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Phase variation

Yangbo Wang, Bingxiao Yang, Kun Chen, Enlong Zhou, Qinghua Zhang, Lisha Yin, Xiaoji Xie, Lin Gu, Ling Huang
Scandium (Sc) sits at a unique position in the periodic table, i.e., the junction of the top of the rare earth column and the beginning of the transition metal row. Studies have shown that Sc-based nanomaterials are very sensitive to the surrounding chemical environment. A simple adjustment of the chemical reaction conditions such as temperature, surfactant molecules, and solvents (e.g., oleic acid (OA) or 1-octadecene (OD)) can easily lead to different products in terms of chemical composition and phase structure...
March 19, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Katri Nissinen, Virpi Virjamo, Lauri Mehtätalo, Anu Lavola, Anu Valtonen, Line Nybakken, Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto
In boreal woody plants, concentrations of defensive phenolic compounds are expected to be at a high level during the juvenile phase and decrease in maturity, although there is variation between plant species. Females of dioecious species, like most of the Salicaceae, are expected to invest their resources in defense and reproduction, while males are expected to be more growth-oriented. We studied age- and sex-dependent changes in leaf and stem phenolics, and in height and diameter growth in a dioecious Salix myrsinifolia plants over a seven-year time period...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Moritz F Meyer, Christine Korthäuer, Stefanie Jansen, Karl-Bernd Hüttenbrink, Dirk Beutner
PURPOSE: The determination of Eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) subtypes in daily routines is based on symptoms of the patient, otoscopy, nasopharyngoscopy, tympanometry, pure tone audiometry, and Valsalva's test, even though this clinical assessment is often not sufficient to clearly diagnose the subtype. In the study, we have evaluated the possibility of the determination of different subtypes of ETD by pressure chamber measurements. METHODS: In a single-person pressure chamber, we exposed 17 patients to pressure increases and decreases...
March 17, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Asher Haug-Baltzell, Tushar R Bhangale, Diana Chang, Amy Dressen, Brian L Yaspan, Ward Ortmann, Matthew J Brauer, Julie Hunkapiller, Jens Reeder, Kiran Mukhyala, Karen T Cuenco, Jennifer A Tom, Amy Cowgill, Jan Vogel, William F Forrest, Timothy W Behrens, Robert R Graham, Arthur Wuster
In clinical trials, a placebo response refers to improvement in disease symptoms arising from the psychological effect of receiving a treatment rather than the actual treatment under investigation. Previous research has reported genomic variation associated with the likelihood of observing a placebo response, but these studies have been limited in scope and have not been validated. Here, we analyzed whole-genome sequencing data from 784 patients undergoing placebo treatment in Phase III Asthma or Rheumatoid Arthritis trials to assess the impact of previously reported variation on patient outcomes in the placebo arms and to identify novel variants associated with the placebo response...
March 18, 2018: Genes and Immunity
Ping Guo, Mendwas Dzingina, Alice M Firth, Joanna M Davies, Abdel Douiri, Suzanne M O'Brien, Cathryn Pinto, Sophie Pask, Irene J Higginson, Kathy Eagar, Fliss E M Murtagh
INTRODUCTION: Provision of palliative care is inequitable with wide variations across conditions and settings in the UK. Lack of a standard way to classify by case complexity is one of the principle obstacles to addressing this. We aim to develop and validate a casemix classification to support the prediction of costs of specialist palliative care provision. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Phase I: A cohort study to determine the variables and potential classes to be included in a casemix classification...
March 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Masoud Ghader, Nader Shokoufi, Ali Es-Haghi, Kazem Kargosha
Vaccine production is a biological process in which variation in time and output is inevitable. Thus, the application of Process Analytical Technologies (PAT) will be important in this regard. Headspace solid - phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with GC-MS can be used as a PAT for process monitoring. This method is suitable to chemical profiling of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from microorganisms. Tetanus is a lethal disease caused by Clostridium tetani (C. tetani) bacterium and vaccination is an ultimate way to prevent this disease...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Olivier Villemain, Mafalda Correia, Elie Mousseaux, Jérome Baranger, Samuel Zarka, Ilya Podetti, Gilles Soulat, Thibaud Damy, Albert Hagège, Mickael Tanter, Mathieu Pernot, Emmanuel Messas
OBJECTIVES: The goal of our study was to investigate the potential of myocardial shear wave imaging (SWI) to quantify the diastolic myocardial stiffness (MS) (kPa) noninvasively in adult healthy volunteers (HVs) and its physiological variation with age, and in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) populations with heart failure and preserved ejection function (HFpEF). BACKGROUND: MS is an important prognostic and diagnostic parameter of the diastolic function. MS is affected by physiological changes but also by pathological alterations of extracellular and cellular tissues...
March 9, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
John S Mangum, Lisa H Chan, Ute Schmidt, Lauren M Garten, David S Ginley, Brian P Gorman
Site-specific preparation of specimens using focused ion beam instruments for transmission electron microscopy is at the forefront of targeting regions of interest for nanoscale characterization. Typical methods of pinpointing desired features include electron backscatter diffraction for differentiating crystal structures and energy-dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy for probing compositional variations. Yet there are situations, notably in the titanium dioxide system, where these techniques can fail. Differentiating between the brookite and anatase polymorphs of titania is either excessively laborious or impossible with the aforementioned techniques...
February 23, 2018: Ultramicroscopy
Daxing Xiong
We address the issue of whether the golden-mean [ψ=(sqrt[5]+1)/2≃1.618] universality class, as predicted by several theoretical models, can be observed in the dynamical scaling of thermal transport. Remarkably, we show strong evidence that ψ appears to be the scaling exponent of heat mode correlation in a purely quartic anharmonic chain. This observation seems to somewhat deviate from the previous expectation and we explain it by the unusual slow decay of the cross correlation between heat and sound modes...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Guillaume St-Onge, Jean-Gabriel Young, Edward Laurence, Charles Murphy, Louis J Dubé
We present a degree-based theoretical framework to study the susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) dynamics on time-varying (rewired) configuration model networks. Using this framework on a given degree distribution, we provide a detailed analysis of the stationary state using the rewiring rate to explore the whole range of the time variation of the structure relative to that of the SIS process. This analysis is suitable for the characterization of the phase transition and leads to three main contributions: (1) We obtain a self-consistent expression for the absorbing-state threshold, able to capture both collective and hub activation...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
A Bobák, E Jurčišinová, M Jurčišin, M Žukovič
We investigate the phase transitions and tricritical behaviors of the frustrated Ising antiferromagnet with first- (J_{1}<0) and second- (J_{2}<0) nearest-neighbor interactions in a transverse field Ω on the square lattice using an effective-field theory with correlations based on a single-spin approximation. We have proposed a functional for the free energy to obtain the phase diagram in the T-R (R=J_{2}/|J_{1}|) or T-Ω planes. It is shown that due to the transverse field the phase transition between ordered and disordered phases changes in the tricritical point (TCP) from the second order to the first order...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Qiushi Li, Jihui Wang, Xuteng Xing, Wenbin Hu
The corrosion behavior of X65 steel was investigated in the seawater inoculated with sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) under the aerobic environment by electrochemical impedance techniques and immersion tests. The corroded morphologies and the composition of the corrosion products were investigated. The variation of the solution parameters including the bacterium number, the pH value and the soluble iron concentration were also investigated. The results indicated that in the SRB-containing system, the impedance responses presented a depressed semi-circle in the initial period, which then turned into the blocked electrode characteristic during the later immersion...
March 11, 2018: Bioelectrochemistry
Filippo Giacomo Carrozzo, Maria Cristina De Sanctis, Andrea Raponi, Eleonora Ammannito, Julie Castillo-Rogez, Bethany L Ehlmann, Simone Marchi, Nathaniel Stein, Mauro Ciarniello, Federico Tosi, Fabrizio Capaccioni, Maria Teresa Capria, Sergio Fonte, Michelangelo Formisano, Alessandro Frigeri, Marco Giardino, Andrea Longobardo, Gianfranco Magni, Ernesto Palomba, Francesca Zambon, Carol A Raymond, Christopher T Russell
Different carbonates have been detected on Ceres, and their abundance and spatial distribution have been mapped using a visible and infrared mapping spectrometer (VIR), the Dawn imaging spectrometer. Carbonates are abundant and ubiquitous across the surface, but variations in the strength and position of infrared spectral absorptions indicate variations in the composition and amount of these minerals. Mg-Ca carbonates are detected all over the surface, but localized areas show Na carbonates, such as natrite (Na2 CO3 ) and hydrated Na carbonates (for example, Na2 CO3 ·H2 O)...
March 2018: Science Advances
Steven M Kornblau, Peter P Ruvolo, Rui-Yu Wang, V Lokesh Battula, Elisabeth J Shpall, Vivian R Ruvolo, Teresa McQueen, YiHua Qui, Zhihong Zeng, Sherry Pierce, Rodrigo Jacamo, Suk-Young Yoo, Phuong M Le, Jeffery Sun, Numsen Hail, Marina Konopleva, Michael Andreeff
Mesenchymal stromal cells support acute myeloid leukemia cell survival in the bone marrow microenvironment. Protein expression profiles of acute myeloid leukemia-derived mesenchymal stromal cells are unknown. Reverse phase protein array analysis was performed to compare expression of 151 proteins from acute myeloid leukemia mesenchymal stromal cells (n = 106) with mesenchymal stromal cells from healthy donors (n = 71). Protein expression differed significantly between the two groups with nineteen proteins overexpressed in leukemia stromal cells and nine overexpressed in normal stromal cells...
March 15, 2018: Haematologica
Yumeng Li, Rumit S Kakar, Marika A Walker, Li Guan, Kathy J Simpson
The upper trunk - pelvic coordination patterns used in running are not well understood. The purposes of our study are to (a) test the running speed effect on the upper trunk - pelvis axial rotation coordination; (b) present a step-by-step guide of the relative Fourier phase algorithm as well as some further issues to consider. Twenty healthy young adults were tested under three treadmill running speeds using a 3D motion capture system. The upper trunk and pelvic segmental angles in axial rotation were calculated and the coordination was quantified using the relative Fourier phase method...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
David Müller, Andreas Otto, Günter Radons
We show that the output of systems with time-varying delay can exhibit a new kind of chaotic behavior characterized by laminar phases, which are periodically interrupted by irregular bursts. Within each laminar phase the output intensity remains almost constant, but its level varies chaotically from phase to phase. In scalar systems, the periodic dynamics of the lengths and the chaotic dynamics of the intensity levels can be understood and also tuned via two one-dimensional maps, which can be deduced from the nonlinearity of the delay equation and from the delay variation, respectively...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Krzysztof B Beć, Yusuke Morisawa, Kenta Kobashi, Justyna Grabska, Ichiro Tanabe, Erika Tanimura, Harumi Sato, Marek J Wójcik, Yukihiro Ozaki
We investigated the surface (<50 nm) of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and its nanocomposite with graphene by attenuated total reflection far- and deep-ultraviolet (ATR-FUV-DUV; 145-300 nm; 8.55-4.13 eV) spectroscopy and quantum mechanical calculations. The major absorption of polymers occurs in FUV and is related to Rydberg transitions. ATR-FUV-DUV spectroscopy allows for direct measurements of these transitions in the solid phase. Using ATR-FUV-DUV spectroscopy, periodic density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT), we explained the origins of the FUV-DUV absorption of PHB and provided insights into structural changes of PHB which occur upon formation of a graphene nanocomposite and upon heating of the pure polymer...
March 15, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Kevin Zarrabi, Shenhong Wu
BACKGROUND: Nivolumab is approved for the treatment of many cancers. This meta-analysis was conducted to determine the risk of hepatotoxicity with nivolumab therapy. METHODS: An analysis from all phase I-III clinical trials up to December 2016 examining nivolumab was conducted. Data on elevations in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were extracted from the safety profiles of each trial. Incidence and relative risk (RR) were calculated using random- or fixed-effects models with 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
March 14, 2018: Oncology
Ricardo Araújo, Vincent Fernandez, Richard D Rabbitt, Eric G Ekdale, Miguel T Antunes, Rui Castanhinha, Jörg Fröbisch, Rui M S Martins
The semicircular canal (SC) system of the inner ear detects head angular accelerations and is essential for navigation and spatial awareness in vertebrates. Because the bony labyrinth encloses the membranous labyrinth SCs, it can be used as a proxy for animal behavior. The bony labyrinth of dicynodonts, a clade of herbivorous non-mammalian synapsids, has only been described in a handful of individuals and remains particularly obscure. Here we describe the bony labyrinth anatomy of three Endothiodon cf. bathystoma specimens from Mozambique based on digital reconstructions from propagation phase-contrast synchrotron micro-computed tomography...
2018: PloS One
Kai Lv, Chu-Ting Yang, Yi Liu, Sheng Hu, Xiao-Lin Wang
To aid the design of a hierarchically porous unconventional metal-phosphonate framework (HP-UMPF) for practical radioanalytical separation, a systematic investigation of the hydrolytic stability of bulk phase against acidic corrosion has been carried out for an archetypical HP-UMPF. Bulk dissolution results suggest that aqueous acidity has a more paramount effect on incongruent leaching than the temperature, and the kinetic stability reaches equilibrium by way of an accumulation of a partial leached species on the corrosion conduits...
March 14, 2018: Nanomaterials
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