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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708800/the-effects-of-white-noise-on-agitated-behaviors-mental-status-and-activities-of-daily-living-in-older-adults-with-dementia
#1
Li-Wei Lin, Shu-Chuan Weng, Hua-Shan Wu, Lu-Jen Tsai, Ya-Ling Lin, Shu-Hui Yeh
BACKGROUND: The aging of society is a global trend, and care of older adults with dementia is an urgent challenge. As dementia progresses, patients exhibit negative emotions, memory disorders, sleep disorders, and agitated behavior. Agitated behavior is one of the most difficult problems for family caregivers and healthcare providers to handle when caring for older adults with dementia. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of white noise in improving agitated behavior, mental status, and activities of daily living in older adults with dementia...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677622/a-frequency-domain-adaptive-matched-filter-for-active-sonar-detection
#2
Zhishan Zhao, Anbang Zhao, Juan Hui, Baochun Hou, Reza Sotudeh, Fang Niu
The most classical detector of active sonar and radar is the matched filter (MF), which is the optimal processor under ideal conditions. Aiming at the problem of active sonar detection, we propose a frequency-domain adaptive matched filter (FDAMF) with the use of a frequency-domain adaptive line enhancer (ALE). The FDAMF is an improved MF. In the simulations in this paper, the signal to noise ratio (SNR) gain of the FDAMF is about 18.6 dB higher than that of the classical MF when the input SNR is -10 dB. In order to improve the performance of the FDAMF with a low input SNR, we propose a pre-processing method, which is called frequency-domain time reversal convolution and interference suppression (TRC-IS)...
July 4, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662977/anthropogenic-noise-compromises-the-anti-predator-behaviour-of-the-european-seabass-dicentrarchus-labrax-l
#3
Ilaria Spiga, Nicholas Aldred, Gary S Caldwell
Anthropogenic noise is a significant pollutant of the world's oceans, affecting behavioural and physiological traits in a range of species, including anti-predator behaviours. Using the open field test, we investigated the effects of recordings of piling and drilling noise on the anti-predator behaviour of captive juvenile European seabass in response to a visual stimulus (a predatory mimic). The impulsive nature of piling noise triggered a reflexive startle response, which contrasted the behaviour elicited by the continuous drilling noise...
June 26, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659604/long-term-monitoring-of-dolphin-biosonar-activity-in-deep-pelagic-waters-of-the-mediterranean-sea
#4
Francesco Caruso, Giuseppe Alonge, Giorgio Bellia, Emilio De Domenico, Rosario Grammauta, Giuseppina Larosa, Salvatore Mazzola, Giorgio Riccobene, Gianni Pavan, Elena Papale, Carmelo Pellegrino, Sara Pulvirenti, Virginia Sciacca, Francesco Simeone, Fabrizio Speziale, Salvatore Viola, Giuseppa Buscaino
Dolphins emit short ultrasonic pulses (clicks) to acquire information about the surrounding environment, prey and habitat features. We investigated Delphinidae activity over multiple temporal scales through the detection of their echolocation clicks, using long-term Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM). The Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare operates multidisciplinary seafloor observatories in a deep area of the Central Mediterranean Sea. The Ocean noise Detection Experiment collected data offshore the Gulf of Catania from January 2005 to November 2006, allowing the study of temporal patterns of dolphin activity in this deep pelagic zone for the first time...
June 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655896/on-the-shortening-of-the-lead-time-of-ocean-warm-water-volume-to-enso-sst-since-2000
#5
Zeng-Zhen Hu, Arun Kumar, Jieshun Zhu, Bohua Huang, Yu-Heng Tseng, Xiaochun Wang
The possible factors associated with the shortening of lead time between ocean warm water volume (WWV) variability along the equatorial Pacific and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability after 2000 are documented. It is shown that the shortening of lead time is due to frequency increases of both WWV and ENSO. During 1979-99 the dominant frequencies were 1.5-3.5 years for both the Niño3.4 and WWV indices. In contrast, during 2000-16, both indices had a relatively flatter spectrum and were closer to a white noise process with a relative maximum at 1...
June 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635640/analysis-of-maneuvering-targets-with-complex-motions-by-two-dimensional-product-modified-lv-s-distribution-for-quadratic-frequency-modulation-signals
#6
Fulong Jing, Shuhong Jiao, Changbo Hou, Weijian Si, Yu Wang
For targets with complex motion, such as ships fluctuating with oceanic waves and high maneuvering airplanes, azimuth echo signals can be modeled as multicomponent quadratic frequency modulation (QFM) signals after migration compensation and phase adjustment. For the QFM signal model, the chirp rate (CR) and the quadratic chirp rate (QCR) are two important physical quantities, which need to be estimated. For multicomponent QFM signals, the cross terms create a challenge for detection, which needs to be addressed...
June 21, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599567/the-stochastic-cram%C3%A3-r-rao-bound-for-source-localization-and-medium-tomography-using-vector-sensors
#7
Arthur B Baggeroer
A direct version for the stochastic Cramér-Rao bound (CRB) for parameters of Gaussian signals with additive Gaussian noise is introduced. The formulation applies to passive and active radars/sonars/seismics/structures with vector observations from multiple sources. These sensors include pressure, vector velocity, and/or acceleration sensors for ocean and structural acoustics, seismometers, polarized receivers for electromagnetics, and vector current meters for oceanography. The observations may contain partially coherent signals such as multipath...
May 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484325/element-analysis-a-wavelet-based-method-for-analysing-time-localized-events-in-noisy-time-series
#8
Jonathan M Lilly
A method is derived for the quantitative analysis of signals that are composed of superpositions of isolated, time-localized 'events'. Here, these events are taken to be well represented as rescaled and phase-rotated versions of generalized Morse wavelets, a broad family of continuous analytic functions. Analysing a signal composed of replicates of such a function using another Morse wavelet allows one to directly estimate the properties of events from the values of the wavelet transform at its own maxima. The distribution of events in general power-law noise is determined in order to establish significance based on an expected false detection rate...
April 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464624/separation-of-measured-noise-coherence-matrix-into-toeplitz-and-hankel-parts
#9
Chris H Harrison
The cross-spectral density of ocean ambient noise is usually estimated from the product of the complex hydrophone signals, each of which already corresponds to the summed responses of sources from all angles. The true coherence is the integral over all angles of the angle-dependent product. The influence of this distinction on necessary time integration in geoacoustic inversion and passive fathometry is explored, and a meaningful separation of the cross-spectral density matrix into Toeplitz and Hankel parts is proposed...
April 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389569/parallel-adaptive-evolution-of-geographically-distant-herring-populations-on-both-sides-of-the-north-atlantic-ocean
#10
Sangeet Lamichhaney, Angela P Fuentes-Pardo, Nima Rafati, Nils Ryman, Gregory R McCracken, Christina Bourne, Rabindra Singh, Daniel E Ruzzante, Leif Andersson
Atlantic herring is an excellent species for studying the genetic basis of adaptation in geographically distant populations because of its characteristically large population sizes and low genetic drift. In this study we compared whole-genome resequencing data of Atlantic herring populations from both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. An important finding was the very low degree of genetic differentiation among geographically distant populations (fixation index = 0.026), suggesting lack of reproductive isolation across the ocean...
April 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372102/bowhead-whale-localization-using-time-difference-of-arrival-data-from-asynchronous-recorders
#11
Graham A Warner, Stan E Dosso, David E Hannay
This paper estimates bowhead whale locations and uncertainties using nonlinear Bayesian inversion of the time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) of low-frequency whale calls recorded on onmi-directional asynchronous recorders in the shallow waters of the northeastern Chukchi Sea, Alaska. A Y-shaped cluster of seven autonomous ocean-bottom hydrophones, separated by 0.5-9.2 km, was deployed for several months over which time their clocks drifted out of synchronization. Hundreds of recorded whale calls are manually associated between recorders...
March 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372041/vertical-line-array-measurements-of-ambient-noise-in-the-north-pacific
#12
Mehdi Farrokhrooz, Kathleen E Wage, Matthew A Dzieciuch, Peter F Worcester
Shipping noise and wind are the dominant sources of ocean noise in the frequency band between 20 and 500 Hz. This paper analyzes noise in that band using data from the SPICEX experiment, which took place in the North Pacific in 2004-2005, and compares the results with other North Pacific experiments. SPICEX included vertical arrays with sensors above and below the surface conjugate depth, facilitating an analysis of the depth dependence of ambient noise. The paper includes several key results. First, the 2004-05 noise levels at 50 Hz measured in SPICEX had not increased relative to levels measured by Morris [(1978)...
March 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345033/improved-estimates-of-ocean-heat-content-from-1960-to-2015
#13
Lijing Cheng, Kevin E Trenberth, John Fasullo, Tim Boyer, John Abraham, Jiang Zhu
Earth's energy imbalance (EEI) drives the ongoing global warming and can best be assessed across the historical record (that is, since 1960) from ocean heat content (OHC) changes. An accurate assessment of OHC is a challenge, mainly because of insufficient and irregular data coverage. We provide updated OHC estimates with the goal of minimizing associated sampling error. We performed a subsample test, in which subsets of data during the data-rich Argo era are colocated with locations of earlier ocean observations, to quantify this error...
March 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298467/swimming-and-diving-energetics-in-dolphins-a-stroke-by-stroke-analysis-for-predicting-the-cost-of-flight-responses-in-wild-odontocetes
#14
Terrie M Williams, Traci L Kendall, Beau P Richter, Courtney R Ribeiro-French, Jason S John, Kim L Odell, Barbara A Losch, David A Feuerbach, M Andrew Stamper
Exponential increases in hydrodynamic drag and physical exertion occur when swimmers move quickly through water, and underlie the preference for relatively slow routine speeds by marine mammals regardless of body size. Because of this and the need to balance limited oxygen stores when submerged, flight (escape) responses may be especially challenging for this group. To examine this, we used open-flow respirometry to measure the energetic cost of producing a swimming stroke during different levels of exercise in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289557/acoustic-monitoring-indicates-a-correlation-between-calling-and-spawning-in-captive-spotted-seatrout-cynoscion-nebulosus
#15
Eric W Montie, Matt Hoover, Christopher Kehrer, Justin Yost, Karl Brenkert, Tim O'Donnell, Michael R Denson
BACKGROUND: Fish sound production is widespread throughout many families. Territorial displays and courtship are the most common reasons for fish sound production. Yet, there is still some questions on how acoustic signaling and reproduction are correlated in many sound-producing species. In the present study, our aim was to determine if a quantitative relationship exists between calling and egg deposition in captive spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus). This type of data is essential if passive acoustics is to be used to identify spawning aggregations over large spatial scales and monitor reproductive activity over annual and decadal timeframes...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273800/isar-imaging-of-ship-targets-based-on-an-integrated-cubic-phase-bilinear-autocorrelation-function
#16
Jibin Zheng, Hongwei Liu, Zheng Liu, Qing Huo Liu
For inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging of a ship target moving with ocean waves, the image constructed with the standard range-Doppler (RD) technique is blurred and the range-instantaneous-Doppler (RID) technique has to be used to improve the image quality. In this paper, azimuth echoes in a range cell of the ship target are modeled as noisy multicomponent cubic phase signals (CPSs) after the motion compensation and a RID ISAR imaging algorithm is proposed based on the integrated cubic phase bilinear autocorrelation function (ICPBAF)...
March 3, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253650/blind-deconvolution-of-shipping-sources-in-an-ocean-waveguide
#17
Sung-Hoon Byun, Christopher M A Verlinden, Karim G Sabra
This paper investigates the applicability of a ray-based blind deconvolution (RBD) method for underwater acoustic sources of opportunity such as ships recorded on a receiver array. The RBD relies on first estimating the unknown phase of the random source by beamforming along a well-resolved ray path, and then matched-filtering each received signal using the knowledge of this random phase to estimate the full channel impulse responses (CIRs) between the unknown source and the array elements (up to an arbitrary time-shift) as well as recovering the radiated signal by the random source...
February 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147624/localizing-scatterers-from-surf-noise-cross-correlations
#18
Jie Li, Peter Gerstoft, Dazhi Gao, Guofu Li, Ning Wang
The backscattered travel-time structure is obtained by cross-correlating air-acoustic ocean surf noise recorded on microphone pairs (separation ∼2 m) on the beach. The scatterer is a 20 cm radius Polyvinyl chloride pipe 2.5 m landside of the microphone array. Arrivals corresponding to the time-difference (travel-time difference between two scatterer-receiver paths) and scattered (travel time for receiver-scatterer-receiver path) waves emerge in the cross-correlation functions in a backscattering configuration...
January 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147605/adaptive-frequency-difference-matched-field-processing-for-high-frequency-source-localization-in-a-noisy-shallow-ocean
#19
Brian M Worthmann, H C Song, David R Dowling
Remote source localization in the shallow ocean at frequencies significantly above 1 kHz is virtually impossible for conventional array signal processing techniques due to environmental mismatch. A recently proposed technique called frequency-difference matched field processing (Δf-MFP) [Worthmann, Song, and Dowling (2015). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 138(6), 3549-3562] overcomes imperfect environmental knowledge by shifting the signal processing to frequencies below the signal's band through the use of a quadratic product of frequency-domain signal amplitudes called the autoproduct...
January 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147571/active-wideband-higher-order-raypath-separation-in-multipath-environment
#20
Longyu Jiang, Yaping Hong, Philippe Roux, Jiasong Wu, Huazhong Shu
Multiple raypaths propagation is caused by reflection and refraction at the surface and the bottom of the water column. In this study, an active wideband higher-order separation is proposed, which enables the separation of raypaths interrupted by colored noise (as traditionally found in ocean environments) in the angle-vs-time domain. A comparative study shows that the proposed algorithm achieves a more accurate separation than other algorithms. Moreover, with the proposed approach, it is not necessary to assume that the number of sensors is larger than that of the sources...
January 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
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