Min-Fang Kuo, Michael A Nitsche
KEY POINTS: Chronic administration of the selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (NRI) reboxetine (RBX) increased and prolonged the long-term potentiation-like plasticity induced by anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for over 24 h. Chronic administration of RBX converted cathodal tDCS-induced long-term depression-like plasticity into facilitation for 120 min. Chronic noradrenergic activity enhancement on plasticity of the human brain might partially explain the delayed therapeutic impact of selective NRIs in depression and other neuropsychiatric diseases...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923975/efficacy-of-nonselective-optogenetic-control-of-the-medial-septum-over-hippocampal-oscillations-the-influence-of-speed-and-implications-for-cognitive-enhancement
#2
Benjamin J Blumberg, Sean P Flynn, Sylvain J Barriere, Philippe R Mouchati, Rod C Scott, Gregory L Holmes, Jeremy M Barry
Optogenetics holds great promise for both the dissection of neural circuits and the evaluation of theories centered on the temporal organizing properties of oscillations that underpin cognition. To date, no studies have examined the efficacy of optogenetic stimulation for altering hippocampal oscillations in freely moving wild-type rats, or how these alterations would affect performance on behavioral tasks. Here, we used an AAV virus to express ChR2 in the medial septum (MS) of wild-type rats, and optically stimulated septal neurons at 6 Hz and 30 Hz...
December 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923431/using-oscillating-sounds-to-manipulate-sleep-spindles
#3
James W Antony, Ken A Paller
STUDY OBJECTIVES: EEG oscillations known as sleep spindles have been linked with various aspects of cognition, but the specific functions they signal remain controversial. Two types of EEG sleep spindle have been distinguished: slow spindles at 11-13.5 Hz and fast spindles at 13.5-16 Hz. Slow spindles exhibit a frontal scalp topography, whereas fast spindles exhibit a posterior scalp topography and have been preferentially linked with memory consolidation during sleep. To advance understanding beyond that provided from correlative studies of spindles, we aimed to develop a new method to systematically manipulate spindles...
November 28, 2016: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923259/-established-therapies-and-new-therapeutic-strategies-in-alcoholic-liver-disease
#4
Helmut Karl Seitz, Sebastian Mueller
Chronical alcohol abuse causes more than 200 diseases and/or symptoms and among these alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is of special importance since it occurs frequently and may be life-threatening. In Europe alcohol consumption as well as ALD increased as compared to the rest of the world. It has been estimated that in Europe approximately 500 000 people die every year due to ALD. ALD consists of alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH), alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatocellar cancer (HCC ). Alcohol hepatitis (AH) is a clinical feature with jaundice and liver failure and a high mortality...
December 6, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918951/subjective-alcohol-responses-in-a-cross-sectional-field-based-study-of-adolescents-and-young-adults-effects-of-age-drinking-level-and-dependence-consequences
#5
Hayley Treloar, Mark A Celio, Stephen A Lisman, Robert Miranda, Linda P Spear
BACKGROUND: Adolescents are physically, cognitively, socially, and emotionally different than adults in ways that may partially explain why alcohol misuse typically develops during this period. Ample animal-science evidence and nascent ecological evidence points toward developmentally limited differences in sensitivity to alcohol's stimulatory and sedative effects. Field-based research methods were used to test for such age-related differences in a sample of adolescents through young adults...
November 16, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918855/best-practice-for-community-based-management-of-postnatal-depression-in-developing-countries-a-systematic-review
#6
Sara Dixon, Jaya A R Dantas
Postnatal depression (PND) is a common disorder that can be profoundly disabling for affected mothers and their infants. We reviewed published articles on the community-based management of postnatal depression (PND) in developing countries. Our aim was to propose recommendations to help women with PND. Various databases were searched for English articles from 2000 - 2014. Twelve articles met the selection criteria. We found that interventions involving cognitive behavioural therapy, infant stimulation, and problem solving can improve outcomes for PND...
December 5, 2016: Health Care for Women International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917475/tipping-points-curvilinear-associations-between-activity-level-and-mental-development-in-toddlers
#7
Megan Flom, Madeleine Cohen, Kimberly J Saudino
BACKGROUND: The Theory of Optimal Stimulation (Zentall & Zentall, Psychological Bulletin, 94, 1983, 446) posits that the relation between activity level (AL) and cognitive performance follows an inverted U shape where midrange AL predicts better cognitive performance than AL at the extremes. METHODS: We explored this by fitting linear and quadratic models predicting mental development from AL assessed via multiple methods (parent ratings, observations, and actigraphs) and across multiple situations (laboratory play, laboratory test, home) in over 600 twins (2- and 3-year olds)...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916830/influence-of-fragrances-on-human-psychophysiological-activity-with-special-reference-to-human-electroencephalographic-response
#8
REVIEW
Kandhasamy Sowndhararajan, Songmun Kim
The influence of fragrances such as perfumes and room fresheners on the psychophysiological activities of humans has been known for a long time, and its significance is gradually increasing in the medicinal and cosmetic industries. A fragrance consists of volatile chemicals with a molecular weight of less than 300 Da that humans perceive through the olfactory system. In humans, about 300 active olfactory receptor genes are devoted to detecting thousands of different fragrance molecules through a large family of olfactory receptors of a diverse protein sequence...
November 29, 2016: Scientia Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916533/activation-of-beta-and-alpha-2-adrenoceptors-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-has-opposing-effects-on-hippocampal-prefrontal-long-term-potentiation
#9
Ee Peng Lim, Gavin S Dawe, Thérèse M Jay
Noradrenaline (NA), released by the locus coeruleus (LC), plays a key role in mediating the effects of stress on memory functions. The LC provides diffuse projections to many forebrain nuclei including the hippocampus, the prefrontal cortex (PFC), and the basolateral amygdala (BLA). These three structures are intricately interlinked. The hippocampal-prefrontal (H-PFC) pathway is involved in various cognitive functions. The first aim of this study was to examine the role of BLA in H-PFC plasticity by infusion of drugs to activate and inactivate the BLA and studying the effects on H-PFC long-term potentiation (LTP) in the rat in vivo...
December 1, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916394/hypoactive-sexual-desire-disorder-international-society-for-the-study-of-women-s-sexual-health-isswsh-expert-consensus-panel-review
#10
REVIEW
Irwin Goldstein, Noel N Kim, Anita H Clayton, Leonard R DeRogatis, Annamaria Giraldi, Sharon J Parish, James Pfaus, James A Simon, Sheryl A Kingsberg, Cindy Meston, Stephen M Stahl, Kim Wallen, Roisin Worsley
The objective of the International Society for the Study of Women's Sexual Health expert consensus panel was to develop a concise, clinically relevant, evidence-based review of the epidemiology, physiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD), a sexual dysfunction affecting approximately 10% of adult women. Etiologic factors include conditions or drugs that decrease brain dopamine, melanocortin, oxytocin, and norepinephrine levels and augment brain serotonin, endocannabinoid, prolactin, and opioid levels...
November 30, 2016: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915236/alcohol-and-alzheimer-s-disease-does-alcohol-dependence-contribute-to-beta-amyloid-deposition-neuroinflammation-and-neurodegeneration-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Ashwin Venkataraman, Nicola Kalk, Gavin Sewell, Craig W Ritchie, Anne Lingford-Hughes
AIMS: To investigate the underlying neurobiology between alcohol use, misuse and dependence and cognitive impairment, particularly Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: Review of the literature using searches of Medline, Pubmed, EMBASE, PsycInfo, and meeting abstracts and presentations. RESULTS: The role of alcohol as a risk factor and contributor for cognitive decline associated with AD has received little attention. This is despite the high prevalence of alcohol use, the potential reversibility of a degree of cognitive impairment and the global burden of AD...
December 3, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914248/the-difficult-lives-of-individuals-with-bipolar-disorder-a-review-of-functional-outcomes-and-their-implications-for-treatment
#12
REVIEW
Michael J Gitlin, David J Miklowitz
BACKGROUND: Most longitudinal or treatment studies in bipolar disorder have used symptomatic or syndromal status as the primary outcome variable. More recently, psychosocial functioning has been highlighted as a key domain of outcome. Patients with bipolar disorder appear to be impaired in all functional domains, although the factors that cause impairment have not been clearly specified. METHODS: This paper reviews cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on functional impairment and its relationship to symptomatic, neurocognitive, personality, and stress variables in bipolar disorder; and the implications of these relationships for defining treatment targets...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912894/self-generation-and-positivity-effects-following-transcranial-random-noise-stimulation-in-medial-prefrontal-cortex-a-reality-monitoring-task-in-older-adults
#13
Nicola Mammarella, Alberto Di Domenico, Rocco Palumbo, Beth Fairfield
Activation of medial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC) has been typically found during reality monitoring tasks (i.e., distinguishing between internal self-generated vs external information). No study, however, has yet investigated whether transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (tRNS) over the mPFC leads to a reduction in reality-monitoring misattributions in aging. In particular, stimulating mPFC should increase the number of cognitive operations engaged while encoding and this distinctive information may help older adults to discriminate between internal and external sources better...
November 15, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912107/limits-to-tdcs-effects-in-language-failures-to-modulate-word-production-in-healthy-participants-with-frontal-or-temporal-tdcs
#14
Samuel J Westwood, Andrew Olson, R Chris Miall, Raffaele Nappo, Cristina Romani
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a method of non-invasive brain stimulation widely used to modulate cognitive functions. Recent studies, however, suggests that effects are unreliable, small and often non-significant at least when stimulation is applied in a single session to healthy individuals. We examined the effects of frontal and temporal lobe anodal tDCS on naming and reading tasks and considered possible interactions with linguistic activation and selection mechanisms as well as possible interactions with item difficulty and participant individual variability...
November 3, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909646/the-neural-mechanisms-of-meditative-practices-novel-approaches-for-healthy-aging
#15
REVIEW
Bianca P Acevedo, Sarah Pospos, Helen Lavretsky
OBJECTIVES: Meditation has been shown to have physical, cognitive, and psychological health benefits that can be used to promote healthy aging. However, the common and specific mechanisms of response remain elusive due to the diverse nature of mind-body practices. METHODS: In this review, we aim to compare the neural circuits implicated in focused-attention meditative practices that focus on present-moment awareness to those involved in active-type meditative practices (e...
2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908981/neurotrophin-signalling-novel-insights-into-mechanisms-and-pathophysiology
#16
REVIEW
Mariela Mitre, Abigail Mariga, Moses V Chao
Neurotrophins, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are prominent regulators of neuronal survival, growth and differentiation during development. While trophic factors are viewed as well-understood but not innovative molecules, there are many lines of evidence indicating that BDNF plays an important role in the pathophysiology of many neurodegenerative disorders, depression, anxiety and other psychiatric disorders. In particular, lower levels of BDNF are associated with the aetiology of Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908789/metacognition-of-attention-during-tactile-discrimination
#17
Stephen Whitmarsh, Robert Oostenveld, Rita Almeida, Daniel Lundqvist
The ability to monitor the success of cognitive processing is referred to as metacognition. Studies of metacognition typically probe post-decision judgments of confidence, showing that we can report on the success of wide range of cognitive processes. Much less is known about our ability to monitor and report on the degree of top-down attention, an ability of paramount importance in tasks requiring sustained attention. However, it has been repeatedly shown that the degree and locus of top-down attention modulates alpha (8-14Hz) power in sensory cortices...
November 28, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907094/continuous-descending-modulation-of-the-spinal-cord-revealed-by-functional-mri
#18
Patrick W Stroman, Rachael L Bosma, Andreea I Cotoi, Roxanne H Leung, Jennifer Kornelsen, Jane M Lawrence-Dewar, Caroline F Pukall, Roland Staud
Spontaneous variations in spinal cord activity may arise from regulation of any of a number of functions including sensory, motor, and autonomic control. Here, we use functional MRI (fMRI) of healthy participants to identify properties of blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) variations in the spinal cord in response to knowledge that either a noxious stimulus is impending, or that no stimulus is to be expected. Expectation of a noxious stimulus, or no stimulus, is shown to have a significant effect on wide-spread BOLD signal variations in the spinal cord over the entire time period of the fMRI acquisition...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906522/educating-executive-function
#19
REVIEW
Clancy Blair
Executive functions are thinking skills that assist with reasoning, planning, problem solving, and managing one's life. The brain areas that underlie these skills are interconnected with and influenced by activity in many different brain areas, some of which are associated with emotion and stress. One consequence of the stress-specific connections is that executive functions, which help us to organize our thinking, tend to be disrupted when stimulation is too high and we are stressed out, or too low when we are bored and lethargic...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904515/interaction-between-c-reactive-protein-and-cognitive-functions-according-to-apoe-gene-polymorphism-in-post-menopausal-women
#20
Iwona Bojar, Mariusz Gujski, Jarosław Pinkas, Dorota Raczkiewicz, Alfred Owoc, Ewa Humeniuk
INTRODUCTION: A potential factor increasing the risk of the development of cognitive impairment with age is apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 carrier status. A subsequent factor which may increase the risk of development of cognitive impairment at an older age is the concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP). The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between cognitive functions and the concentration of CRP in post-menopausal women who were carriers of particular apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) polymorphisms...
December 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
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