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Amie L Severino, Arash Shadfar, Joshua K Hakimian, Oliver Crane, Ganeev Singh, Keith Heinzerling, Wendy M Walwyn
Prescription opioid misuse is an ongoing and escalating epidemic. Although these pharmacological agents are highly effective analgesics prescribed for different types of pain, opioids also induce euphoria, leading to increasing diversion and misuse. Opioid use and related mortalities have developed in spite of initial claims that OxyContin, one of the first opioids prescribed in the USA, was not addictive in the presence of pain. These claims allayed the fears of clinicians and contributed to an increase in the number of prescriptions, quantity of drugs manufactured, and the unforeseen diversion of these drugs for non-medical uses...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Claire Garnett, David Crane, Robert West, Jamie Brown, Susan Michie
Excessive alcohol consumption poses a serious problem for public health. Digital behavior change interventions have the potential to help users reduce their drinking. In accordance with Open Science principles, this paper describes the development of a smartphone app to help individuals who drink excessively to reduce their alcohol consumption. Following the UK Medical Research Council's guidance and the Multiphase Optimization Strategy, development consisted of two phases: (i) selection of intervention components and (ii) design and development work to implement the chosen components into modules to be evaluated further for inclusion in the app...
May 4, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
Brian D Gerber, William L Kendall
Conservation and management decision making in natural resources is challenging due to numerous uncertainties and unknowns, especially relating to understanding system dynamics. Adaptive resource management (ARM) is a formal process to making logical and transparent recurrent decisions when there are uncertainties about system dynamics. Despite wide recognition and calls for implementing adaptive natural resource management, applications remain limited. More common is a reactive approach to decision making, which ignores future system dynamics...
April 25, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Virginija Podeniene, Jon K Gelhaus
Description, illustrations and habitat characteristics are given for the previously unknown last instar larvae and pupae of the genus Phyllolabis Osten Sacken, 1877 of the eastern palaearctic species Phyllolabis mongolica Podenas and Gelhaus, 2012 (Diptera: Limoniidae, Limnophilinae). Diagnostic features and phylogenetic relationships are discussed. Characters of the immatures stages of Phyllolabis shows similarities with the genus Austrolimnophila, Epiphragma and Dactylolabis and based on this investigation Phyllolabis is moved back into subfamily Limnophilinae s...
December 20, 2017: Zootaxa
Eyal Karin, Blake F Dear, Gillian Z Heller, Monique F Crane, Nickolai Titov
BACKGROUND: Missing cases following treatment are common in Web-based psychotherapy trials. Without the ability to directly measure and evaluate the outcomes for missing cases, the ability to measure and evaluate the effects of treatment is challenging. Although common, little is known about the characteristics of Web-based psychotherapy participants who present as missing cases, their likely clinical outcomes, or the suitability of different statistical assumptions that can characterize missing cases...
April 19, 2018: JMIR Mental Health
Jubilee Brown, Aly Athens, David L Tait, Erin K Crane, Robert V Higgins, R Wendel Naumann, Lejla Hadzikadic Gusic, Lisa Amacker-North
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the utility of a comprehensive program involving management-based evidence, telemedicine, and patient navigation to provide genetic counseling services for patients with ovarian and breast cancer across a geographically large health care system. METHODS: We identified all patients with newly diagnosed ovarian and breast cancer in our health care system from January 2013 to December 2015 through the cancer registry...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
Angela M Bengtson, Brian W Pence, Kimberly A Powers, Mark A Weaver, Matthew J Mimiaga, Bradley N Gaynes, Conall O'Cleirigh, Katerina Christopoulos, W Christopher Mathews, Heidi Crane, Michael Mugavero
Depressive symptoms vary in severity and chronicity. We used group-based trajectory models to describe trajectories of depressive symptoms (measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9) and predictors of trajectory group membership among 1493 HIV-infected men (84%) and 292 HIV-infected women (16%). At baseline, 29% of women and 26% of men had depressive symptoms. Over a median of 30 months of follow-up, we identified four depressive symptom trajectories for women (labeled "low" [experienced by 56% of women], "mild/moderate" [24%], "improving" [14%], and "severe" [6%]) and five for men ("low" [61%], "mild/moderate" [14%], "rebounding" [5%], "improving" [13%], and "severe" [7%])...
April 6, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Xue Lian, Xin Ming, Jiarong Xu, Wangkun Cheng, Xunhai Zhang, Hongjun Chen, Chan Ding, Yong-Sam Jung, Yingjuan Qian
BACKGROUND: Marek's disease virus (MDV) resides in the genus Mardivirus in the family Herpesviridae. MDV is a highly contagious virus that can cause neurological lesions, lymphocytic proliferation, immune suppression, and death in avian species, including Galliformes (chickens, quails, partridges, and pheasants), Strigiformes (owls), Anseriformes (ducks, geese, and swans), and Falconiformes (kestrels). CASE PRESENTATION: In 2015, two red-crowned cranes died in Nanjing (Jiangsu, China)...
April 3, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Virginia Sun, Tracy E Crane, Samantha D Slack, Angela Yung, Sarah Wright, Stephen Sentovich, Kurt Melstrom, Marwan Fakih, Robert S Krouse, Cynthia A Thomson
PURPOSE: Bowel dysfunction is a common, persistent long-term effect of treatment for rectal cancer survivors. Survivors often use dietary modifications to maintain bowel control. There are few evidence-based interventions to guide survivors on appropriate diet modifications for bowel symptom management. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and design of the Altering Intake, Managing Symptoms (AIMS) intervention to support bowel dysfunction management in rectal cancer survivors...
March 19, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Andrea Cercek, Campbell S D Roxburgh, Paul Strombom, J Joshua Smith, Larissa K F Temple, Garrett M Nash, Jose G Guillem, Philip B Paty, Rona Yaeger, Zsofia K Stadler, Kenneth Seier, Mithat Gonen, Neil H Segal, Diane L Reidy, Anna Varghese, Jinru Shia, Efsevia Vakiani, Abraham J Wu, Christopher H Crane, Marc J Gollub, Julio Garcia-Aguilar, Leonard B Saltz, Martin R Weiser
Importance: Treatment of locally advanced rectal (LARC) cancer involves chemoradiation, surgery, and chemotherapy. The concept of total neoadjuvant therapy (TNT), in which chemoradiation and chemotherapy are administered prior to surgery, has been developed to optimize delivery of effective systemic therapy aimed at micrometastases. Objective: To compare the traditional approach of preoperative chemoradiation (chemoRT) followed by postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy with the more recent TNT approach for LARC...
March 22, 2018: JAMA Oncology
E Laurin, K K Thakur, I A Gardner, P Hick, N J G Moody, M S J Crane, I Ernst
Design and reporting quality of diagnostic accuracy studies (DAS) are important metrics for assessing utility of tests used in animal and human health. Following standards for designing DAS will assist in appropriate test selection for specific testing purposes and minimize the risk of reporting biased sensitivity and specificity estimates. To examine the benefits of recommending standards, design information from published DAS literature was assessed for 10 finfish, seven mollusc, nine crustacean and two amphibian diseases listed in the 2017 OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals...
May 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
R Modi, K R Amico, A Knudson, A O Westfall, J Keruly, H M Crane, E B Quinlivan, C Golin, J Willig, A Zinski, R Moore, S Napravnik, L Bryan, M S Saag, M J Mugavero
During the initial year of HIV diagnosis, while patients are often overwhelmed adjusting to this life changing diagnosis, they must develop self-care behaviors for attending regular medical care visits and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence to achieve and sustain viral suppression (VS). Maintaining "HIV adherence" and integrating it into one's daily life is required to sustain VS over time. The HIV care continuum or "treatment cascade," an epidemiological snapshot of the national epidemic in the United States (US), indicates that a minority of persons living with HIV (PLWH) have achieved VS...
March 8, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Octavio Menocal, Luisa F Cruz, Paul E Kendra, Jonathan H Crane, Miriam F Cooperband, Randy C Ploetz, Daniel Carrillo
Like other members of the tribe Xyleborini, Xyleborus bispinatus Eichhoff can cause economic damage in the Neotropics. X. bispinatus has been found to acquire the laurel wilt pathogen Raffaelea lauricola (T. C. Harr., Fraedrich & Aghayeva) when breeding in a host affected by the pathogen. Its role as a potential vector of R. lauricola is under investigation. The main objective of this study was to evaluate three artificial media, containing sawdust of avocado ( Persea americana Mill.) and silkbay ( Persea humilis Nash...
February 28, 2018: Insects
Jonathan Thackeray, Dushka Crane, Cynthia Fontanella, Michael Sorter, Rebecca Baum, Mary Applegate
A Medicaid statewide quality improvement (QI) collaborative was developed to improve antipsychotic prescribing practices for children. With use of a multistrategy approach that incorporated data-driven feedback and evidence-based recommendations, improvements were seen in three measures: antipsychotics prescribed to children under age six, prescription of two or more concomitant antipsychotics for longer than two months, and prescription of four or more psychotropic medications. Challenges and complexities are reviewed, including use of ongoing QI to address factors influencing antipsychotic prescribing behaviors, engagement of providers in QI efforts, and financial sustainability of such efforts...
May 1, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Claire Garnett, David Crane, Jamie Brown, Eileen Kaner, Fiona Beyer, Colin Muirhead, Matthew Hickman, James Redmore, Frank de Vocht, Emma Beard, Susan Michie
BACKGROUND: Applying theory to the design and evaluation of interventions is likely to increase effectiveness and improve the evidence base from which future interventions are developed, though few interventions report this. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to assess how digital interventions to reduce hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption report the use of theory in their development and evaluation, and whether reporting of theory use is associated with intervention effectiveness...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Nicole A P Lieberman, Kole DeGolier, Kristen Haberthur, Harrison Chinn, Kara W Moyes, Myriam N Bouchlaka, Kirsti L Walker, Christian M Capitini, Courtney A Crane
Recent advances in cellular therapies for patients with cancer, including checkpoint blockade and ex vivo -expanded, tumor-specific T cells, have demonstrated that targeting the immune system is a powerful approach to the elimination of tumor cells. Clinical efforts have also demonstrated limitations, however, including the potential for tumor cell antigenic drift and neoantigen formation, which promote tumor escape and recurrence, as well as rapid onset of T cell exhaustion in vivo . These findings suggest that antigen unrestricted cells, such as natural killer (NK) cells, may be beneficial for use as an alternative to or in combination with T cell based approaches...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jennifer Kuntz, Bradley Crane, Sheila Weinmann, Allison L Naleway
Reports of myocarditis and pericarditis following smallpox vaccination in adults suggested a need to assess inflammatory cardiac disease risk among adults who receive live viral vaccinations. From 1996 through 2007, among 416,629 vaccinated adults in the Vaccine Safety Datalink, we identified one probable pericarditis case and no cases of myocarditis in the 42 days following a live viral vaccination. Our self-controlled risk interval analysis found that, based on one case identified during the risk interval and 10 cases during the control interval, there is no increased risk of myopericarditis in the 42 days following vaccination (IRR, 0...
March 14, 2018: Vaccine
Aaron T Pearse, Matt Rabbe, Lara M Juliusson, Mark T Bidwell, Lea Craig-Moore, David A Brandt, Wade Harrell
Defining and identifying changes to seasonal ranges of migratory species is required for effective conservation. Historic sightings of migrating whooping cranes (Grus americana) have served as sole source of information to define a migration corridor in the Great Plains of North America (i.e., Canadian Prairies and United States Great Plains) for this endangered species. We updated this effort using past opportunistic sightings from 1942-2016 (n = 5,055) and more recent (2010-2016) location data from 58 telemetered birds (n = 4,423) to delineate migration corridors that included 50%, 75%, and 95% core areas...
2018: PloS One
Laura Crane, Fern Adams, Georgia Harper, Jack Welch, Elizabeth Pellicano
There is a high incidence and prevalence of mental health problems among young people, with several barriers to help-seeking noted in this group. High rates of mental health problems have also been reported in children and adults on the autism spectrum. Taken together, young autistic people may be a particularly vulnerable group when it comes to mental health. Yet, there has been remarkably little work on the mental health needs and experiences of young autistic adults (16-25 years). Adopting a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach - in which academic researchers and young autistic adults collaborated in an equitable research partnership - we explored young autistic people's experiences of mental health problems and their perspectives on the support they sought, if any, for these problems...
February 1, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Chia-Fen Chi, Syuan-Zih Lin
The current study analyzed 312 caught-in-between fatalities caused by machinery and vehicles. A comprehensive and mutually exclusive coding scheme was developed to analyze and code each caught-in-between fatality in terms of age, gender, experience of the victim, type of industry, source of injury, and causes for these accidents. Boolean algebra analysis was applied on these 312 caught-in-between fatalities to derive minimal cut set (MCS) causes associated with each source of injury. Eventually, contributing factors and common accident patterns associated with (1) special process machinery including textile, printing, packaging machinery, (2) metal, woodworking, and special material machinery, (3) conveyor, (4) vehicle, (5) crane, (6) construction machinery, and (7) elevator can be divided into three major groups through Boolean algebra and MCS analysis...
April 2018: Applied Ergonomics
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