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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088722/in-situ-denitrification-and-dnra-rates-in-groundwater-beneath-an-integrated-constructed-wetland
#1
M M R Jahangir, O Fenton, C Müller, R Harrington, P Johnston, K G Richards
Evaluation of the environmental benefits of constructed wetlands (CWs) requires an understanding of their impacts on the groundwater quality under the wetlands. Empirical mass-balance (nitrogen in/nitrogen out) approaches for estimating nitrogen (N) removal in CWs do not characterise the final fate of N; where nitrate (NO3(-)-N) could be reduced to either ammonium (NH4(+)-N) or N2 with the potential for significant production of N2O. Herein, in situ denitrification and DNRA (dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium) rates were measured in groundwater beneath cells of an earthen lined integrated constructed wetland (ICW, used to remove the nutrients from municipal wastewater) using the (15)N-enriched NO3(-)-N push-pull method...
January 7, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087986/barriers-to-access-to-opioid-medicines-for-patients-with-opioid-dependence-a-review-of-legislation-and-regulations-in-eleven-central-and-eastern-european-countries
#2
Marjolein J M Vranken, Aukje K Mantel-Teeuwisse, Saskia Jünger, Lukas Radbruch, Willem Scholten, John A Lisman, Marija Subataite, Marie-Hélène D B Schutjens
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Barriers linked to drug control systems are considered to contribute to inequitable access to controlled medicines, leaving millions of people in pain and suffering. Most studies focus on access to opioids for the treatment of severe (cancer) pain. This study aims to identify specific access barriers for patients with opioid dependence in legislation and regulations of 11 Central and Eastern European countries. METHODS: This study builds on a previous analysis of legislation and regulations as part of the EU 7th Framework Access To Opioid Medication in Europe (ATOME) project...
January 14, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086975/a-qualitative-study-of-women-s-and-health-providers-attitudes-and-acceptability-of-mistreatment-during-childbirth-in-health-facilities-in-guinea
#3
Mamadou Diouldé Balde, Abou Bangoura, Boubacar Alpha Diallo, Oumar Sall, Habibata Balde, Aïssatou Sona Niakate, Joshua P Vogel, Meghan A Bohren
BACKGROUND: Reducing maternal morbidity and mortality remains a key health challenge in Guinea. Anecdotal evidence suggests that women in Guinea are subjected to mistreatment during childbirth in health facilities, but limited research exists on this topic. This study was conducted to better understand the social norms and the acceptability of four scenarios of mistreatment during childbirth, from the perspectives of women and service providers. METHODS: This study used qualitative methods including in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs) with women of reproductive age, midwives, nurses and doctors...
January 13, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086953/student-and-faculty-perceptions-on-the-rapid-scale-up-of-medical-students-in-ethiopia
#4
Brittney S Mengistu, Holly Vins, Caitrin M Kelly, Daphne R McGee, Jennifer O Spicer, Miliard Derbew, Abebe Bekele, Damen Haile Mariam, Carlos Del Rio, Henry M Blumberg, Dawn L Comeau
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia is a country of over 94 million people that has a severe physician shortage with approximately only 2.5 physicians per 100,000 persons. Recently, the Ethiopian government implemented a "flood and retain" initiative to rapidly increase the quantity of physicians in Ethiopia. Consequently, medical student enrollment at Addis Ababa University (AAU) School of Medicine increased from 100 to approximately 300-400 students per class. This study evaluated the impact of the rapid scale-up in the number of medical students on the quality of medical education at AAU and the impact of the U...
January 13, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086857/evaluating-a-multicomponent-social-behaviour-change-communication-strategy-to-reduce-intimate-partner-violence-among-married-couples-study-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomized-trial-in-nepal
#5
Cari Jo Clark, Rachael A Spencer, Binita Shrestha, Gemma Ferguson, J Michael Oakes, Jhumka Gupta
BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health issue that affects 1 in 3 women globally and a similarly large number of women in Nepal. Over the past decade, important policy and programmatic steps have been taken to address violence against women in Nepal. There remains a dearth of evidence on the effectiveness of primary violence prevention strategies. The Change Starts at Home study begins to fill this gap by utilizing a multi-component social behaviour change communication (SBCC) strategy involving a radio drama and community mobilization to shift attitudes, norms and behaviours that underpin IPV perpetration in Nepal...
January 13, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086837/systemic-and-individual-factors-in-the-buprenorphine-treatment-seeking-process-a-qualitative-study
#6
Valerie M Hewell, Angel R Vasquez, Inna D Rivkin
BACKGROUND: Opioid use is a significant problem in Alaska. Medication-assisted treatment for opioid use, including buprenorphine, reduces withdrawal symptoms and the harm associated with opioid abuse. Understanding consumers' treatment-seeking process is important for addressing barriers to treatment, facilitating effective service utilization, and informing policy. METHODS: To understand treatment-seeking behavior, we examined the attitudes, perceptions, and knowledge of those who would benefit from the medication-assisted treatment (MAT) buprenorphine...
January 11, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081109/non-axial-scanning-multifocal-confocal-microscopy-with-multiplexed-volume-holographic-gratings
#7
Po-Hao Wang, Vijay Raj Singh, Jau-Min Wong, Kung-Bin Sung, Yuan Luo
Confocal imaging techniques offer an optical sectioning capability to acquire three-dimensional information from various volumetric samples by discriminating the desired in-focus signals from the out-of-focus background. However, confocal, in general, requires a point-by-point scan in both the lateral and axial directions to reconstruct three-dimensional images. In addition, axial scanning in confocal is slower than scanning in lateral directions. In this Letter, a non-axial-scanning multifocal confocal microscope incorporating multiplexed holographic gratings in illumination and dual detection for depth discrimination is presented...
January 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079940/reproductive-modification-in-forest-plantations-impacts-on-biodiversity-and-society
#8
REVIEW
Steven H Strauss, Kristin N Jones, Haiwei Lu, Joshua D Petit, Amy L Klocko, Matthew G Betts, Berry J Brosi, Robert J Fletcher, Mark D Needham
1000 I. 1000 II. 1001 III. 1014 IV. 1015 V. 1016 1016 References 1016 SUMMARY: Genetic engineering (GE) can be used to improve forest plantation productivity and tolerance of biotic and abiotic stresses. However, gene flow from GE forest plantations is a large source of ecological, social and legal controversy. The use of genetic technologies to mitigate or prevent gene flow has been discussed widely and should be technically feasible in a variety of plantation taxa. However, potential ecological effects of such modifications, and their social acceptability, are not well understood...
February 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079645/the-role-of-patient-navigators-in-building-a-medical-home-for-multiply-diagnosed-hiv-positive-homeless-populations
#9
Mariana Sarango, Alexander de Groot, Melissa Hirschi, Chukwuemeka Anthony Umeh, Serena Rajabiun
CONTEXT: People living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (PLWH) who are most at risk for falling out of HIV primary care and detectable viral loads include homeless and unstably housed individuals and those codiagnosed with behavioral health disorders. The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) is a model that promotes provision of comprehensive, patient-centered, accessible, coordinated, and quality care for patients. This initiative provided patient navigation to HIV-positive homeless and unstably housed individuals codiagnosed with a mental health or substance use disorder as a means to create an adapted PCMH to meet the specific needs of this population...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078477/information-sharing-challenges-between-adolescents-with-cancer-their-parents-and-health-care-providers-a-qualitative-study
#10
Masoud Bahrami, Mahboobeh Namnabati, Fariborz Mokarian, Parastoo Oujian, Paul Arbon
PURPOSE: We aimed to assess the viewpoints, experiences, and preferences within the clinical communication triangle (parent, adolescent, health care team) concerning the information-sharing process for adolescents with cancer. METHODS: This is a qualitative descriptive-exploratory study. Overall, 33 participants were recruited (adolescents diagnosed with cancer aged 15-20 years, their parents, oncologists, and nurses). In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted and data were analyzed using constant comparative analysis...
January 11, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077148/linking-communities-to-formal-health-care-providers-through-village-health-teams-in-rural-uganda-lessons-from-linking-social-capital
#11
Laban Kashaija Musinguzi, Emmanueil Benon Turinawe, Jude T Rwemisisi, Daniel H de Vries, David K Mafigiri, Denis Muhangi, Marije de Groot, Achilles Katamba, Robert Pool
BACKGROUND: Community-based programmes, particularly community health workers (CHWs), have been portrayed as a cost-effective alternative to the shortage of health workers in low-income countries. Usually, literature emphasises how easily CHWs link and connect communities to formal health care services. There is little evidence in Uganda to support or dispute such claims. Drawing from linking social capital framework, this paper examines the claim that village health teams (VHTs), as an example of CHWs, link and connect communities with formal health care services...
January 11, 2017: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077145/perceptions-and-experiences-of-the-mistreatment-of-women-during-childbirth-in-health-facilities-in-guinea-a-qualitative-study-with-women-and-service-providers
#12
Mamadou Diouldé Balde, Boubacar Alpha Diallo, Abou Bangoura, Oumar Sall, Anne Marie Soumah, Joshua P Vogel, Meghan A Bohren
BACKGROUND: Every woman is entitled to respectful care during childbirth; so it is concerning to hear of informal reports of mistreatment during childbirth in Guinea. This study sought to explore the perceptions and experiences of mistreatment during childbirth, from the perspectives of women and service providers, and the analysis presents findings according to a typology of mistreatment during childbirth. METHODS: This study used qualitative methods (in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs)) and was conducted with four groups of participants: women of reproductive age, midwives, doctors, and administrators...
January 11, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076337/coded-excitation-for-diverging-wave-cardiac-imaging-a-feasibility-study
#13
Feifei Zhao, Ling Tong, Qiong He, Jianwen Luo
Diverging wave (DW) based cardiac imaging has gained increasing interest in recent years given its capacity to achieve ultrahigh frame rate. However, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast, and penetration depth of the resulting B-mode images are typically low as DWs spread energy over a large region. Coded excitation is known to be capable of increasing the SNR and penetration for ultrasound imaging. The aim of this study was therefore to test the feasibility of applying coded excitation in DW imaging to improve the corresponding SNR, contrast and penetration depth...
January 11, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075696/dual-eligibles-experience-of-care-with-north-carolina-s-patient-centered-medical-home
#14
Sarah Grantham, Debora Goetz Goldberg, Donna Lind Infeld
Although individuals enrolled in both Medicare and Medicaid (dual eligibles) are among those with the nation's greatest need, at $300 billion per year, their care is also expensive and beset by quality problems. Previous research found problems associated with inadequate coordination of benefits and services; however, these studies have largely used quantitative approaches and focused on providers-few studies have explored the perspective of dual eligible patients. In an effort to improve care and reduce costs, North Carolina (NC) developed a Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH) model centered on a continuous relationship with a primary care provider who is responsible for coordination of services and addressing patients' health care needs by providing direct services or arranging care with other qualified professionals...
January 11, 2017: Population Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075553/double-layer-graphene-outperforming-monolayer-as-catalyst-on-silicon-photocathode-for-hydrogen-production
#15
Uk Sim, Joonhee Moon, Joohee Lee, JungHyun An, Hyo-Yong Ahn, Dong Jin Kim, Insu Jo, Cheolho Jeon, Seungwu Han, Byung Hee Hong, Ki Tae Nam
Photoelectrochemical cells are used to split hydrogen and oxygen from water molecules to generate chemical fuels to satisfy our ever-increasing energy demands. However, it is a major challenge to design efficient catalysts to use in the photoelectochemical process. Recently, research has focused on carbon-based catalysts, as they are non-precious and environmentally benign. Interesting advances have also been made in controlling nanostructure interfaces and in introducing new materials as catalysts in the photoelectrochemical cell...
January 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075109/patient-centered-communication-basic-skills
#16
M Jawad Hashim
Communication skills needed for patient-centered care include eliciting the patient's agenda with open-ended questions, especially early on; not interrupting the patient; and engaging in focused active listening. Understanding the patient's perspective of the illness and expressing empathy are key features of patient-centered communication. Understanding the patient's perspective entails exploring the patient's feelings, ideas, concerns, and experience regarding the impact of the illness, as well as what the patient expects from the physician...
January 1, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073449/harmful-algal-bloom-forecast-system-for-sw-ireland-part-ii-are-operational-oceanographic-models-useful-in-a-hab-warning-system
#17
Caroline Cusack, Tomasz Dabrowski, Kieran Lyons, Alan Berry, Guy Westbrook, Rafael Salas, Conor Duffy, Glenn Nolan, Joe Silke
This study investigated the application of a three-dimensional physical hydrodynamic model in a harmful algal bloom forecast system for Bantry Bay, southwest Ireland. Modelled oceanographic conditions were studied and used to help understand observed changes in the chemical and biological patterns from the national biotoxins and phytoplankton monitoring program. The study focused on two toxic events in 2013. An upwelling event was predicted by the model prior to the appearance and population increase of potentially toxic diatoms, Pseudo-nitzschia, and associated domoic acid in shellfish...
March 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073351/exploring-neurodevelopmental-outcome-measures-used-in-children-with-cerebral-malaria-the-perspectives-of-caregivers-and-health-workers-in-malawi
#18
Emmie W Mbale, Terrie Taylor, Bernard Brabin, Macpherson Mallewa, Melissa Gladstone
BACKGROUND: Progress has been made in tackling malaria however there are still over 207 million cases worldwide, the majority in children. As survival rates improve, numbers of children with long-term neurodisabling sequelae are likely to increase. Most outcome studies in cerebral malaria (CM) have focused only on body function and structure and less on outcomes within the broader framework of the International Classification of Functioning and Disability (ICF). The aim of this study was to utilise qualitative methods to identify relevant clinical outcomes in CM to support formulation of a core outcome set relevant to CM and other acquired brain injuries for use in future clinical trials...
January 10, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072575/systematics-of-relative-biological-effectiveness-measurements-for-proton-radiation-along-the-spread-out-bragg-peak-experimental-validation-of-the-local-effect-model
#19
Rebecca Grün, Thomas Friedrich, Michael Krämer, Michael Scholz
The purpose of this study is to compare the predictions of the local effect model (LEM) in an extensive analysis to proton relative biological effectiveness (RBE) experiments found in the literature, and demonstrate the capabilities of the model as well as to discuss potential limitations. 19 publications with in vitro experiments and 10 publications with in vivo experiments focusing on proton RBE along the spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) were considered. In total the RBE values of over 100 depth positions were compared to LEM predictions...
February 7, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070262/experiences-of-women-regarding-gaps-in-preconception-care-services-in-the-iranian-reproductive-health-care-system-a-qualitative-study
#20
Roghieh Bayrami, Robab Latifnejad Roudsari, Hamid Allahverdipour, Mojgan Javadnoori, Habibollah Esmaily
INTRODUCTION: Despite the beginnings of preconception care (PCC) delivery around a decade ago in Iran, there are still significant gaps in its service delivery. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions and experiences of women as well as midwives toward gaps in PCC delivery in the Iranian reproductive health care system. METHODS: In this exploratory qualitative study, 27 married women and 13 midwives were recruited using purposive sampling from five health centers in Mashhad, Northeast of Iran...
November 2016: Electronic Physician
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