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E Laurin, K K Thakur, I A Gardner, P Hick, N J G Moody, M S J Crane, I Ernst
Design and reporting quality of diagnostic accuracy studies (DAS) are important metrics for assessing utility of tests used in animal and human health. Following standards for designing DAS will assist in appropriate test selection for specific testing purposes and minimize the risk of reporting biased sensitivity and specificity estimates. To examine the benefits of recommending standards, design information from published DAS literature was assessed for 10 finfish, seven mollusc, nine crustacean and two amphibian diseases listed in the 2017 OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
R Modi, K R Amico, A Knudson, A O Westfall, J Keruly, H M Crane, E B Quinlivan, C Golin, J Willig, A Zinski, R Moore, S Napravnik, L Bryan, M S Saag, M J Mugavero
In the first year after HIV diagnosis, patients are simultaneously processing with their diagnosis, typically with an emotional component, while also developing a routine of regular medical care visits and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence. Maintaining "HIV adherence" and integrating it into one's daily life is required to sustain viral load suppression (VS) over time. The HIV care continuum or "treatment cascade," an epidemiological snapshot of the national epidemic in the United States (US), indicates that a minority of persons living with HIV (PLWH) have achieved VS...
March 8, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Octavio Menocal, Luisa F Cruz, Paul E Kendra, Jonathan H Crane, Miriam F Cooperband, Randy C Ploetz, Daniel Carrillo
Like other members of the tribe Xyleborini, Xyleborus bispinatus Eichhoff can cause economic damage in the Neotropics. X. bispinatus has been found to acquire the laurel wilt pathogen Raffaelea lauricola (T. C. Harr., Fraedrich & Aghayeva) when breeding in a host affected by the pathogen. Its role as a potential vector of R. lauricola is under investigation. The main objective of this study was to evaluate three artificial media, containing sawdust of avocado ( Persea americana Mill.) and silkbay ( Persea humilis Nash...
February 28, 2018: Insects
Jonathan Thackeray, Dushka Crane, Cynthia Fontanella, Michael Sorter, Rebecca Baum, Mary Applegate
A Medicaid statewide quality improvement (QI) collaborative was developed to improve antipsychotic prescribing practices for children. With use of a multistrategy approach that incorporated data-driven feedback and evidence-based recommendations, improvements were seen in three measures: antipsychotics prescribed to children under age six, prescription of two or more concomitant antipsychotics for longer than two months, and prescription of four or more psychotropic medications. Challenges and complexities are reviewed, including use of ongoing QI to address factors influencing antipsychotic prescribing behaviors, engagement of providers in QI efforts, and financial sustainability of such efforts...
March 1, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Claire Garnett, David Crane, Jamie Brown, Eileen Kaner, Fiona Beyer, Colin Muirhead, Matthew Hickman, James Redmore, Frank de Vocht, Emma Beard, Susan Michie
BACKGROUND: Applying theory to the design and evaluation of interventions is likely to increase effectiveness and improve the evidence base from which future interventions are developed, though few interventions report this. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to assess how digital interventions to reduce hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption report the use of theory in their development and evaluation, and whether reporting of theory use is associated with intervention effectiveness...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Nicole A P Lieberman, Kole DeGolier, Kristen Haberthur, Harrison Chinn, Kara W Moyes, Myriam N Bouchlaka, Kirsti L Walker, Christian M Capitini, Courtney A Crane
Recent advances in cellular therapies for patients with cancer, including checkpoint blockade and ex vivo -expanded, tumor-specific T cells, have demonstrated that targeting the immune system is a powerful approach to the elimination of tumor cells. Clinical efforts have also demonstrated limitations, however, including the potential for tumor cell antigenic drift and neoantigen formation, which promote tumor escape and recurrence, as well as rapid onset of T cell exhaustion in vivo . These findings suggest that antigen unrestricted cells, such as natural killer (NK) cells, may be beneficial for use as an alternative to or in combination with T cell based approaches...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jennifer Kuntz, Bradley Crane, Sheila Weinmann, Allison L Naleway
Reports of myocarditis and pericarditis following smallpox vaccination in adults suggested a need to assess inflammatory cardiac disease risk among adults who receive live viral vaccinations. From 1996 through 2007, among 416,629 vaccinated adults in the Vaccine Safety Datalink, we identified one probable pericarditis case and no cases of myocarditis in the 42 days following a live viral vaccination. Our self-controlled risk interval analysis found that, based on one case identified during the risk interval and 10 cases during the control interval, there is no increased risk of myopericarditis in the 42 days following vaccination (IRR, 0...
March 14, 2018: Vaccine
Aaron T Pearse, Matt Rabbe, Lara M Juliusson, Mark T Bidwell, Lea Craig-Moore, David A Brandt, Wade Harrell
Defining and identifying changes to seasonal ranges of migratory species is required for effective conservation. Historic sightings of migrating whooping cranes (Grus americana) have served as sole source of information to define a migration corridor in the Great Plains of North America (i.e., Canadian Prairies and United States Great Plains) for this endangered species. We updated this effort using past opportunistic sightings from 1942-2016 (n = 5,055) and more recent (2010-2016) location data from 58 telemetered birds (n = 4,423) to delineate migration corridors that included 50%, 75%, and 95% core areas...
2018: PloS One
Laura Crane, Fern Adams, Georgia Harper, Jack Welch, Elizabeth Pellicano
There is a high incidence and prevalence of mental health problems among young people, with several barriers to help-seeking noted in this group. High rates of mental health problems have also been reported in children and adults on the autism spectrum. Taken together, young autistic people may be a particularly vulnerable group when it comes to mental health. Yet, there has been remarkably little work on the mental health needs and experiences of young autistic adults (16-25 years). Adopting a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach - in which academic researchers and young autistic adults collaborated in an equitable research partnership - we explored young autistic people's experiences of mental health problems and their perspectives on the support they sought, if any, for these problems...
February 1, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Chia-Fen Chi, Syuan-Zih Lin
The current study analyzed 312 caught-in-between fatalities caused by machinery and vehicles. A comprehensive and mutually exclusive coding scheme was developed to analyze and code each caught-in-between fatality in terms of age, gender, experience of the victim, type of industry, source of injury, and causes for these accidents. Boolean algebra analysis was applied on these 312 caught-in-between fatalities to derive minimal cut set (MCS) causes associated with each source of injury. Eventually, contributing factors and common accident patterns associated with (1) special process machinery including textile, printing, packaging machinery, (2) metal, woodworking, and special material machinery, (3) conveyor, (4) vehicle, (5) crane, (6) construction machinery, and (7) elevator can be divided into three major groups through Boolean algebra and MCS analysis...
April 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Laura A Fraade-Blanar, Ryan N Hansen, Kwun Chuen G Chan, Jeanne M Sears, Hilaire J Thompson, Paul K Crane, Beth E Ebel
Older adults are an active and growing segment of drivers in the United States. We compared the risk of motor vehicle crash among older licensed drivers diagnosed with dementia to crash risk among older licensed drivers without diagnosis of dementia. This retrospective cohort study used data from Group Health (GH), a Washington State health maintenance organization. Research participants were members of GH, aged 65-79 during the study who lived in Washington State from 1999-2009. Participant health records were linked with police-reported crash and licensure records...
January 25, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Binjie Jin, Huijie Song, Ruiqi Jiang, Jizhou Song, Qian Zhao, Tao Xie
The need to support the two most basic functions [three-dimensional (3D)-shaped support and actuation] independently for a typical robot demands that at least two components should be used in its construction. Therefore, component assembly is unavoidable despite the ultimate dream of creating assembly-free robots. We devise a strategy that uses a programmable crystalline shape memory polymer with thermo- and photo-reversible bonds to create a single-component robot. The global 3D-shaped structural support is fabricated via a plasticity-based origami technique enabled by the thermo-reversible bonds...
January 2018: Science Advances
Pauline Eva Ruijgrok-Lupton, Rebecca S Crane, Dusana Dorjee
Growing interest in mindfulness-based programs (MBPs) has resulted in increased demand for MBP teachers, raising questions around safeguarding teaching standards. Training literature emphasises the need for appropriate training and meditation experience, yet studies into impact of such variables on participant outcomes are scarce, requiring further investigation. This feasibility pilot study hypothesised that participant outcomes would relate to teachers' mindfulness-based teacher training levels and mindfulness-based teaching and meditation experience...
2018: Mindfulness
Yu Liang, ZiJiao Zhao, JunJie Hu, Gerald W Esch, MingChun Peng, Qiong Liu, JinQing Chen
Disseminated visceral coccidiosis (DVC) is a widely distributed intestinal and extraintestinal disease of cranes caused by eimeriid coccidia and has lethal pathogenicity to several crane species. Here, feces of 164 black-necked cranes collected in Dashanbao Black-necked Crane National Nature Reserve, China, were examined to determine the prevalence of coccidial oocysts. Of the 164 fecal samples, 76 (46.3%) were positive for oocysts of Eimeria, including E. gruis in 59 (35.9%), E. reichenowi in 52 (31.7%), and E...
March 2018: Parasitology Research
Joy Elizabeth Van Oudtshoorn, Alfredo García-Arieta, Gustavo Mendes Lima Santos, Christopher Crane, Clare Rodrigues, Craig Simon, Ji Myoung Kim, Sang Aeh Park, Yusuke Okada, Ryosuke Kuribayashi, Chantal Pfäffli, Arno Nolting, Iván Omar Calderón Lojero, Zulema Rodríguez Martínez, Wen-Yi Hung, April C Braddy, Nancy Arciniegas Leal, Diego Gutierrez Triana, Mitch Clarke, Peter Bachmann
PURPOSE:  The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) based biowaiver is a scientific model which enables the substitution of in vivo bioequivalence studies with in vitro data as evidence of therapeutic equivalence subject to certain conditions. Despite being based on the same principles, BCS-based biowaivers are interpreted and regulated differently among international regulatory agencies. In this survey, the Bioequivalence Working Group (BEWG) of the International Generic Drug Regulators Programme (IGDRP) compared the criteria for BCS-based biowaivers applied by the participating regulators and organisations...
2018: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
Peter L Privalov, Colyn Crane-Robinson
Precise calorimetric studies of DNA duplexes of various length and composition have revised several long-held beliefs about the forces holding together the double helix and its complexes with the DNA binding domains (DBDs) of transcription factors. Heating DNA results in an initial non-cooperative increase of torsional oscillations in the duplex, leading to cooperative dissociation of its strands accompanied by extensive heat absorption and a significant heat capacity increment. The enthalpy and entropy of duplex dissociation are therefore temperature dependent quantities...
January 26, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Ahmed M Amer, Mohamed Zaid, Baishali Chaudhury, Dalia Elganainy, Yeonju Lee, Christopher T Wilke, Jordan Cloyd, Huamin Wang, Anirban Maitra, Robert A Wolff, Gauri Varadhachary, Michael J Overman, Jeffery E Lee, Jason B Fleming, Ching Wei Tzeng, Matthew H Katz, Emma B Holliday, Sunil Krishnan, Bruce D Minsky, Joseph M Herman, Cullen M Taniguchi, Prajnan Das, Christopher H Crane, Ott Le, Priya Bhosale, Eric P Tamm, Eugene J Koay
BACKGROUND: The assessment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) response to therapy remains challenging. The objective of this study was to investigate whether changes in the tumor/parenchyma interface are associated with response. METHODS: Computed tomography (CT) scans before and after therapy were reviewed in 4 cohorts: cohort 1 (99 patients with stage I/II PDAC who received neoadjuvant chemoradiation and surgery); cohort 2 (86 patients with stage IV PDAC who received chemotherapy), cohort 3 (94 patients with stage I/II PDAC who received protocol-based neoadjuvant gemcitabine chemoradiation), and cohort 4 (47 patients with stage I/II PDAC who received neoadjuvant chemoradiation and were prospectively followed in a registry)...
January 25, 2018: Cancer
Deanna M Kaplan, Roman Palitsky, Angela L Carey, Tracy E Crane, Cody M Havens, Michael R Medrano, Samantha J Reznik, David A Sbarra, Mary-Frances O'Connor
OBJECTIVE: Maladaptive repetitive thought (RT), the frequent and repetitive revisiting of thoughts or internal experiences, is associated with a range of psychopathological processes and disorders. We present a synthesis of prior research on maladaptive RT and develop a framework for elucidating and distinguishing between five forms of maladaptive RT. METHOD: In addition to the previously studied maladaptive RT (worry, rumination, and obsession), this framework is used to identify two additional forms of maladaptive RT (yearning and interoceptive RT)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Taylor M Johnson, Adam L Crane
Habitat selection is fundamentally important to animal ecology, and animals that can learn about habitats can increase the probability of avoiding detection by predators or quickly finding food. Here, we tested whether juveniles of the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, can learn preference for habitat types based on experience with food availability. Crayfish were housed in arenas with two habitat types, half leaf habitat and half rock habitat. Over several days, crayfish were fed consistently in one of the habitat types...
January 9, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Sean T O'Leary, Laura E Riley, Megan C Lindley, Mandy A Allison, Lori A Crane, Laura P Hurley, Brenda L Beaty, Michaela Brtnikova, Margaret Collins, Alison P Albert, Allison K Fisher, Angela J Jiles, Allison Kempe
INTRODUCTION: U.S. obstetrician/gynecologists play a critical role as vaccinators of pregnant women. However, little is known about their current immunization practices. Thus, study objectives were to determine (1) practices related to assessment of vaccination status and vaccine delivery for pregnant patients; (2) barriers to stocking and administering vaccines; and (3) factors associated with administering both influenza and tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccines...
December 12, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
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