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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411091/comparison-of-dynamic-monitoring-strategies-based-on-cd4-cell-counts-in-virally-suppressed-hiv-positive-individuals-on-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-in-high-income-countries-a-prospective-observational-study
#1
Ellen C Caniglia, Lauren E Cain, Caroline A Sabin, James M Robins, Roger Logan, Sophie Abgrall, Michael J Mugavero, Sonia Hernández-Díaz, Laurence Meyer, Remonie Seng, Daniel R Drozd, George R Seage, Fabrice Bonnet, Francois Dabis, Richard D Moore, Peter Reiss, Ard van Sighem, William C Mathews, Julia Del Amo, Santiago Moreno, Steven G Deeks, Roberto Muga, Stephen L Boswell, Elena Ferrer, Joseph J Eron, Sonia Napravnik, Sophie Jose, Andrew Phillips, Amy C Justice, Janet P Tate, John Gill, Antonio Pacheco, Valdilea G Veloso, Heiner C Bucher, Matthias Egger, Hansjakob Furrer, Kholoud Porter, Giota Touloumi, Heidi Crane, Jose M Miro, Jonathan A Sterne, Dominique Costagliola, Michael Saag, Miguel A Hernán
BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines vary with respect to the optimal monitoring frequency of HIV-positive individuals. We compared dynamic monitoring strategies based on time-varying CD4 cell counts in virologically suppressed HIV-positive individuals. METHODS: In this observational study, we used data from prospective studies of HIV-positive individuals in Europe (France, Greece, the Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland, and the UK) and North and South America (Brazil, Canada, and the USA) in The HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration and The Centers for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems...
April 11, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402881/stability-and-conformation-of-a-chemoreceptor-hamp-domain-chimera-correlates-with-signaling-properties
#2
Nattakan Sukomon, Joanne Widom, Peter P Borbat, Jack H Freed, Brian R Crane
HAMP domains are dimeric, four-helix bundles that transduce conformational signals in bacterial receptors. Genetic studies of the Escherichia coli serine receptor (Tsr) provide an opportunity to understand HAMP conformational behavior in terms of functional output. To increase its stability, the Tsr HAMP domain was spliced into a poly-HAMP unit from the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Aer2 receptor. Within the chimera, the Tsr HAMP undergoes a thermal melting transition at a temperature much lower than that of the Aer2 HAMP domains...
April 11, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400526/plasmodium-falciparum-k13-mutations-differentially-impact-ozonide-susceptibility-and-parasite-fitness-in-vitro
#3
Judith Straimer, Nina F Gnädig, Barbara H Stokes, Michelle Ehrenberger, Audrey A Crane, David A Fidock
The emergence and spread in Southeast Asia of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin (ART) derivatives, the cornerstone of first-line artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs), underscore the urgent need to identify suitable replacement drugs. Discovery and development efforts have identified a series of ozonides with attractive chemical and pharmacological properties that are being touted as suitable replacements. Partial resistance to ART, defined as delayed parasite clearance in malaria patients treated with an ART derivative or an ACT, has been associated with mutations in the P...
April 11, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398792/tobacco-town-computational-modeling-of-policy-options-to-reduce-tobacco-retailer-density
#4
Douglas A Luke, Ross A Hammond, Todd Combs, Amy Sorg, Matt Kasman, Austen Mack-Crane, Kurt M Ribisl, Lisa Henriksen
OBJECTIVES: To identify the behavioral mechanisms and effects of tobacco control policies designed to reduce tobacco retailer density. METHODS: We developed the Tobacco Town agent-based simulation model to examine 4 types of retailer reduction policies: (1) random retailer reduction, (2) restriction by type of retailer, (3) limiting proximity of retailers to schools, and (4) limiting proximity of retailers to each other. The model examined the effects of these policies alone and in combination across 4 different types of towns, defined by 2 levels of population density (urban vs suburban) and 2 levels of income (higher vs lower)...
May 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385597/ester-to-amide-rearrangement-of-ethanolamine-derived-prodrugs-of-sobetirome-with-increased-blood-brain-barrier-penetration
#5
Skylar J Ferrara, J Matthew Meinig, Andrew T Placzek, Tapasree Banerji, Peter McTigue, Meredith D Hartley, Hannah S Sanford-Crane, Tania Banerji, Dennis Bourdette, Thomas S Scanlan
Current therapeutic options for treating demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS) do not stimulate myelin repair, thus creating a clinical need for therapeutic agents that address axonal remyelination. Thyroid hormone is known to play an important role in promoting developmental myelination and repair, and CNS permeable thyromimetic agents could offer an increased therapeutic index compared to endogenous thyroid hormone. Sobetirome is a clinical stage thyromimetic that has been shown to have promising activity in preclinical models related to MS and X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), a genetic disease that involves demyelination...
May 15, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379119/real-world-emissions-of-in-use-off-road-vehicles-in-mexico
#6
Miguel Zavala, Jose Ignacio Huertas, Daniel Prato, Aron Jazcilevich, Andrés Aguilar, Marco Balam, Chandan Misra, Luisa T Molina
Off-road vehicles used in construction and agricultural activities can contribute substantially to emissions of gaseous pollutants and can be a major source of submicron carbonaceous particles in many parts of the world. However, there have been relatively few efforts in quantifying the emission factors (EFs) as well as for estimating the potential emission reduction benefits using emission control technologies for these vehicles. This study characterized the black carbon (BC) component of particulate matter and NOx, CO, and CO2 EFs of selected diesel-powered off-road mobile sources in Mexico under real-world operating conditions using on-board portable emissions measurements systems (PEMS)...
April 5, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373078/objective-measurement-of-clinical-competency-in-surgical-education-using-electrodermal-activity
#7
Jacob A Quick, Alex D Bukoski, Jennifer Doty, Bethany J Bennett, Megan Crane, Stephen L Barnes
OBJECTIVE: Within the realm of surgical education, there is a need for objective means to determine surgical competence and resident readiness to operate independently. We propose a novel, objective method of assessing resident confidence and clinical competence based on measurement of electrodermal activity (EDA) during live surgical procedures. We hypothesized that with progressive training, EDA responses to the stress of performing surgery would exhibit decline, elucidating an objective correlate of clinical competence...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369388/environmental-canalization-of-life-span-and-gene-expression-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#8
Alexander Mendenhall, Matthew M Crane, Scott Leiser, George Sutphin, Patricia M Tedesco, Matt Kaeberlein, Thomas E Johnson, Roger Brent
Animals, particularly poikilotherms, exhibit distinct physiologies at different environmental temperatures. Here, we hypothesized that temperature-based differences in physiology could affect the amount of variation in complex quantitative traits. Specifically, we examined, in Caenorhabditis elegans, how different temperatures (15°C, 20°C, and 25°C) affected the amount of interindividual variation in life span and also expression of three reporter genes-transcriptional reporters for vit-2, gpd-2, and hsp-16...
February 22, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350795/fine-mapping-of-the-human-leukocyte-antigen-locus-as-a-risk-factor-for-alzheimer-disease-a-case-control-study
#9
Natasha Z R Steele, Jessie S Carr, Luke W Bonham, Ethan G Geier, Vincent Damotte, Zachary A Miller, Rahul S Desikan, Kevin L Boehme, Shubhabrata Mukherjee, Paul K Crane, John S K Kauwe, Joel H Kramer, Bruce L Miller, Giovanni Coppola, Jill A Hollenbach, Yadong Huang, Jennifer S Yokoyama
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer disease (AD) is a progressive disorder that affects cognitive function. There is increasing support for the role of neuroinflammation and aberrant immune regulation in the pathophysiology of AD. The immunoregulatory human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex has been linked to susceptibility for a number of neurodegenerative diseases, including AD; however, studies to date have failed to consistently identify a risk HLA haplotype for AD. Contributing to this difficulty are the complex genetic organization of the HLA region, differences in sequencing and allelic imputation methods, and diversity across ethnic populations...
March 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298185/general-practitioners-perceptions-of-population-based-bowel-screening-and-their-influence-on-practice-a-qualitative-study
#10
Greer Dawson, Melanie Crane, Claudine Lyons, Anna Burnham, Tara Bowman, Donna Perez, Joanne Travaglia
BACKGROUND: Although largely preventable, Australia has one of the highest rates of bowel cancer in the world. General Practitioners (GPs) have an important role to play in prevention and early detection of bowel cancer, however in Australia this is yet to be optimised and participation remains low. This study sought to understand how GPs' perceptions of bowel screening influence their attitudes to, and promotion of the faecal occult blood test (FOBT), to identify opportunities to enhance their role...
March 15, 2017: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274338/development-and-initial-validation-of-primary-care-provider-mental-illness-management-and-team-based-care-self-efficacy-scales
#11
Danielle F Loeb, Lori A Crane, Erin Leister, Elizabeth A Bayliss, Evette Ludman, Ingrid A Binswanger, Danielle M Kline, Meredith Smith, Frank V deGruy, Donald E Nease, L Miriam Dickinson
OBJECTIVE: Develop and validate self-efficacy scales for primary care provider (PCP) mental illness management and team-based care participation. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We developed three self-efficacy scales: team-based care (TBC), mental illness management (MIM), and chronic medical illness (CMI). We developed the scales using Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory as a guide. The survey instrument included items from previously validated scales on team-based care and mental illness management...
March 2017: General Hospital Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270757/effectiveness-of-a-novel-qigong-meditative-movement-practice-for-impaired-health-in-flight-attendants-exposed-to-second-hand-cigarette-smoke
#12
Peter Payne, Steven Fiering, James C Leiter, David T Zava, Mardi A Crane-Godreau
This single-arm non-randomized pilot study explores an intervention to improve the health of flight attendants (FA) exposed to second-hand cigarette smoke prior to the smoking ban on commercial airlines. This group exhibits an unusual pattern of long-term pulmonary dysfunction. We report on Phase I of a two-phase clinical trial; the second Phase will be a randomized controlled trial testing digital delivery of the intervention. Subjects were recruited in the Northeastern US; testing and intervention were administered in 4 major cities...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248604/middle-ear-obliteration-with-blind-sac-closure-of-the-external-auditory-canal-for-spontaneous-csf-otorrhea
#13
Shawn M Stevens, Ryan Crane, Myles L Pensak, Ravi N Samy
Outcome Objectives To (1) identify unique features of patients who underwent middle ear/mastoid obliteration with blind-sac closure of the external auditory canal for spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) otorrhea and (2) explore outcomes. Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting Tertiary care center. Subjects and Methods Adults treated for spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea from 2007 through 2015 were reviewed and stratified into 2 groups based on the surgery performed: (1) 11 patients underwent middle ear/mastoid obliteration with blind-sac closure of the external auditory canal and (2) 26 patients underwent other procedures...
March 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239718/solvent-control-of-intramolecular-proton-transfer-is-4-hydroxy-3-piperidin-1-ylmethyl-1-naphthaldehyde-a-proton-crane
#14
Y Manolova, H Marciniak, S Tschierlei, F Fennel, F S Kamounah, S Lochbrunner, L Antonov
The solvent dependent excited state dynamics of 4-hydroxy-3-(piperidin-1-ylmethyl)-1-naphthaldehyde (compound 2), a candidate for a molecular switch based on intramolecular proton transfer, was investigated by ultrafast spectroscopy and quantum-chemical calculations. In acetonitrile a mixture of molecules in the enol and zwitterionic proton transfer (PT) form exists in the ground state. However, the zwitterion is the energetically favored one in the electronically excited state. Optical excitation of the enol form results in intramolecular proton transfer and formation of the PT form within 1...
February 27, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236716/alzheimer-s-disease-neuropathologic-change-lewy-body-disease-and-vascular-brain-injury-in-clinic-and-community-based-samples
#15
Willa D Brenowitz, C Dirk Keene, Stephen E Hawes, Rebecca A Hubbard, W T Longstreth, Randy L Woltjer, Paul K Crane, Eric B Larson, Walter A Kukull
We examined the relationships between Alzheimer's disease neuropathologic change (ADNC), Lewy body disease (LBD), and vascular brain injury (VBI) in 2 large autopsy samples. Because findings may differ between study populations, data came from U.S. Alzheimer's Disease Centers contributing to the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (n = 2742) and from the population-based Adult Changes in Thought study (n = 499). Regardless of study population, over 50% of participants with ADNC had co-occurring LBD or VBI; the majority of whom had a clinical AD dementia diagnosis prior to death...
May 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216320/coordination-of-orofacial-motor-actions-into-exploratory-behavior-by-rat
#16
Anastasia Kurnikova, Jeffrey D Moore, Song-Mao Liao, Martin Deschênes, David Kleinfeld
The delineation of sensorimotor circuits that guide exploration begins with an understanding of the pattern of motor outputs [1]. These motor patterns provide a clue to the form of the underlying circuits [2-4] (but see [5]). We focus on the behaviors that rodents use to explore their peripersonal space through goal-directed positioning of their nose, head, and vibrissae. Rodents sniff in response to novel odors, reward expectation, and as part of social interactions [6-12]. Sniffing serves olfaction [13, 14], while whisking synchronized to sniffing serves vibrissa-based touch [6, 15, 16]...
March 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212814/human-striatal-dopaminergic-and-regional-serotonergic-synaptic-degeneration-with-lewy-body-disease-and-inheritance-of-apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54
#17
Nadia Postupna, Caitlin S Latimer, Eric B Larson, Emily Sherfield, Julie Paladin, Carol A Shively, Matthew J Jorgensen, Rachel N Andrews, Jay R Kaplan, Paul K Crane, Kathleen S Montine, Suzanne Craft, C Dirk Keene, Thomas J Montine
Cognitive impairment in older individuals is a complex trait that in population-based studies most commonly derives from an individually varying mixture of Alzheimer disease, Lewy body disease, and vascular brain injury. We investigated the molecular composition of synaptic particles from three sources: consecutive rapid autopsy brains from the Adult Changes in Thought Study, a population-based cohort; four aged nonhuman primate brains optimally processed for molecular investigation; and targeted replacement transgenic mice homozygous for APOE ε4...
April 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205041/hiv-provider-documentation-and-actions-following-patient-reports-of-at-risk-behaviors-and-conditions-when-identified-by-a-web-based-point-of-care-assessment
#18
Heidi M Crane, Paul K Crane, James T Tufano, James D Ralston, Ira B Wilson, Tyler D Brown, Thomas E Davis, Laurie F Smith, William B Lober, Justin McReynolds, Shireesha Dhanireddy, Robert D Harrington, Carla V Rodriguez, Robin M Nance, Joseph A C Delaney, Steven A Safren, Mari M Kitahata, Rob J Fredericksen
We compared same-day provider medical record documentation and interventions addressing depression and risk behaviors before and after delivering point-of-care patient-reported outcomes (PROs) feedback for patients who self-reported clinically relevant levels of depression or risk behaviors. During the study period (1 January 2006-15 October 2010), 2289 PRO assessments were completed by HIV-infected patients. Comparing the 8 months before versus after feedback implementation, providers were more likely to document depression (74% before vs...
February 15, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183528/transethnic-genome-wide-scan-identifies-novel-alzheimer-s-disease-loci
#19
Gyungah R Jun, Jaeyoon Chung, Jesse Mez, Robert Barber, Gary W Beecham, David A Bennett, Joseph D Buxbaum, Goldie S Byrd, Minerva M Carrasquillo, Paul K Crane, Carlos Cruchaga, Philip De Jager, Nilufer Ertekin-Taner, Denis Evans, M Danielle Fallin, Tatiana M Foroud, Robert P Friedland, Alison M Goate, Neill R Graff-Radford, Hugh Hendrie, Kathleen S Hall, Kara L Hamilton-Nelson, Rivka Inzelberg, M Ilyas Kamboh, John S K Kauwe, Walter A Kukull, Brian W Kunkle, Ryozo Kuwano, Eric B Larson, Mark W Logue, Jennifer J Manly, Eden R Martin, Thomas J Montine, Shubhabrata Mukherjee, Adam Naj, Eric M Reiman, Christiane Reitz, Richard Sherva, Peter H St George-Hyslop, Timothy Thornton, Steven G Younkin, Badri N Vardarajan, Li-San Wang, Jens R Wendlund, Ashley R Winslow, Jonathan Haines, Richard Mayeux, Margaret A Pericak-Vance, Gerard Schellenberg, Kathryn L Lunetta, Lindsay A Farrer
INTRODUCTION: Genetic loci for Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been identified in whites of European ancestry, but the genetic architecture of AD among other populations is less understood. METHODS: We conducted a transethnic genome-wide association study (GWAS) for late-onset AD in Stage 1 sample including whites of European Ancestry, African-Americans, Japanese, and Israeli-Arabs assembled by the Alzheimer's Disease Genetics Consortium. Suggestive results from Stage 1 from novel loci were followed up using summarized results in the International Genomics Alzheimer's Project GWAS dataset...
February 7, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182590/lens-opacity-and-hydrogen-sulfide-in-a-new-zealand-geothermal-area
#20
Michael N Bates, Ian L Bailey, Robert B DiMartino, Karl Pope, Julian Crane, Nick Garrett
PURPOSE: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a highly toxic gas with well-established, acute irritation effects on the eye. The population of Rotorua, New Zealand, sited on an active geothermal field, has some of the highest ambient H2S exposures in the world. Evidence from ecological studies in Rotorua has suggested that H2S is associated with cataract. The purpose of the present study was, using more detailed exposure characterization, clinical examinations, and anterior eye photography, to more directly investigate this previously reported association...
April 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
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