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Suzanne Grant, Bruce Guthrie
Patient safety is an increasing concern for health systems internationally. The majority of administrative work in UK general practice takes place in the context of organisational routines such as repeat prescribing and test results handling, where high workloads and increased clinician dependency on administrative staff have been identified as an emerging safety issue. Despite this trend, most research to date has focused on the redistribution of the clinical workload between doctors, nurses and allied health professionals within individual care settings...
March 2, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Arthur Bob Karnuah, Gregory Dunga, Arthur Wennah, Walter T Wiles, Edmond Greaves, Roland Varkpeh, Richard Osei-Amponsah, Paul Boettcher
Phenotypic characterization of animal genetic resources (AnGR) involves identification of distinct breed populations, describing their external and production characteristics in a given environment and management, and taking into account the social and economic factors that affect them. A survey involving 346 livestock farmers was conducted in the 15 counties of Liberia to collect data on production practices and phenotypic characteristics of beef cattle. A pre-tested structured questionnaire, focus group discussions, and in-depth interviews were utilized in data collection...
March 15, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Emiko Kamitani, Jyu-Lin Chen, Carmen Portillo, Jason Tokumoto, Carol Dawson-Rose
Instruments to measure HIV stigma in people living with HIV in the United States or in Asia may not be sensitive enough to capture the stigma experienced by Asians living with HIV (ALWH) in the United States. Our purpose was to adapt the shortened Berger Stigma Scale to be culturally appropriate for ALWH in the United States. We conducted a mixed-method study (i.e., five in-depth face-to-face interviews, six subject matter expert reviews, two focus groups [n = 11]) to generate new scale items and a cross-sectional survey (n = 67) to evaluate the psychometric properties of the adapted scale called Stigma Scale for ALWH...
February 19, 2018: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
William J McIlvane, Joanne B Kledaras, Christophe J Gerard, Lorin Wilde, David Smelson
A few noteworthy exceptions notwithstanding, quantitative analyses of relational learning are most often simple descriptive measures of study outcomes. For example, studies of stimulus equivalence have made much progress using measures such as percentage consistent with equivalence relations, discrimination ratio, and response latency. Although procedures may have ad hoc variations, they remain fairly similar across studies. Comparison studies of training variables that lead to different outcomes are few. Yet to be developed are tools designed specifically for dynamic and/or parametric analyses of relational learning processes...
March 12, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Long Chen, Wen Tang, Nigel W John, Tao Ruan Wan, Jian Jun Zhang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: While Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) offers considerable benefits to patients, it also imposes big challenges on a surgeon's performance due to well-known issues and restrictions associated with the field of view (FOV), hand-eye misalignment and disorientation, as well as the lack of stereoscopic depth perception in monocular endoscopy. Augmented Reality (AR) technology can help to overcome these limitations by augmenting the real scene with annotations, labels, tumour measurements or even a 3D reconstruction of anatomy structures at the target surgical locations...
May 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Joseph Páez Chávez, Dirk Jungmann, Stefan Siegmund
The paper presents a comprehensive numerical study of mathematical models used to describe complex biological systems in the framework of integrated pest management. Our study considers two specific ecosystems that describe the application of control mechanisms based on pesticides and natural enemies, implemented in an impulsive and periodic manner, due to which the considered models belong to the class of impulsive differential equations. The present work proposes a numerical approach to study such type of models in detail, via the application of path-following (continuation) techniques for nonsmooth dynamical systems, via the novel continuation platform COCO (Dankowicz and Schilder)...
December 2018: Journal of Biological Dynamics
Heidi Lourens, Brian Watermeyer, Leslie Swartz
PURPOSE: Scholars agree that effective rehabilitation relies on a bedrock of reciprocity, relational trust, and authenticity. It is therefore essential for practitioners to develop insight into the complex dynamics within helping relationships. This study aims to provide an in-depth understanding of visually impaired students' experience of informal helping relationships. METHODS: Ten visually impaired students at a South African university participated in one of two semi-structured focus group interviews (six and four in each group, respectively) wherein we explored their experience of informal helping relationships...
March 16, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Julien Arsenault, Julie Talbot, Tim R Moore
Pools are common in northern peatlands but studies have seldom focused on their nutrient biogeochemistry, especially in relation to their morphological characteristics and through seasons. We determined the environmental characteristics controlling carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) biogeochemistry in pools and assessed their evolution over the course of the 2016 growing season in a subboreal ombrotrophic peatland of eastern Canada. We showed that water chemistry variations in 62 pools were significantly explained by depth (81...
March 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Angus Fayia Tengbeh, Luisa Enria, Elizabeth Smout, Thomas Mooney, Mike Callaghan, David Ishola, Bailah Leigh, Deborah Watson-Jones, Brian Greenwood, Heidi Larson, Shelley Lees
The 2014-2016 Ebola epidemic presented a challenging setting in which to carry out clinical trials. This paper reports findings from social science research carried out in Kambia, Northern Sierra Leone during first year of an Ebola vaccine trial (August 2015-July 2016). The social science team collected data through ethnographic observation, 42 in depth interviews; 4 life narratives; 200 exit interviews; 31 key informant interviews; and 8 focus group discussions with trial participants and community members not enrolled in the trial...
March 5, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Tanya van de Water, Jaco Rossouw, Alberta S J van der Watt, Elna Yadin, Soraya Seedat
This qualitative investigation, nested within a randomized controlled trial (RCT), describes the experiences of adolescent participants accessing psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a school-based setting. Supervised nurses provided the psychotherapeutic interventions. Twelve participants who took part in the RCT were invited, and 10 agreed to share their experiences through recorded face-to-face, semistructured, in-depth interviews and treatment-specific focus groups. Basic thematic analysis was applied using Atlas...
March 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
Peter Weißhuhn, Felix Müller, Hubert Wiggering
To safeguard the sustainable use of ecosystems and their services, early detection of potentially damaging changes in functional capabilities is needed. To support a proper ecosystem management, the analysis of an ecosystem's vulnerability provide information on its weaknesses as well as on its capacity to recover after suffering an impact. However, the application of the vulnerability concept to ecosystems is still an emerging topic. After providing background on the vulnerability concept, we summarize existing ecosystem vulnerability research on the basis of a systematic literature review with a special focus on ecosystem type, disciplinary background, and more detailed definition of the ecosystem vulnerability components...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Management
Mohesh Moothanchery, Renzhe Bi, Jin Young Kim, Seungwan Jeon, Chulhong Kim, Malini Olivo
Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) is a multiscale imaging technique. In optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM), a single mode (SM) fiber is normally used as the source of optical excitation to be focused into a diffraction-limited spot. Recent advances in OR-PAM have improved its imaging speed using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Here we report for the first time the use of a multimode (MM) fiber as the optical excitation source for high resolution OR-PAM in vivo imaging. A high-speed MEMS scanner based OR-PAM system combined with the mechanical movement to provide wide area imaging was used...
March 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Cynthia Wong, Michal E Pawlowski, Alessandra Forcucci, Catherine E Majors, Rebecca Richards-Kortum, Tomasz S Tkaczyk
Fluorescence microscopy can be a powerful tool for cell-based diagnostic assays; however, imaging can be time consuming and labor intensive to perform. Tunable systems give the ability to electronically focus at user selected depths inside an object volume and may simplify the opto-mechanical design of the imaging system. We present a prototype of a universal, tunable, miniature fluorescence microscope built from poly(methyl methacrylate) singlets that incorporates miniature, electrowetted lenses for electronic focusing...
March 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Lindsey Realmuto, Alexandra Kamler, Linda Weiss, Tiffany L Gary-Webb, Michael E Hodge, José A Pagán, Elizabeth A Walker
The National Diabetes Prevention Program (NDPP) has been effectively translated to various community and clinical settings; however, regardless of setting, enrollment among men and lower-income populations is low. This study presents participant perspectives on Power Up for Health, a novel NDPP pilot adaption for men residing in low-income communities in New York City. We conducted nine interviews and one focus group with seven participants after the program ended. Interview and focus group participants had positive perceptions of the program and described the all-male aspect of the program and its reliance on male coaches as major strengths...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
Katia Reis de Souza, Verônica Silva Fernandez, Liliane Reis Teixeira, Ariane Leites Larentis, André Luis de Oliveira Mendonça, Eliana Guimarães Felix, Maria Blandina Marques Dos Santos, Andrea Maria Dos Santos Rodrigues, Marisa Moura, Regina Helena Simões-Barbosa, Walcyr de Oliveira Barros, Mariza Gomes de Almeida
The main objective of this article is to present and analyze the research instrument called "health and work notebooks", focusing on the production of knowledge concerning professors' work at a public university. The notebooks serve as a qualitative and participant research technique that is appropriate for the in-depth study of relations between health and work, viewing workplaces as privileged spaces for exercising effective action in the defense of health and the work experience as the principal material for analysis...
March 8, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Stephanie M Topp, Chanda Mwamba, Anjali Sharma, Njekwa Mukamba, Laura K Beres, Elvin Geng, Charles B Holmes, Izukanji Sikazwe
BACKGROUND: Failure to keep people living with HIV engaged in life-long care and treatment has serious implications for individual and population-level health. Nested within a four-province study of HIV care and treatment outcomes, we explored the dynamic role of social and service-related factors influencing retention in HIV care in Zambia. METHODS: From a stratified random sample of 31 facilities, eight clinics were selected, one urban and one rural from each province...
2018: PloS One
Jecca Rhea Steinberg, Janine S Bruce, Paloma Marin-Nevarez, Kimmy Phan, Sylvia Bereknyei Merrell, Lisa J Chamberlain
OBJECTIVE: School readiness by kindergarten entry is associated with increased high school graduation, decreased juvenile arrest, and better long-term health. Inadequate early childhood learning (ECL) disproportionately affects low-income children. Pediatricians have near-universal access to children younger than 5 years but remain an underused ECL resource. This study examined caregivers' perceptions of ECL, the role of the pediatrician and pediatric office, and the use of community-based ECL resources among diverse, low-income caregivers whose children were not enrolled in preschool...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Jan Cosgrave, Katharina Wulff, Philip Gehrman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review is designed to give an overview of the latest developments in research exploring the relationship between sleep and psychosis, with particular attention paid to the evidence for a causal relationship between the two. RECENT FINDINGS: The most interesting avenues currently in pursuit are focused upon sleep spindle deficits which may hallmark an endophenotype; explorations of the continuum of psychotic experiences, and experimental manipulations to explore the evidence for bidirectional causality; inflammatory markers, psychosis and sleep disturbances and finally, treatment approaches for sleep in psychosis and the subsequent impact on positive experiences...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Shannon Gwin Mitchell, Laura B Monico, Elizabeth Lertch, Sharon M Kelly, Jan Gryczynski, Jerome H Jaffe, Kevin E O'Grady, Robert P Schwartz
Conflicts with methadone program counseling staff and violations of program rules can contribute to patients leaving treatment prematurely. This qualitative study was conducted as part of a larger trial of patient-centered methadone treatment (PCM). In-depth, semi-structured interviews at baseline and 12-month follow-up were conducted with five counselors and three clinical supervisors from the programs participating in the PCM parent study. Data were analyzed using Atlas.ti. Counselors reported that, in some cases, PCM allowed them to focus on building a therapeutic alliance with patients because they were not addressing program rule issues...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research
Caroline Fertleman, Phoebe Aubugeau-Williams, Carmel Sher, Ai-Nee Lim, Sophie Lumley, Sylvie Delacroix, Xueni Pan
Background: Virtual reality technology is an exciting and emerging field with vast applications. Our study sets out the viewpoint that virtual reality software could be a new focus of direction in the development of training tools in medical education. We carried out a panel discussion at the Center for Behavior Change 3rd Annual Conference, prompted by the study, "The Responses of Medical General Practitioners to Unreasonable Patient Demand for Antibiotics--A Study of Medical Ethics Using Immersive Virtual Reality" (1)...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
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