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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551533/hydro-geochemical-paths-of-multi-layer-groundwater-system-in-coal-mining-regions-using-multivariate-statistics-and-geochemical-modeling-approaches
#1
Pu Liu, Nils Hoth, Carsten Drebenstedt, Yajun Sun, Zhimin Xu
Groundwater is an important drinking water resource that requires protection in North China. Coal mining industry in the area may influence the water quality evolution. To provide primary characterization of the hydrogeochemical processes and paths that control the water quality evolution, a complex multi-layer groundwater system in a coal mining area is investigated. Multivariate statistical methods involving hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) are applied, 6 zones and 3 new principal components are classified as major reaction zones and reaction factors...
May 25, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550292/proteomic-comparisons-of-opaque-and-transparent-variants-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-by-two-dimensional-differential-gel-electrophoresis
#2
Melissa H Chai, Florian Weiland, Richard M Harvey, Peter Hoffmann, Abiodun D Ogunniyi, James C Paton
Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is a human pathogen, accounting for massive global morbidity and mortality. Although asymptomatic colonization of the nasopharynx almost invariably precedes disease, the critical determinants enabling pneumococcal progression from this niche to cause invasive disease are poorly understood. One mechanism proposed to be central to this transition involves opacity phase variation, whereby pneumococci harvested from the nasopharynx are typically transparent, while those simultaneously harvested from the blood are opaque...
May 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548147/reentrant-phase-separation-behavior-of-active-particles-with-anisotropic-janus-interaction
#3
Mingfeng Pu, Huijun Jiang, Zhonghuai Hou
Recent studies showed substantial evidence of dynamic clustering and phase separation in active particle systems, but the role of anisotropic interaction between the particles has not been addressed yet. Here we investigate the phase separation of active particles that experience an anisotropic Janus interaction with tunable strength in two dimensional space by using Langevin dynamics simulations. Interestingly, we find that phase separation shows a re-entrance behavior with variation of the Janus interaction strength: while small Janus interaction can enhance the formation of living clusters and phase separation, large Janus interaction would destroy the large cluster...
May 26, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547754/impact-of-igg-fc-oligosaccharides-on-recombinant-monoclonal-antibody-structure-stability-safety-and-efficacy
#4
REVIEW
Hongcheng Liu, Christine Nowak, Bruce Andrien, Mei Shao, Gomathinayagam Ponniah, Alyssa Neill
Glycosylation of the conserved asparagine residue in the CH2 domain is the most common posttranslational modification of recombinant monoclonal antibodies. Ideally, a consistent oligosaccharide profile should be maintained from early clinical material to commercial material for the development of recombinant monoclonal therapeutics, though variation in the profile is a typical result of process changes. The risk of oligosaccharide variation posed to further development is required to be thoroughly evaluated based on its impact on antibody structure, stability, efficacy and safety...
May 25, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547658/time-of-day-dependent-expression-of-purinergic-receptors-in-mouse-suprachiasmatic-nucleus
#5
Julian Lommen, Anna Stahr, Marc Ingenwerth, Amira A H Ali, Charlotte von Gall
Purinergic P2X and P2Y receptors are involved in mediating intercellular signalling via purines such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP). P2X and P2Y receptors have been implicated in numerous body functions including learning, memory and sleep. All of these body functions show time-of-day-dependent variations controlled by the master circadian oscillator located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Evidence exists for a role of purinergic signalling in intercellular coupling within SCN. However, few studies have been performed on the expression of purinergic receptors in SCN...
May 26, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546896/study-of-the-correlation-between-sensing-performance-and-surface-morphology-of-inkjet-printed-aqueous-graphene-based-chemiresistors-for-no2-detection
#6
F Villani, C Schiattarella, T Polichetti, R Di Capua, F Loffredo, B Alfano, M L Miglietta, E Massera, L Verdoliva, G Di Francia
The extremely high sensitivity to the external environment and the high specific surface area, as well as the absence of bulk phenomena that could interfere with the response signal, make graphene highly attractive for the applications in the field of sensing. Among the various methods for producing graphene over large areas, liquid phase exfoliation (LPE) appears to be very promising, especially if combined with inkjet printing (IJP), which offers several advantages, including the selective and controlled deposition of small ink volumes and the versatility of the exploitable inks and substrates...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546824/high-spatio-temporal-resolution-detection-of-chlorophyll-fluorescence-dynamics-from-a-single-chloroplast-with-confocal-imaging-fluorometer
#7
Yi-Chin Tseng, Shi-Wei Chu
BACKGROUND: Chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) is a key indicator to study plant physiology or photosynthesis efficiency. Conventionally, CF is characterized by fluorometers, which only allows ensemble measurement through wide-field detection. For imaging fluorometers, the typical spatial and temporal resolutions are on the order of millimeter and second, far from enough to study cellular/sub-cellular CF dynamics. In addition, due to the lack of optical sectioning capability, conventional imaging fluorometers cannot identify CF from a single cell or even a single chloroplast...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545446/whole-genome-sequencing-reveals-within-host-genetic-changes-in-paired-meningococcal-carriage-isolates-from-ethiopia
#8
Guro K Bårnes, Ola Brønstad Brynildsrud, Bente Børud, Bereket Workalemahu, Paul A Kristiansen, Demissew Beyene, Abraham Aseffa, Dominique A Caugant
BACKGROUND: Meningococcal colonization is a prerequisite for transmission and disease, but the bacterium only very infrequently causes disease while asymptomatic carriage is common. Carriage is highly dynamic, showing a great variety across time and space within and across populations, but also within individuals. The understanding of genetic changes in the meningococcus during carriage, when the bacteria resides in its natural niche, is important for understanding not only the carriage state, but the dynamics of the entire meningococcal population...
May 25, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545047/the-natural-history-of-varicella-zoster-virus-infection-in-norway-further-insights-on-exogenous-boosting-and-progressive-immunity-to-herpes-zoster
#9
Luigi Marangi, Grazina Mirinaviciute, Elmira Flem, Gianpaolo Scalia Tomba, Giorgio Guzzetta, Birgitte Freiesleben de Blasio, Piero Manfredi
We use age-structured models for VZV transmission and reactivation to reconstruct the natural history of VZV in Norway based on available pre-vaccination serological data, contact matrices, and herpes zoster incidence data. Depending on the hypotheses on contact and transmission patterns, the basic reproduction number of varicella in Norway ranges between 3.7 and 5.0, implying a vaccine coverage between 73 and 80% to effectively interrupt transmission with a 100% vaccine efficacy against infection. The varicella force of infection peaks during early childhood (3-5 yrs) and shows a prolonged phase of higher risk during the childbearing period, though quantitative variations can occur depending on contact patterns...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544851/low-ceiling-temperature-polymer-microcapsules-with-hydrophobic-payloads-via-rapid-emulsion-solvent-evaporation
#10
Shijia Tang, Mostafa Yourdkhani, Catherine M Possanza Casey, Nancy R Sottos, Scott R White, Jeffrey S Moore
We report a microencapsulation procedure based on rapid solvent evaporation to prepare microcapsules with hydrophobic core materials and low ceiling temperature polymer shell wall of cyclic poly(phthalaldehyde) (cPPA). We use and compare microfluidic and bulk emulsions. In both methods, rapid solvent evaporation following emulsification resulted in kinetically trapped core-shell microcapsules while slow evaporation resulted in acorn morphology. Through the systematic variation of encapsulation parameters, we found that polymer-to-core weight ratios higher than 1 and polymer concentration higher than 4...
May 25, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544269/a-novel-approach-for-early-evaluation-of-orthodontic-process-by-a-numerical-thermo-mechanical-analysis
#11
Z Heidary, A Mojra, M Shirazi, M Bazargan
The main objective of this paper is to propose a novel method that provides an opportunity to evaluate an orthodontic process at early phase of the treatment. This was accomplished by finding out a correlation between the applied orthodontic force and thermal variations in the tooth structure. To this end, geometry of the human tooth surrounded by the connective soft tissue called the periodontal ligament and the bone was constructed by employing dental CT scan images of a specific case. The periodontal ligament was modeled by finite strain viscoelastic model through a nonlinear stress-strain relation (hyperelasticity) and nonlinear stress-time relation (viscoelasticity)...
May 21, 2017: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544159/simultaneous-measurement-of-t1-b1-and-pharmacokinetic-model-parameters-using-active-contrast-encoding-ace-mri
#12
Jin Zhang, Kerryanne Winters, Olivier Reynaud, Sungheon Gene Kim
The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of combining dynamic contrast enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) with the measurement of the radiofrequency (RF) transmit field B1 and pre-contrast longitudinal relaxation time T10 . A novel approach has been proposed to simultaneously estimate B1 and T10 from a modified DCE-MRI scan that actively encodes the washout phase of the curve with different amounts of T1 and B1 weighting using multiple flip angles and repetition times, hence referred to as active contrast encoding (ACE)-MRI...
May 22, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544043/identification-of-v-type-nerve-agents-in-vapor-samples-using-a-field-portable-capillary-gas-chromatography-membrane-interfaced-electron-ionization-quadrupole-mass-spectrometry-instrument-with-tri-bed-concentrator-and-fluoridating-conversion-tube
#13
Yasuhiko Ohrui, Tomoki Nagoya, Naoko Kurimata, Manabu Sodeyama, Yasuo Seto
A field-portable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system (Hapsite ER) was evaluated for the detection of nonvolatile V-type nerve agents (VX and Russian VX (RVX)) in the vapor phase. The Hapsite ER system consists of a Tri-Bed concentrator gas sampler, a nonpolar low thermal-mass capillary gas chromatography column and a hydrophobic membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer evacuated by a non-evaporative getter pump. The GC-MS system was attached to a VX-G fluoridating conversion tube containing silver nitrate and potassium fluoride...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543274/diel-and-seasonal-movements-of-silver-eels-anguilla-dieffenbachii-emigrating-from-a-lake-subject-to-hydro-electric-control
#14
D J Jellyman, M J Unwin
To investigate the behaviour and fate of silver female longfin eels Anguilla dieffenbachii in relation to flow variations from New Zealand's largest (700 MW) hydro-electric station, 210 A. dieffenbachii were tagged with acoustic transmitters during summer and autumn over 6 years from 2005 to 2010. A shoreline array of receivers (2005-2008) was supplemented by positioning systems near the power station and natural outlet (2009-2010) that enabled continuous tracking of A. dieffenbachii within these areas...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543189/rapid-radiations-of-both-kiwifruit-hybrid-lineages-and-their-parents-shed-light-on-a-two-layer-mode-of-species-diversification
#15
Yifei Liu, Dawei Li, Qiong Zhang, Chi Song, Caihong Zhong, Xudong Zhang, Ying Wang, Xiaohong Yao, Zupeng Wang, Shaohua Zeng, Ying Wang, Yangtao Guo, Shuaibin Wang, Xinwei Li, Li Li, Chunyan Liu, Honour C McCann, Weiming He, Yan Niu, Min Chen, Liuwen Du, Junjie Gong, Paul M Datson, Elena Hilario, Hongwen Huang
Reticulate speciation caused by interspecific hybridization is now recognized as an important mechanism in the creation of biological diversity. However, depicting the patterns of phylogenetic networks for lineages that have undergone interspecific gene flow is challenging. Here we sequenced 25 taxa representing natural diversity in the genus Actinidia with an average mapping depth of 26× on the reference genome to reconstruct their reticulate history. We found evidence, including significant gene tree discordance, cytonuclear conflicts, and changes in genome-wide heterozygosity across taxa, collectively supporting extensive reticulation in the genus...
May 25, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542730/estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-regulates-the-tumoral-suppressor-pten-to-modulate-pituitary-cell-growth
#16
Pablo Anibal Perez, Juan Pablo Petiti, Florencia Picech, Carolina Beatriz Guido, Liliana Del Valle Sosa, Ezequiel Grondona, Jorge Humberto Mukdsi, Ana Lucia De Paul, Alicia Ines Torres, Silvina Gutierrez
In this study, we focused on ERβ regulation in the adenohypophysis under different estrogenic milieu, by analyzing whether ER modulates the phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) expression and its subcellular localization on anterior pituitary glands from Wistar rats and GH3 lactosomatotroph cells that over-expressed ERβ. ERβ was regulated in a cyclic manner, and underwent dynamic changes throughout the estrous cycle, with decreased ERβ+ cells in estrus and under E2 treatment, but increased in ovariectomized rats...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542434/interleukin-6-stimulates-akt-and-p38-mapk-phosphorylation-and-fibroblast-migration-in-non-diabetic-but-not-diabetic-mice
#17
Tsubame Nishikai-Yan Shen, Shigeyuki Kanazawa, Makiko Kado, Kayoko Okada, Lin Luo, Ayato Hayashi, Hiroshi Mizuno, Rica Tanaka
Persistent inflammatory environment and abnormal macrophage activation are characteristics of chronic diabetic wounds. Here, we attempted to characterize the differences in macrophage activation and temporal variations in cytokine expression in diabetic and non-diabetic wounds, with a focus on interleukin (IL)-6 mRNA expression and the p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Cutaneous wound closure, CD68- and arginase-1 (Arg-1)-expressing macrophages, and cytokine mRNA expression were examined in non-diabetic and streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice at different time points after injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541037/phase-behavior-of-salt-free-polyelectrolyte-gel-surfactant-systems
#18
Martin Andersson, Per Hansson
Ionic surfactants tend to collapse the outer parts of polyelectrolyte gels, forming shells that can be used to encapsulate other species including protein and peptide drugs. In this paper the aqueous phase behaviour of covalently crosslinked polyacrylate networks containing sodium ions and dodecyltrimethylammonium ions as counterions is investigated by means of swelling isotherms, dye staining, small-angle x-ray scattering and confocal Raman spectroscopy. The equilibrium state is approached by letting the networks absorb pure water...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540816/numerical-evaluation-of-the-effect-of-electronically-steering-a-phased-array-transducer-axially-post-focal-shifting
#19
Mingjun Wang, Yufeng Zhou
PURPOSE: HIFU has been emerging as an effective and safe modality for the treatment of solid tumours and cancers. The focus shifting range of phased array HIFU transducer is an important safety concern because of the presence of grating lobe in the pre-focal region. However, previous studies were only based on linear acoustic wave model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The nonlinear wave propagation from a 256-element phased array through multiple layered media was simulated using the angular spectrum approach (ASA) in marching fractional steps with the consideration of diffraction, attenuation and non-linearity effects by a second-order operator splitting scheme...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539748/rapid-development-and-validation-of-improved-reversed-phase-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-method-for-the-quantification-of-mangiferin-a-polyphenol-xanthone-glycoside-in-mangifera-indica
#20
P Naveen, H B Lingaraju, K Shyam Prasad
Mangiferin, a polyphenolic xanthone glycoside from Mangifera indica, is used as traditional medicine for the treatment of numerous diseases. The present study was aimed to develop and validate a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the quantification of mangiferin from the bark extract of M. indica. RP-HPLC analysis was performed by isocratic elution with a low-pressure gradient using 0.1% formic acid: acetonitrile (87:13) as a mobile phase with a flow rate of 1.5 ml/min...
April 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
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