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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784628/why-physics-in-medicine
#1
Ehsan Samei, Thomas M Grist
Despite its crucial role in the development of new medical imaging technologies, in clinical practice, physics has primarily been involved in the technical evaluation of technologies. However, this narrow role is no longer adequate. New trajectories in medicine call for a stronger role for physics in the clinic. The movement toward evidence-based, quantitative, and value-based medicine requires physicists to play a more integral role in delivering innovative precision care through the intentional clinical application of physical sciences...
May 18, 2018: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782653/data-driven-gating-in-pet-influence-of-respiratory-signal-noise-on-motion-resolution
#2
Florian Büther, Iris Ernst, Lynn Johann Frohwein, Joost Pouw, Klaus Peter Schäfers, Lars Stegger
PURPOSE: Data-driven gating (DDG) approaches for positron emission tomography (PET) are interesting alternatives to conventional hardware-based gating methods. In DDG, the measured PET data themselves are utilized to calculate a respiratory signal that is subsequently used for gating purposes. The success of gating is then highly dependent on the statistical quality of the PET data. In this study we investigate how this quality determines signal noise and thus motion resolution in clinical PET scans using a center-of-mass-based (COM) DDG approach, specifically with regard to motion management of target structures in future radiotherapy planning applications...
May 21, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780911/long-term-visual-outcomes-of-laser-anterior-ciliary-excision
#3
AnnMarie Hipsley, Brad Hall, Karolinne Maia Rocha
Purpose: To determine the long-term visual outcomes of six eyes of 3 patients up to 13 years following the Laser Anterior Ciliary Excision (LaserACE) procedure. Methods: Three male patients of ages 59, 59, and 60 presented for evaluation at Storm Eye Institute, Medical University of South Carolina at 8, 10, and 13 years after the LaserACE procedure for presbyopia, respectively. All 3 patients had a history of laser vision correction (LVC) prior to LaserACE treatment...
June 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778293/determinants-of-physician-sonographer-and-laboratory-productivity-analysis-of-the-third-survey-from-the-american-society-of-echocardiography-committee-on-pediatric-echocardiography-laboratory-productivity
#4
Brian D Soriano, Craig E Fleishman, Andrea M Van Hoever, Bonnie Wright, Beth Printz, Theresa A Tacy, Vivekanand Allada, Wyman W Lai, Sujatha Buddhe, Shubhika Srivastava
BACKGROUND: The American Society of Echocardiography Committee on Pediatric Echocardiography Laboratory Productivity was formed in 2011 to study institutional factors that could influence the clinical productivity of physicians and sonographers in academic pediatric echocardiography laboratories. In the previous two surveys, staff clinical productivity remained stable while total echocardiography volumes increased. This third survey was designed to assess how clinical productivity is associated with laboratory infrastructure elements such as training, administrative tasks, quality improvement, research, and use of focused cardiac ultrasound (FCU)...
May 16, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773324/comparison-of-pitch-strength-with-perceptual-and-other-acoustic-metric-outcome-measures-following-medialization-laryngoplasty
#5
Adam D Rubin, Cristina Jackson-Menaldi, Lisa M Kopf, Katherine Marks, Jean Skeffington, Mark D Skowronski, Rahul Shrivastav, Eric J Hunter
INTRODUCTION: The diagnoses of voice disorders, as well as treatment outcomes, are often tracked using visual (eg, stroboscopic images), auditory (eg, perceptual ratings), objective (eg, from acoustic or aerodynamic signals), and patient report (eg, Voice Handicap Index and Voice-Related Quality of Life) measures. However, many of these measures are known to have low to moderate sensitivity and specificity for detecting changes in vocal characteristics, including vocal quality. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare changes in estimated pitch strength (PS) with other conventionally used acoustic measures based on the cepstral peak prominence (smoothed cepstral peak prominence, cepstral spectral index of dysphonia, and acoustic voice quality index), and clinical judgments of voice quality (GRBAS [grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, strain] scale) following laryngeal framework surgery...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772061/an-image-guided-radiotherapy-decision-support-framework-incorporating-a-bayesian-network-and-visualization-tool
#6
Catriona Hargrave, Timothy Deegan, Tomasz Bednarz, Michael Poulsen, Fiona Harden, Kerrie Mengersen
PURPOSE: To describe a Bayesian network (BN) and complementary visualization tool, that aim to support decision-making during online cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)-based image guide radiotherapy (IGRT) for prostate cancer patients. METHODS: The BN was created to represent relationships between observed prostate, proximal seminal vesicle (PSV), bladder and rectum volume variations, an image feature alignment score (FASTV _ OAR ), delivered dose and treatment plan compliance (TPC)...
May 17, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772045/ocular-tolerance-of-contemporary-electronic-display-devices
#7
Andrew J Clark, Paul Yang, Khizer R Khaderi, Andrew A Moshfeghi
Electronic displays have become an integral part of life in the developed world since the revolution of mobile computing a decade ago. With the release of multiple consumer-grade virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) products in the past 2 years utilizing head-mounted displays (HMDs), as well as the development of low-cost, smartphone-based HMDs, the ability to intimately interact with electronic screens is greater than ever. VR/AR HMDs also place the display at much closer ocular proximity than traditional electronic devices while also isolating the user from the ambient environment to create a "closed" system between the user's eyes and the display...
May 1, 2018: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757735/from-sparse-coding-significance-to-perceptual-quality-a-new-approach-for-image-quality-assessment
#8
Ayyoub Ahar, Adriaan Barri, Peter Schelkens
An increasing number of image processing applications require an automated quality prediction of the visual content as perceived by humans. Since, sparse coding is suggested to be an underlying strategy of the brain's neural system, it would be logical to assume that specific tasks like quality assessment also attempt to adhere to this strategy. However, existing perceptual quality predictors, often mimicking the different stages of the human visual system and deploying machine learning strategies, such as neural networks, rarely integrate the concept of sparse coding in their design...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755360/healthy-lung-vessel-morphology-derived-from-thoracic-computed-tomography
#9
Michael Pienn, Caroline Burgard, Christian Payer, Alexander Avian, Martin Urschler, Rudolf Stollberger, Andrea Olschewski, Horst Olschewski, Thorsten Johnson, Felix G Meinel, Zoltán Bálint
Knowledge of the lung vessel morphology in healthy subjects is necessary to improve our understanding about the functional network of the lung and to recognize pathologic deviations beyond the normal inter-subject variation. Established values of normal lung morphology have been derived from necropsy material of only very few subjects. In order to determine morphologic readouts from a large number of healthy subjects, computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) datasets, negative for pulmonary embolism, and other thoracic pathologies, were analyzed using a fully-automatic, in-house developed artery/vein separation algorithm...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754161/motion-corrected-whole-heart-pet-mr-for-the-simultaneous-visualisation-of-coronary-artery-integrity-and-myocardial-viability-an-initial-clinical-validation
#10
Camila Munoz, Karl P Kunze, Radhouene Neji, Teresa Vitadello, Christoph Rischpler, René M Botnar, Stephan G Nekolla, Claudia Prieto
PURPOSE: Cardiac PET-MR has shown potential for the comprehensive assessment of coronary heart disease. However, image degradation due to physiological motion remains a challenge that could hinder the adoption of this technology in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to validate a recently proposed respiratory motion-corrected PET-MR framework for the simultaneous visualisation of myocardial viability (18 F-FDG PET) and coronary artery anatomy (coronary MR angiography, CMRA) in patients with chronic total occlusion (CTO)...
May 12, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749624/image-quality-of-conventional-images-of-dual-layer-spectral-ct-a-phantom-study
#11
F van Ommen, E Bennink, A Vlassenbroek, J W Dankbaar, A M R Schilham, M A Viergever, H W A M de Jong
PURPOSE: Spectral CT using a dual layer detector offers the possibility of retrospectively introducing spectral information to conventional CT images. In theory, the dual-layer technology should not come with a dose or image quality penalty for conventional images. In this study, we evaluate the influence of a dual-layer detector (IQon Spectral CT, Philips) on the image quality of conventional CT images, by comparing these images with those of a conventional but otherwise technically comparable single-layer CT scanner (Brilliance iCT, Philips), by means of phantom experiments...
May 10, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745100/comparative-performance-evaluation-of-a-new-a-si-epid-that-exceeds-quad-high-definition-resolution
#12
Kristen A McConnell, Ara Alexandrian, Niko Papanikolaou, Sotiri Stathakis
PURPOSE: Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) are an integral part of the radiation oncology workflow for treatment setup verification. Several commercial EPID implementations are currently available, each with varying capabilities. To standardize performance evaluation, Task Group Report 58 (TG-58) and TG-142 outline specific image quality metrics to be measured. A LinaTech Image Viewing System (IVS), with the highest commercially available pixel matrix (2688x2688 pixels), was independently evaluated and compared to an Elekta iViewGT (1024x1024 pixels) and a Varian aSi-1000 (1024x768 pixels) using a PTW EPID QC Phantom...
January 2018: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743181/evaluation-of-the-quality-of-transesophageal-echocardiography-images-and-verification-of-proficiency
#13
Robina Matyal, Faraz Mahmood, Ziyad Omar Knio, Stephanie Jones, Lu Yeh, Rabina Amir, Ruma Bose, John D Mitchell
Various metrics have been used in curriculum-based TEE training programs to evaluate acquisition of proficiency. However, the quality of task completion, i.e. the final image quality, was subjectively evaluated in these studies. Ideally, the end point metric should be an objective comparison of the trainee-acquired image with a reference ideal image. Therefore, we developed a simulator-based methodology of pre-clinical verification of proficiency (VOP) in trainees by tracking objective evaluation of the final acquired images...
May 9, 2018: Echo Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739713/volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy-of-head-and-neck-cancer-on-a-fast-rotating-o-ring-linac-plan-quality-and-delivery-time-comparison-with-a-c-arm-linac
#14
Steven Michiels, Kenneth Poels, Wouter Crijns, Laurence Delombaerde, Robin De Roover, Bianca Vanstraelen, Karin Haustermans, Sandra Nuyts, Tom Depuydt
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Linac improvements in gantry speed, leaf speed and dose rate may increase the time-efficiency of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivery. The plan quality achievable with faster VMAT however remains to be investigated. In this study, a fast-rotating O-ring linac with fast-moving leaves is compared with a C-arm linac in terms of plan quality and delivery time for VMAT of head-and-neck cancer (HNC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: For 30 patients with HNC, treatment planning was performed using dual-arc (HA2) and triple-arc (HA3) VMAT on a Halcyon fast-rotating O-ring linac and using dual-arc VMAT on a TrueBeam C-arm linac (TB2)...
May 5, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727411/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-on-the-reproducibility-of-ultrasound-based-metrics-for-assessing-developmental-dysplasia-of-the-hip
#15
Niamul Quader, Emily K Schaeffer, Antony J Hodgson, Rafeef Abugharbieh, Kishore Mulpuri
BACKGROUND: The purposes of this study were to (1) perform a systematic review of articles that reported agreement or reproducibility in repeated diagnosis of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) using ultrasound imaging, (2) estimate the reproducibility in the available dysplasia metrics, and (3) compare reproducibility of the available dysplasia metrics. METHODS: A systematic review of the Medline and Embase databases was performed by using a search strategy formulated from our research question: "For infants at risk of DDH, are US imaging-based diagnoses reproducible?" Two reviewers independently identified articles for inclusion in the systematic review, and then assessed the quality of the included studies using the Guidelines for Reporting Reliability and Agreement Studies guideline...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726489/normative-best-corrected-values-of-the-visual-image-quality-metric-vsx-as-a-function-of-age-and-pupil-size
#16
Gareth D Hastings, Jason D Marsack, Larry N Thibos, Raymond A Applegate
The visual image quality metric the visual Strehl ratio (VSX) combines a comprehensive description of the optics of an eye (wavefront error) with an estimate of the photopic neural processing of the visual system, and has been shown to be predictive of subjective best focus and well correlated with change in visual performance. Best-corrected visual image quality was determined for 146 eyes, and the quantitative relation of VSX, age, and pupil size is presented, including 95% confidence interval norms for age groups between 20 and 80 years and pupil diameters from 3 to 7 mm...
May 1, 2018: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722297/4d-cone-beam-computed-tomography-cbct-using-a-moving-blocker-for-simultaneous-radiation-dose-reduction-and-scatter-correction
#17
Cong Zhao, Yuncheng Zhong, Xinhui Duan, You Zhang, Xiaokun Huang, Jing Wang, Mingwu Jin
Four-dimensional (4D) X-ray cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is important for a precise radiation therapy for lung cancer. Due to the repeated use and 4D acquisition over a course of radiotherapy, the radiation dose becomes a concern. Meanwhile, the scatter contamination in CBCT deteriorates image quality for treatment tasks. In this work, we propose to use a moving blocker (MB) during the 4D CBCT acquisition ("4D MB") and to combine motion-compensated reconstruction to address these two issues simultaneously...
May 3, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715002/machine-learning-in-computer-aided-synthesis-planning
#18
Connor W Coley, William H Green, Klavs F Jensen
Computer-aided synthesis planning (CASP) is focused on the goal of accelerating the process by which chemists decide how to synthesize small molecule compounds. The ideal CASP program would take a molecular structure as input and output a sorted list of detailed reaction schemes that each connect that target to purchasable starting materials via a series of chemically feasible reaction steps. Early work in this field relied on expert-crafted reaction rules and heuristics to describe possible retrosynthetic disconnections and selectivity rules but suffered from incompleteness, infeasible suggestions, and human bias...
May 1, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714292/image-quality-degradation-of-object-color-metamer-mismatching-in-digital-camera-color-reproduction
#19
Jueqin Qiu, Haisong Xu, Zhengnan Ye, Changyu Diao
Metamer mismatching is a phenomenon where two objects that are colorimetrically indistinguishable under one lighting condition become distinguishable under another one. Due to the unavailability of spectral information, metamer mismatching introduces an inherent uncertainty into cameras' color reproduction. To investigate the degree of image quality degradation by the metamer mismatching, a large spectral reflectance database was compiled in this study to search the object-color metamers sets of the spectra in hyperspectral images...
April 10, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704445/technical-note-a-feasibility-study-of-using-the-flat-panel-detector-on-linac-for-the-kv-x-ray-generator-test
#20
Bin Cai, Steven Dolly, Gregory Kamal, Sridhar Yaddanapudi, Baozhou Sun, S Murty Goddu, Sasa Mutic, Hua Li
PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility of using kV flat panel detector on linac for consistency evaluations of kV X-ray generator performance. METHODS: An in-house designed aluminum (Al) array phantom with six 9×9 cm2 square regions having various thickness was proposed and used in this study. Through XML script-driven image acquisition, kV images with various acquisition settings were obtained using the kV flat panel detector. Utilizing pre-established baseline curves, the consistency of X-ray tube output characteristics including tube voltage accuracy, exposure accuracy and exposure linearity were assessed through image quality assessment metrics including ROI mean intensity, ROI standard deviation (SD) and noise power spectrums (NPS)...
April 28, 2018: Medical Physics
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